La Celestina Pfupiso

Ferdinand de Rojas.

Ferdinand de Rojas.

Celestine Inoonekwa seimwe yemabasa akakosha ezvinyorwa zveSpanish nekuda kwekukosha kwayo kwenhoroondo. Zvemukati zviratidze zvakakosha pamusoro pehunyanzvi uye hwetsika shanduko yekunopera kweXNUMXth uye kutanga kwemaXNUMXth century. Yakanga iri zvakare nguva yechimurenga yemabhuku nekuda kwehunyanzvi mukushandiswa kwemutauro uye neshanduro musambo.

Ukuwo, Celestine yakave yakawanikwa nevazhinji vanyori vezvinyorwa mukati meiyo genre ye tragicomedy. Kunyange zvakadaro, Izvo zvakaoma kupatsanura iri basa mukati meimwe mhando, nekuti kufa uye nhamo zvinhu zvakakosha mukusimudzira. Saizvozvo, kunyora kwechikamu ichi kunopa mimwe mibvunzo isina kunyatsogadziriswa kwemazana emakore.

Hunyori hwe Celestine

Fernando de Rojas ave achizivikanwa semunyori we Celestine. Zvisineyi, manyuko mazhinji anoratidza kuti munyori wechiSpanish uyu akapedza chinyorwa chete chakagadzirwa nemunyori asingazivikanwe. Nezve kuzivikanwa kwemunyori asingazivikanwe -Kwavo chiito chekutanga chakaramba chiri muchimiro chechidimbu-- vezvakaitika kare vanongedzera kuna Menéndez naPelayo.

Biographical synthesis yaFernando de Rojas

Akazvarwa muLa Puebla de Montalbán, Toledo, Spain, muna 1470, mumhuri yevaJudha vakatendeuka vakashungurudzwa neBvunzurudzo. Akawana Bachelor of Laws degree kubva kuYunivhesiti yeSalamanca. Ikoko, vadzidzi vaidikanwa kuti vadzidze kwemakore matatu kuFakisheni yeUnyanzvi. Iko, pamwe, iye akagamuchira zivo yechiGreek uzivi uye zvekare zvechiLatin.

MuTalavera, Rojas aishanda segweta uye kwemakore akati sa meya asati afa muna 1541. Kunyangwe bhuku rimwe chete richizivikanwa kwaari -Celestine- iri ibasa rakakosha retsamba dzeSpanish. Iye munyori iye amene akabvuma mutsamba kuti akawana chiito chekutanga chakanyorwa uye, sezvaakachida kwazvo, akafunga kuchipedzisa.

Zvinyorwa zve Celestine

The Celestine.

The Celestine.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Hapana zvigadzirwa zvakawanikwa.

Yekutanga inozivikanwa vhezheni, Calisto naMelibea comedy (yakaburitswa isingazivikanwe muBurgos), inotangira muna 1499 uye ine gumi nematanhatu zviito. Muna 1502 yakaburitswa pasi pezita Tragicomedy naCalisto naMelibea. Kunyangwe paine hunhu hwekutamba, kureba kwayo -chazvino vhezheni ine zviito makumi maviri nezviviri- zvinoita kuti zvikone kuikwirisa pachikuva.

Zvirokwazvo, Celestine yakanga yakanyorwa kuti iverengerwe nevakadzidza vezuva racho kana zvinonzwika kune vateereri vane tsika. Naizvozvo, chinyorwa chakapfuura nemaoko mazhinji chisati chasvika kuvadhinda, avo vakawedzera pfupiso dzapfuura pachiitiko chega chega. Kutaura zvazviri, kubva pakuonekwa kwokutanga vhezheni kusvika pakupera kwezana ramakore rechi 109, zana remabasa ebasa rinozivikanwa.

Resumen

Chekutanga chiito

Calisto anodanana naMelibea achingomuona kekutanga mubindu rake (akapinda munzvimbo iyoyo achidzinganisa gora). Anokumbira, musikana anomuramba. Kumba, Callisto anorondedzera zviitiko kune varanda vake, pakati pavo, Sempronio anozvipira kukumbira rubatsiro rwemuroyi ane mukurumbira (Celestina). Asi, iye wekupedzisira nemuranda vanorangana kubiridzira protagonist.

Tricks

Iyo n'anga inogamuchira imwe goridhe mari kumba kwaCallisto kune iyo inofungidzirwa huroyi. Pármeno, mumwe mushandi weCalisto, anoyambira zvisina basa nezvekubiridzira kwatenzi wake, ndiani apererwa. Naizvozvo, Sempronio anowedzera tarisiro yake yekuwana yakanyanya kunaka purofiti kubva mukunyepedzera uye anozvitaurira kuna Celestina. Tevere, muroyi anoenda kumba kwaMelibea.

Paanosvika, anosangana naLucrecia (musikana) uye Alisa (amai vaMelibea). Wekupedzisira anofunga kuti Celestina anouya kuzotengesa zvinangwa. Melibea paanoziva vavariro dzechokwadi chechembere, anotsamwa. Asi Celestina anokwanisa kunyengerera mukadzi mudiki uye anosiya nzvimbo netambo yeiyi, izvo, zvaanozoshandisa kupedzisa huroyi.

Kunyengera uye kubatana

EnImba yaCalisto, Celestina "anoratidza" kukosha kwake nekumuratidza bhandi remusoro waMelibea. Kana tenzi wechidiki angodzikama, chembere inoenda pamusha naPármeno. Muranda anoyeuchidza Celestina nezvevimbiso yakaitwa naiye kwaari: kununura Areúsa (mumwe wevadzidzi vake) kwaari. Kumba kwaCelestina, chibvumirano chinozadzikiswa.

Mushure mekupedza husiku naAreúsa, Pármeno anotarisana naSempronio achangodzokera kunzvimbo yaCelestino. Mushure mekuchinjana pfungwa, vese vashandi vanosarudza kubatana kuti vabudirire pane zvavari kuronga. Gare gare, Varanda vaCalisto vanouya kumba kwaCelestina kuzodya pamwe naElicia (mumwe wevadzidzi vechembere iyi naAreúsa.

Dzimwe nhema

Celestina anoshevedzwa kumba kwaMelibea kuburikidza naLucrecia. Ipapo, musikana anoreurura kune chembere rudo rwake kuna Callisto uye anomubvunza kuti varonge zuva rakavanzika nemurume mudiki. Nekudaro, Alisa haanzwe akasununguka nezve hukama pakati pemwanasikana wake naCelestina nekuda kwezita rakaipa rechembere. Asi musikana wechidiki anofunga kunyepa uye kudzivirira muroyi.

Quote naFernando de Rojas.

Quote naFernando de Rojas.

Kana Celestina amuudza nezve ake akarongeka zuva naMelibea pakati pehusiku, Calisto anomupa ketani yegoridhe sechiratidzo chekutenda. Kana nguva yakabvumiranwa yasvika, vakomana vanosangana, vanokurukura kwenguva uye vanobvumirana pamusangano wechipiri unotevera. Pakudzoka kumba, Melibea anoshamiswa nababa vake, kunyangwe achikwanisa kumuwanira chikonzero.

Makaro

Sempronio naPármeno vanosvika pamba paCelestina kuzokumbira mugove wavo wemari. Asi chembere inoramba, nekudaro, vanomuuraya. Muchiitiko chinotevera, Callisto anoona kubva kuna Sosia naTristán (vamwe vake vaviri vashandi) nezvekufa kwaSempronio naPármeno. Vakaurayirwa munzvimbo yeruzhinji vachitsiva mhosva yavakapara.

Kutsiva uye kunyengera

Calisto anononoka kusvika (achiperekedzwa naSosia naTristán) kusvika kune rechipiri zuva naMelibea, saka, vechidiki vane nguva shoma pamwechete. Panguva ino, Areúsa naElicia vanoshevedza Centurio kuti avabatsire kutsiva kufa kwemuperekedzi wavo uye vadikani. Kune rimwe divi, Pleberio naAlisa (Vabereki vaMelibea) vanotaura nezve kumuroora iye zvirinani.

Mugumo unosuruvarisa

Areúsa anowana rumwe ruzivo kuti aite chirongwa chake nekuda kweSosia asingafungire. Kutsiva kwaizopera mukati memusangano unotevera pakati peCalisto naMelibea. Munguva yechokwadi, vashandi vaCallisto vanokwanisa kutiza Traso (mhondi yakapihwa basa naCenturio). Nehurombo, apo Callisto paanoenda kunoona zvinoitika, anotsvedza, anowira pasi manera uye anofa.

Melibea akaora mwoyo anokwira pamusoro peshongwe kuti azvinyadzise, ​​akumbire ruregerero, uye areurure kuna baba vake nezve kusangana kwake naCallisto. Tatarisana nemamiriro ekupererwa, Pleberio anogona kungoona nechekure kuti mwanasikana wake anozviuraya sei mushure mekusvetukira munzvimbo iyi. Pekupedzisira, baba vemukadzi mudiki vanorondedzera zviitiko zvacho kumukadzi wavo uye vanoguma vochema zvisingaite.


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