"Iteknoloji yeLogico-Philosophicus". Banokufunda ntoni ababhali kuWittgenstein. (II)

eWittgenstein

Inxalenye yesibini yokujonga kwakhona Itrektara Logico-Philosophicus de ULudwig Wittgenstein ukusuka kumbono wokubhala. Ungafunda icandelo lokuqala apha. Makhe sibone ukuba yintoni na sobulumko ukufundisa ababhali.

Ulwimi kunye nengqiqo

4.002 Umntu unesakhono sokwakha iilwimi apho yonke intsingiselo inokuchazwa khona ngaphandle kokwazi ukuba lithetha ntoni kwaye lithetha ntoni igama ngalinye. Kwa into enye xa umntu ethetha engazi ukuba zenziwe njani izandi ezizodwa. Ulwimi oluqhelekileyo luyinxalenye yomzimba womntu, kwaye akukho nzima kunokuba. Kubantu akunakwenzeka ukuba uqonde ingqiqo yolwimi kwangoko. Ulwimi lufihla iingcinga. Kwaye ngendlela enjalo, ukuba ngohlobo lwangaphandle lwelokhwe akunakwenzeka ukugqiba ngohlobo lweengcinga ezifihliweyo; kuba imilo yangaphandle yelokhwe yakhelwe injongo eyahlukileyo kunaleyo yokuvumela ukwakheka komzimba. Amalungiselelo angabonakaliyo okuqonda ulwimi oluqhelekileyo anzima kakhulu.

Le ngongoma inomdla ngokukodwa. Kufuneka siyiqonde loo nto Ulwimi, kwaye luya kuhlala lungafezekanga, luphawu olumhlophe lwezimvo zethu. Umsebenzi wombhali kukuphinda enze eyona ndlela iphumeleleyo kwihlabathi lakhe langaphakathi ngamazwi.

5.4541 Izisombululo zeengxaki ezinengqiqo kufuneka zilula, kuba zimisela iintlobo zokulula. […] Isigaba apho isindululo sisebenza khona: 'simplex sigillum veri' [ukulula luphawu lwenyaniso].

Amaxesha amaninzi sicinga ukuba ukusebenzisa amagama antsonkothileyo, kunye nesichazi esicacisiweyo, kuyafana noncwadi olulungileyo. Akukho nto iqhubekayo kwinyani: "Into elungileyo ukuba imfutshane kabini ilungile". Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, oku kuyasebenza kubuGcisa bobuGcisa, kuba isigwebo samagama amahlanu singadlulisela ngakumbi kumfundi kunemihlathi emithathu ejikeleza kwizangqa.

Itrektarogico-yefilosofi

Umxholo kunye nehlabathi

5.6 'Imida yolwimi lwam' ithetha imida yelizwe lam.

Andizukudinwa kukuyithetha: ukuze ufunde ukubhala, kufuneka ufunde. Yeyona ndlela ilungileyo yokwandisa isigama sethu. Sisidenge kuphela esenza ngathi sithetha ngomnye umhlaba, indalo yengqondo yakhe, ngaphandle kokufumana izixhobo eziyimfuneko zokuyichaza. Ngendlela efanayo neentlanzi ezicinga ukuba imida yomhlaba yileyo yelibi apho lihlala khona, ukunqongophala kwethu kwesigama yintolongo ebeka iingcinga zethu, kunye nokusikela umda ukuqonda kwethu, kunye nokuqiqa kwethu.

5.632 Isifundo asiyohlabathi, kodwa ngumda wehlabathi.

Njengabantu, asinayo yonke into. Oko sikwaziyo ngehlabathi (ngokufutshane, malunga nenyani) kulinganiselwe. Nangona abalinganiswa bethu beyinxalenye yehlabathi labo, banolwazi oluchanekileyo ngenxa yokuba iimvakalelo zabo ezingafezekanga zibathintela ekuboneni "inyaniso.". Ukuba eyona "nyani ingeyiyo" ikho ngoko, njenge-relativist eqinisekileyo ukuba ndinguye, ngumbono endingakholelwa kuwo. Oku kubalulekile xa kuziwa kwiindawo ezahlukileyo zokujonga phakathi kwabantu abohlukeneyo kwimbali yethu, kunye nokunika inyani kweli yelenqe.

6.432 Njengokuba kunjalo ehlabathini, awunamdla kwaphela kwinto ephezulu. UThixo akatyhilwanga emhlabeni.

Kubantwana bethu, oko kukuthi, kubalinganiswa bethu, singuthixo. Kananjalo, asizivezi okanye siphazamisane nobomi babo. Okanye ubuncinci yile ithiyori, kuba kuya kusanda ukufumana imisebenzi eyaphula i udonga lwesine. Into efana naleyo xa uMoses wafumana ityholo elivuthayo. Sisixhobo esibangela ukumangaliswa kumfundi, kwaye ngenxa yoko kufuneka sisetyenziswe ngononophelo.

Uncwadi kunye nolonwabo

6.43 Ukuba intando, elungileyo okanye embi, iguqula ihlabathi, inokutshintsha kuphela imida yehlabathi, hayi iinyani. Ayisiyiyo into enokuchazwa ngolwimi. Ngamafutshane, ngale ndlela umhlaba uba yenye into. Kuya kufuneka, ngokungathi kunjalo, inyuse okanye yehle xa iyonke. Ihlabathi labantu abonwabileyo lahlukile kwihlabathi labantu abangonwabanga.

Ndiphetha ngesi sicatshulwa sisuka ku Itrektara Logico-Philosophicus ukunika elona cebiso lilungileyo kwabo bafuna ukuphucula njengababhali: konwaba xa ubhala. Kuba "Ihlabathi lolonwabo lahlukile kwilizwe labantu abangonwabanga".

"Phila ngovuyo!"

ULudwig Wittgenstein, ngoJulayi 8, 1916.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.