Umwexuki

IMiguel Delibes.

IMiguel Delibes.

Umwexuki yinoveli yamva nje yombhali odumileyo weValladolid uMiguel Delibes. Yapapashwa eSpain ngo-1998 ngu-Ediciones Destino. Yingxelo yohlobo lwembali ebonisa iziganeko ezingathandekiyo ezenzeka ngexesha "lokuzingelwa kwamaLuthere" kumazwe aseCervantes ngenkulungwane ye-1999. Le ncwadi ithathwa njengenye yezona ncwadi zipheleleyo zombhali, ezimvumele ukuba aphumelele iBhaso leSizwe leNkcazo kwi-XNUMX.

UMiguel Delibes wayenomsebenzi ochulumancisayo woncwadi, emile njengo omnye wababhali ababalulekileyo bexesha lasemva kwemfazwe yaseSpain. I-repertoire yayo ebanzi iphethe imisebenzi engaphezu kwama-60, equka iinoveli, amabali amafutshane, izincoko, iincwadi zokuhamba kunye nokuzingela. Impumelelo yakhe ibonakala kwiimbasa zakhe ezingamashumi amabini kunye nokuvunywa kwakhe, kunye nokuhlengahlengiswa kwemisebenzi yakhe kwifilimu, kwithiyetha nakumabonakude.

Isishwankathelo se Umwexuki

Usapho lukaSalcedo

IiSalcedes, UDon Bernardo kunye nenkosikazi yakhe uCatalinaSisibini esinesikhundla esilungileyo sentlalo, enkosi kwishishini labo ngamalaphu oboya. Phantse iminyaka esibhozo bazamile ukuvelisa - abaphumelela- kwindlalifa yepropati kunye nobutyebi bakhe. Ngeengcebiso zabantu obaziyo, baya kugqirha uAlmenara, ngubani, ixesha elide, ubancedisa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zokuchumisa.

Bendirhalela ukukhulelwa

Nangona kulandelwa iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo, U-doña uCatalina akazange akwazi ukukhulelwa, ngoko wagqiba kwelokuba ayiyeke loo ngcamango. Kungekudala emva koko, xa amathemba ephela, eli nenekazi ibikwiteyiphu. UDon Bernardo wavuya kakhulu zezo ndaba, ekubeni ekugqibeleni basikelelwa ngonyana.

Isiganeko esibi

Ngo-Oktobha 30, 1517, Dona UCatherine wakhulelwa umntwana ophilileyo bambhaptiza njengoCipriano. Nangona kunjalo,, nangona uvuyo oluveliswa kukufika, yayingeyiyo yonke into eyayilulonwabo. Ngexesha lokuzala, umfazi kwavela iingxaki ababengakwazi ukuzilungisa oogqirha, yaye kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa wafa. UNksk. Salcedo wangcwatywa ngembeko nobungangamsha, njengoko wawuchaphazela umntu wodidi lwakhe lwentlalo kunye nomahluko.

Ukwala

Don UBernardo wayekhathazeke kakhulu emva kokufa komfazi wakhe wamala umntwana ngokumgqala enetyala ngento eyenzekileyo. Nangona kunjalo, indoda okufuneka ubenazo yiphathe kakuhle i khangela umongikazi ngokuba Cipriano. Nantso ke indlela ukuqesha iminervine, intombazana eneminyaka eli-15 ubudala eyafelwa lusana, ngoko yakwazi ukuncancisa umntwana ngaphandle kwengxaki.

Ithunyelwe kwikhaya leenkedama

iminervine wayegcina umntwana iminyaka, wamhoya wamnika uthando lukamama ebendiyidinga. Oko ndimncinci, UCipriano wayemnandi kwaye enokuqonda, iimpawu ezingalunganga kuDon Bernardo, ababezama ukumnqanda. Uyise akazange enze nzame yokumthanda yaye ekuhambeni kwexesha loo ntiyo yabuyelana. Oku kubangele le ndoda yifake ngaphakathi -Njengendlela yokohlwaya— kwikhaya leenkedama.

Ixesha elinzima

Ukuhlala kukaCipriano ehostele kwakunzima, apho kwafuneka ajamelane nenkxwaleko ukongezelela kwimpatho-mbi. Noko ke, kuloo ndawo wafundiswa waza wafumana ulwazi olwahlukahlukeneyo. Ngaloo minyaka, weva ngeempembelelo zokuqala zamaProtestanti ngobuKatolika eYurophu. Ukwasebenzisana namaqabane akhe ekunyamekeleni abantu ababegula sisibetho esatshabalalisa iCastile, esashiya amawakawaka ebulawa.

Inkedama nendlalifa

Ubhubhani woyikekayo wamchukumisa ngokusondeleyo uCipriano, ukususela wafelwa nguyise kwizandla zesibetho. Emva kokufa kukaDon Bernardo. umfana, ngoku ndiyinkedama, kuphela kwelifa yezinto zosapho lwakhe. Kungekudala, walithabatha eli shishini waza weza namacebo amahle alenza laphumelela ngakumbi. Indalo yakhe entsha - iibhatyi ezifakwe ngesikhumba - zazithandwa kakhulu ngabantu kunye nokuthengisa okwandisiweyo.

Utshintsho olukhulu

Ubomi be ISyprian iphuculwe kakhulu, kubandakanywa wafumana uthando ecaleni kwe Ite, ibhinqa elihle awatshata nalo. Ekunye naye, waba namaxesha amnandi. Noko ke, ulonwabo lwaphela ngokuthe ngcembe, ekubeni esi sibini sasingenabantwana. Ite waba ngathi uthe phithi iphele ingalingani ngokwengqondo y yamkelwa kwiziko apho ekugqibeleni wafa.

Isiphelo esingalindelekanga nesikhohlakeleyo

Oku kwabutshintsha ubomi bukaCipriano —Indoda ezinikele kakhulu elunqulweni—kuba yazibeka ityala ngoko kwenzekayo kwaza kwamiselwa isohlwayo kwimihla yayo yonke. Ukusukela ngoko, baqalisa ukuhlanganisana namaqela amaLuthere afihlakeleyo, awathi asebenza ngobulumko ukuze asinde kwiNkundla Engcwele YokuNcina Amakholwa.

Ubunyani bakhe baguqulwa xa UFilipu II —Ukholo lwamaKatolika— wathatha indawo kayise eitrone, Kulungile oku eyalelwe ukuba kupheliswe bonke abaqhekeki ekhoyo ebukumkanini. Ukuleqa kwakungayeki; ishwangusha elibi lalilindele amaProtestanti exesha awayethinjwa aza alukhanyela ukholo lwawo. Abo barhoxayo bakwazi ukuphila. Noko ke, uCyprian akazange avume ukuyiyeka imfundiso yakhe, waza wabambelela ngokuqinileyo kwiinkolelo zakhe de kwasekupheleni.

Idatha esisiseko yomsebenzi

Incwadi ethi The Heretic yincwadi ebhalwe eValladolid, eSpeyin, ebudeni benkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ebudeni bolawulo lukaCarlos V. Le ncwadi. Iphuhliswe kumaphepha angama-424 namacandelo amathathu ayintloko ahlulwe abe zizahluko ezili-17 xa zizonke. Isicwangciso sichazwa ngumbalisi owazi yonke into yomntu wesithathu, obalisa ngobomi bomlinganiswa oyintloko, uCipriano Salcedo.

Isishwankathelo sombhali, uMiguel Delibes

UMiguel Delibes uSetien Wazalwa ngo-Oktobha 17, 1920 kwisixeko saseSpain saseValladolid. Abazali bakhe yayinguMaría Setién kunye noNjingalwazi uAdolfo Delibes. Wafunda kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi eColegio de las Carmelitas kwidolophu yakowabo. Xa wayeneminyaka eyi-16, wagqiba i-baccalaureate yakhe kwisikolo saseLourdes. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva -Emva kokuqalisa kwemfazwe yamakhaya eSpeyin— ngokuzithandela wazibandakanya noMkhosi waManzi woMkhosi.

Quote nguMiguel Delibes.

Quote nguMiguel Delibes.

1939, emva kokuphela kwemfazwe, Wabuyela eValladolid waza waqalisa ukufunda kwiziko loRhwebo. Uthe akugqiba isidanga sakhe, wabhalisa kwiSikolo soBugcisa nobuGcisa ukuze afundele uMthetho. Kwangaxeshanye, wayesebenza njengomzobi wekhathuni kunye nomgxeki wefilimu kwiphephandaba Emantla eCastilla. Ngo-1942, wabizwa ngokuba nguMncedisi weMercantile kumbindi weAltos Estudios Mercantiles de Bilbao.

Uhlanga loncwadi

Waqala kwihlabathi loncwadi ngenyawo lasekunene enkosi ngomsebenzi wakhe Umthunzi we-cypress umde (1948) inoveli apho wafumana ibhaso likaNadal. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva, wapapasha Kusenjalo emini (1949), umsebenzi owamenza ukuba avavanywe ngabakwaFrancoists. Nangona kunjalo, umbhali akazange ayeke. Emva kwencwadi yakhe yesithathu, Indlela (1950), enikezela ngemisebenzi rhoqo ngonyaka, kubandakanywa iinoveli, amabali, izincoko kunye neelog zokuhamba.

Ukususela ngoFebruwari 1973—kwada kwayimini yokufa kwakhe— Ii-Delibes zibambe isitulo "e" seRoyal Academy Spanish. Kumsebenzi wakhe obanzi njengombhali, wafumana iimbasa ezibalulekileyo ngemisebenzi yakhe, kunye nezihloko imbeko causa kwiiyunivesithi ezahlukeneyo. Bahluke kubo:

  • IMbasa yeNkosana ye-Asturias yoNcwadi (1982)
  • Ugqirha honoris causa ovela kwiYunivesithi yaseComplutense yaseMadrid (1987)
  • Ibhaso leSizwe leeLeta zeSpanish (1991)
  • Imbasa kaMiguel de Cervantes (1993)
  • Imbasa yeGolide yaseCastilla y León (2009)

Ubomi bomntu nokufa

IMiguel Delibes Watshata no-Ángeles de Castro ngoAprili 23, 1946, nabani wayenabantwana abasixhenxe: UMiguel, u-Ángeles, uGermán, uElisa, uJuan Domingo, uAdolfo noCamino. Ngo-1974, ukusweleka komfazi wakhe kwaphawula ngaphambi nasemva kobomi bakhe, yiyo loo nto wathoba isantya sopapasho lwakhe. Ngomhla wamashumi amathathu ananye ku-Matshi 12, emva kokubandezeleka ixesha elide ngumhlaza, wafa kwindawo yakhe yokuhlala en Valladolid.

Ukusukela ngo-2007, kumhla wokuzalwa wombhali we-87th, izindlu zokupapasha i-Destino kunye ne-Círculo de Lectores zipapashe iincwadi ezisixhenxe eziqulunqa imisebenzi yakhe. Zezi:

  • Umbhali weencwadi, I (2007)
  • Izikhumbuzo kunye nokuhamba (2007)
  • Umbhali weencwadi, II (2008)
  • Umbhali weencwadi, III (2008)
  • Umbhali weencwadi, IV (2009)
  • Umzingeli (2009)
  • Intatheli. Umbhali wezincoko (2010)

Iinoveli zombhali

  • Umthunzi we-cypress umde (1948)
  • Nokuba ngumhla (1949)
  • Indlela (1950)
  • Unyana wam uSisi (1953)
  • Idayari kaHunter (1955)
  • Idayari yomfuduki (1958)
  • Igqabi elibomvu (1959)
  • Iimpuku (1962)
  • Iiyure ezintlanu noMario (1966)
  • Umzekeliso wenkunkuma (1969)
  • Isikhulu esihlaliswe etroneni (1973)
  • Iimfazwe zookhokho bethu (1975)
  • IVoti ephikisanayo kaSeñor Cayo (1978)
  • Abamsulwa abangcwele (1981)
  • Uthando iileta ezivela sexagenarian voluptuous (1983)
  • Ubuncwane (1985)
  • Ihuni zomthi (1987)
  • Inenekazi elibomvu kwimvelaphi engwevu (1991)
  • Idayari yomhlala phantsi (1995)
  • Umwexuki (1998)

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.