Impilo nomsebenzi kaMiguel Hernández

UMiguel Hernandez.

UMiguel Hernandez.

Kuthathwa njengezwi elidume kakhulu ezincwadini zeSpain zekhulu lama-XNUMX, UMiguel Hernández Gilabert (1910 - 1942) wayeyimbongi yaseSpain nomlobi wemidlalo edlalwe kuGeneration of 36. Yize kwezinye izinkomba lo mbhali abelwe iGenerations yama-27 ngenxa yokushintshana kobuhlakani abenakho namalungu ayo amaningana, ikakhulukazi noMaruja Mallo noma uVicente Aleixandre, ukubala abambalwa.

Ukhunjulwa njengomfel 'ukholo owafa ngaphansi kwengcindezelo ye-Francoism., kahle wayeneminyaka engu-31 kuphela ubudala lapho efa ngenxa yesifo sofuba ejele lase-Alicante. Lokhu kwenzeka ngemuva kokuboshwa wagwetshwa intambo (ngokuhamba kwesikhathi isigwebo sakhe sashintshwa saba yiminyaka engama-30 ebhadla ejele). UHernández wayenempilo emfushane, kepha washiya ifa elikhulu lemisebenzi edumile, phakathi kwayo okugqamile Isazi senyanga, Umbani ongapheli y Umoya uyaqamekela.

Ubuntwana, ubusha namathonya

UMiguel Hernández wazalelwa e-Orihuela, eSpain, ngo-Okthoba 30, 1910. Wayengowesithathu ezinganeni zakwabo eziyisikhombisa aqhamuka enyunyaneni phakathi kukaMiguel Hernández Sánchez noConcepción Gilabert. Kwakuwumndeni ohola kancane onikelwe ukukhulisa izimbuzi. Ngenxa yalokho, uMiguel waqala esemncane ukwenza lo msebenzi, engenazifiso ezinkulu zokuqeqeshwa kwezemfundo kunezifundo zamabanga aphansi.

Kodwa-ke, kusukela eminyakeni engu-15 abasha UHernández ugcwalise imisebenzi yakhe yokunakekela umhlambi ngokufunda okukhulu kwabalobi bezincwadi zakudala.a —Gabriel Miró, Garcilaso de la Vega, Calderón de la Barca noma Luis de Góngora, phakathi kwabanye - waze waba ngumuntu ozifundisayo ngokweqiniso. Ngaleso sikhathi waqala ukubhala izinkondlo zakhe zokuqala.

Ngokufanayo, Wayeyilungu leqembu elithuthukisiwe lemibuthano yemibhalo yendawo kanye nabantu abadumile kwezengqondo. Phakathi kwabalingiswa ahlanganyela nabo, uRamón Sijé, uManuel Molina nabafowabo uCarlos no-Efraín Fenol bagqamile. Kamuva, eneminyaka engama-20 (ngo-1931) wathola umklomelo we-Artistic Society ye-Orfeón Ilicitano Culela i-Valencia, inkondlo enemigqa engu-138 ekhuluma ngabantu nezwe eligudle ugu lwaseLevantine.

Ukucaphuna kukaMiguel Hernández.

Ukucaphuna kukaMiguel Hernández.

Ukuhambela eMadrid

Uhambo lokuqala

NgoDisemba 31, 1931 waya eMadrid okokuqala eyofuna umbukiso omkhulu. Kepha uHernández akazange awuthole umsebenzi omkhulu yize ayedume kangaka, izinkomba ezinhle nezincomo. Ngenxa yalokho, kwadingeka abuyele e-Orihuela ngemuva kwezinyanga ezinhlanu. Kodwa-ke, bekuyisikhathi esithela kakhulu ngombono wobuciko, ngoba wahlangana ngqo nomsebenzi weSizukulwane sama-27.

Ngokufanayo, ukuhlala kwakhe eMadrid kwamnika umbono kanye nogqozi oludingekayo ukuze abhale Isazi senyanga, incwadi yakhe yokuqala, eyanyatheliswa ngo-1933. Ngawo lowo nyaka wabuyela enhlokodolobha yaseSpain lapho emiswa njengomhlanganyeli - kamuva waba ngunobhala nomhleli - ePedagogical Missions, ngaphansi kokuvikelwa nguJosé María Cossío. Ngokufanayo, wayevame ukufaka isandla kuRevista de Occidente. Lapho waqedela imidlalo yakhe Ubani okubonile futhi obonayo nesithunzi salokho owawuyikho (1933), Isilwi esinamandla (1934) futhi Izingane zamatshe (1935).

Uhambo lwesibili

Ukuhlala kwakhe kwesibili eMadrid kwathola uHernández ebudlelwaneni bezothando nomdwebi uMaruja Mallo. Nguye owamkhuthaza ukuthi abhale iningi lamanethi we Umbani ongapheli (1936).

Imbongi yabuye yaba nobungane noVicente Aleixandre noPablo Neruda, kanti owokugcina wakha ubungani obujulile. Ngomlobi waseChile wasungula lo magazini Ihhashi Eliluhlaza Lezinkondlo futhi waqala ukuncika emiqondweni kaMarxist. Ngemuva kwalokho, ithonya likaNeruda kuHernández lenziwa labonakala ngokudlula kwakhe okufingqiwe, kanye nemiyalezo yakhe eyayizinikele kakhulu ezinkingeni zenhlalo nezombusazwe zalezo zikhathi.

URamón Sijé ushone ngo-1935, ukushona komngani wakhe osondelene naye konke kwashukumisela uMiguel Hernández ukuthi akhe umlando wakhe odumile Elegy. USijé (ogama lakhe langempela kwakunguJosé Marín Gutiérrez), wayemazise ukuthi uzoba ngubani umkakhe, uJosefina Manresa. Wayengumnyuziyamu wakhe ezinkondlweni zakhe eziningi, kanye nomama wezingane zakhe ezimbili: UManuel Ramón (1937 - 1938) noManuel Miguel (1939 - 1984).

UJosefina Manresa, owayengunkosikazi kaMiguel Hernández.

UJosefina Manresa, owayengunkosikazi kaMiguel Hernández.

Impi Yombango, ukuboshwa nokufa

Ngo-July 1936 kwagqashuka iMpi Yombango yaseSpain. Ngemuva kokuqala komsebenzi wempi, uMiguel Hernández ngokuzithandela wangena ebuthweni leRiphabhulikhi futhi waqala ubushoshovu bakhe bezepolitiki benamathele eqenjini lamaKhomanisi waseSpain (isizathu sesigwebo sakhe sokufa esilandelayo). Kwakuyisikhathi lapho izincwadi zezinkondlo zaqala khona noma zaphela Umoya wasendaweni (1937), Umuntu uyabheda (1937 - 1938), Incwadi yezingoma nama-ballads wokungabikho (1938 - 1941) futhi Ama-anyanisi ama-anyanisi (1939).

Ngaphezu kwalokho, wakhiqiza imidlalo Umlimi onomoya omningi y Itiyetha empini (kokubili kusuka ngo-1937). Ngesikhathi sempi, wabamba iqhaza elibonakalayo empini eTeruel naseJaén. Wayephinde abe yingxenye ye-II International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture in Madrid futhi kafushane waya eSoviet Union egameni likahulumeni waseRiphabhulikhi.

Ekupheleni kwempi ngo-Ephreli 1939, uMiguel Hernández wabuyela e-Orihuela. Uboshwe ezama ukuwela umngcele angene ePortugal eHuelva. Wadlula emajele ahlukahlukene kwaze kwaba Ushonele ejele e-Alicante ngoMashi 28, 1942, isisulu se-bronchitis esaholela ku-typhus futhi, ekugcineni, isifo sofuba.

Amagama kaNeruda ngemuva kokushona kukaMiguel Hernández

I-nexus eyenziwe nguPablo Neruda noMiguel Hernández yayiseduze kakhulu. Bobabili bafinyelele ekulinganisweni ngokulingana nesikhathi abelana ngaso. Kungashiwo ngaphandle kokulinganisa ukuthi uthando lwabo lwalunongwe ngendlela lapho bobabili bekwazile ukungena kulo igama. Ngemva kokufa imbongi Neruda wezwa ubuhlungu obukhulu. Phakathi kwezinto ezibhalwe futhi zashiwo imbongi yaseChile ngoHernández, lokhu kugqama:

«Ukukhumbula uMiguel Hernández owanyamalala ebumnyameni nokumkhumbula ngokugcwele kungumsebenzi waseSpain, isibopho sothando. Zimbalwa izimbongi ezinesandla esivulekile nezikhanyayo njengomfana wase-Orihuela ogama lakhe elizovela ngelinye ilanga phakathi kwezimbali eziwolintshi ezweni lakhe lokulala. UMiguel wayengenakho ukukhanya kwe-zenith kwaseNingizimu njengezimbongi ezilandelanayo zase-Andalusia, kepha kunalokho ukukhanya komhlaba, okuyidwala ekuseni, ukukhanya okuluju lwezinyosi okuvukayo. Ngale ndaba kwakunzima njengegolide, iphila njengegazi, wadonsa izinkondlo zakhe ezihlala njalo. Futhi kwakunguyena muntu lowo mzuzu ovela eSpain owadingiselwa amathunzi! Sekuyisikhathi sethu manje futhi ngaso sonke isikhathi ukumkhipha ejele lakhe lokufa, simkhanyisele ngesibindi nokufela kwakhe ukholo, simfundise njengesibonelo senhliziyo emsulwa kakhulu! Yikhanyise! Mnike imivimbo yenkumbulo, ngamabhande okucaca amvezayo, ingelosi enkulu yenkazimulo yasemhlabeni owe ebusuku ehlome ngenkemba yokukhanya! ».

Pablo Neruda

Izinkondlo zikaMiguel Hernández

Ngokulandelana kwesikhathi, umsebenzi wakhe uhambelana nalokho okuthiwa "isizukulwane sama-36". Noma kunjalo, UDámaso Alonso ubhekise kuMiguel Hernández njengo "great epigone" "wesizukulwane sama-27". Lokhu kungenxa yokuvela okuphawulekayo kwezincwadi zayo, kusukela ekuthambekeni kwamaKatolika kwesandla sikaRamón Sijé kumagazini Inkinga Yeqhude ekubhekeni kwemibono eminingi yokubhala nokuguqula okwenziwe yithonya likaPablo Neruda.

UMiguel Hernández ukhonjiswa ngochwepheshe bezemibhalo njengomchazi omkhulu "wezinkondlo zempi". Nazi ezinye izinkondlo zakhe eziphawuleka kakhulu (ngokusho kwe-ejensi ye-Europa Press, 2018):

Imimoya yasemakhaya iyangithwala

«Uma ngifa, mangife

nekhanda liphezulu kakhulu.

Kufile futhi kufe izikhathi ezingamashumi amabili,

umlomo ngokumelene notshani,

Ngiyobe ngihlanganise amazinyo

futhi nginqume intshebe.

Ukucula ngilinde ukufa,

ukuthi kukhona ama-nightingales ahlabelelayo

ngenhla kwezibhamu

naphakathi kwezimpi ».

Umbani ongapheli

«Ngeke iphele le ray ehlala kimi

inhliziyo yezilwane ezithukuthele

nangenxa yamapulangwe athukuthele nabakhandi bensimbi

lapho insimbi ebanda kunazo zonke ibuna?

Ngabe le stalactite enenkani ngeke iphele

ukuhlakulela izinwele zabo ezinzima

njengezinkemba nemililo eqinile

maqondana nenhliziyo yami ebubula futhi imemeze? ».

Izandla

«Izinhlobo ezimbili zezandla zibhekene empilweni,

kuhlume enhliziyweni, kuqhume izingalo,

ziyagxuma, futhi zigelezele ekukhanyeni okulimele

ngemivimbo, nangamazipho.

Isandla siyithuluzi lomphefumulo, umyalezo walo,

futhi umzimba unegatsha lawo lokulwa kuwo.

Phakamisa, uzulise izandla zakho ngokuvuvukala okukhulu,

amadoda enzalo yami ».

Ukucaphuna kukaMiguel Hernández.

Ukucaphuna kukaMiguel Hernández.

Izisebenzi zosuku

«Abasebenzi bezinsuku abakhokhele ukuhola

izinhlupheko, imisebenzi nemali.

Imizimba ethobekile futhi ephakeme

abasebenzi bezinsuku.

AbaseSpain abanqotshwe yiSpain

ukuwubaza phakathi kwezimvula naphakathi kwelanga.

Ama-Rabadanes wendlala negeja:

Abantu baseSpain.

Le Spain leyo, ayikaze yanelise

ukonakalisa imbali yokhula,

kusuka kwesinye isivuno kuye kwesinye:

le Spain ».

Izimpi ezidabukisayo

«Izimpi ezidabukisayo

uma inkampani ingelona uthando.

Kuyadabukisa, kuyadabukisa.

Izikhali ezidabukisayo

uma kungenjalo amagama.

Kuyadabukisa, kuyadabukisa.

Amadoda adabukisayo

uma bengafi ngothando.

Kuyadabukisa, kuyadabukisa.

Ngibiza intsha

«Igazi elingachichimi,

intsha engalinge,

akulona igazi, futhi akusilo ubusha,

azikhanyi futhi aziqhakazi.

Imizimba ezalwa ihluliwe,

wehluliwe futhi izimpunga ziyafa:

woza uneminyaka eyikhulu,

futhi sebekhulile lapho befika.

Incwadi yezingoma nama-ballads wokungabikho

«Ngiyahamba emigwaqweni

into engiyiqoqayo:

izingcezu zempilo yami

zivela kude

Ngiphakathi kosizi

ukukhasa ngiyazibona

embundwini, epulazini

i-latent yokuzalwa ».

Ingoma yokugcina

«Ipendiwe, ayinalutho:

kupendiwe indlu yami

umbala wezinkulu

izinkanuko namashwa.

Uzobuya ekhala

yathathwa kuphi

netafula lakhe elilahliwe,

ngombhede wakhe onakale.

Ukuqabulana kuzoqhakaza

emicamelweni.

Nasemizimbeni

izonyusa ishidi

i-creeper yayo enamandla

ubusuku, okunephunga elimnandi.

Inzondo ayifakwanga

ngemuva kwewindi.

Kuzoba uzipho oluthambile.

Nginike ithemba.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-2, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Miguel kusho

    Kuthisha wami uMIGUEL HERNÁNDEZ, ubulungiswa abukakathakathwa ngokufa kwakhe ngokungenabulungiswa. Ubulungiswa babesilisa nabesifazane abusoze baphelela, kepha ubulungiswa bukaNkulunkulu bamvuza ngokubuyela empilweni ebonakalayo, okungukuthi, uMiguel HERNÁNDEZ, ngiyaxolisa, kunalokho, amandla angokomoya wembongi, waphinde wazalwa ukuze aqede imijikelezo yempilo ukuthi impi yombango nababulali bayo bayinqume ngembazo embi kabi.

  2.   IGILBERTO CARDONA COLOMBIA kusho

    Imbongi yethu uMiguel Hernandez akasoze ahlonishwa ngokwanele futhi ahlonishwe ngokwanele. Akekho omunye umuntu. Umfel 'ukholo wamalungelo abantu phezu kobuqaba bobushiqela.