Olemba Amakono aku Chile

Metonymy mu ndakatulo za Gabriela Mistral.

Metonymy mu ndakatulo za Gabriela Mistral.

Olemba ambiri amasiku ano aku Chile asiya chizindikiro chamtengo wapatali pamabuku apadziko lonse lapansi. M'zaka mazana awiri zapitazi, dziko lino la Latin America lawona kubadwa kwa olemba odziwika, odziwika padziko lonse lapansi. Ambiri mwa iwo adapambana mphotho zofunika, monga Mphoto ya Nobel, yomwe Gabriela Mistral ndi Pablo Neruda adalandira mwayi wolandira.

Kudzera m'mitundu yosiyanasiyana, Olemba awa akwanitsa kutenga owerenga mamiliyoni ambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Imagwira ngati: Ofufuza zakutchire (Roberto Bolaño) ndi Ndakatulo zachikondi makumi awiri ndi nyimbo yosimidwa (Pablo Neruda) ndi gawo chabe la mbiri yakale ya cholowa. Chotsatira, gawo la zomwe zimawerengedwa kuti ndi olemba aku Chile omwe ali ndi gawo lalikulu padziko lonse lapansi ziwonetsedwa.

Gabriela Mistral

Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga adabadwa pa Epulo 7, 1889 mumzinda wa Vicuña (chigawo cha Elqui, Chile). Anachokera kubanja lodzichepetsa, wokhala ndi makolo achi Spain komanso a Basque. Ubwana wake adakhala m'malo osiyanasiyana m'chigawo cha Elqui, ngakhale anali Montegrande kuti amaganizira kwawo.

Ngakhale sanaphunzire, kuyambira 1904 adagwira ntchito yophunzitsa, koyamba ku Escuela de la Compañía Baja, kenako ku La Cantera ndi Los Cerritos.. Mu 1910 zomwe adadziwa komanso zomwe adakumana nazo zidatsimikiziridwa ndi Normal School No. 1 waku Santiago, kumene adalandira udindo wa Pulofesa Wadziko.

Pogwirizana ndi ntchito zake zophunzitsa, adalembera manyuzipepala Coquimbo ndi Liwu la Elqui wa Vicuña. Pofika mu 1908 adatenga dzina labodza Gabriela Mistral, ntchito kwa nthawi yoyamba mu ndakatulo "Zakale". Kuzindikira kwake koyamba kwakukulu kudabwera Zingwe zakufa, yomwe wolemba waku Chile adalandira mphotho ya Masewera Amaluwa (1914).

Panjira yake, Mistral adalemba ndakatulo mazana ambiri, zomwe zidapangidwa m'mabuku osiyanasiyana. Izi zikuphatikiza: Chiwonongeko (1922), Number (1938) ndi Chowonjezera (1954). Momwemonso, wolemba adasiyanitsidwa ndi zolemba zofunikira, monga: Nobel Prize for Literature (1945) ndi National Prize for Literature of Chile (1951). Mistral adamwalira ku New York ndi khansa ya kapamba pa Januware 10, 1957.

Pablo Neruda

Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto adabwera padziko lapansi pa Julayi 12, 1904. kwawo ndi Parral, m'chigawo cha Maule, ku Chile. Anali mwana wa José del Carmen Reyes Morales ndi Rosa Neftalí Basoalto Opazo. Amayi ake adamwalira ndi chifuwa chachikulu patatha mwezi umodzi atabereka ndakatuloyi. Pablo Neruda - Momwe amadzitchulira pambuyo pake-- Anakhala ku Temuco kuyambira ali mwana mpaka unyamata wake. Mumzindawu adapanga maphunziro ake oyamba, ndipo ichi, pambuyo pake, chinali kudzoza kwa ntchito zake zambiri ndakatulo.

Nkhani yanu yoyamba, Changu ndi khama (1917), idasindikizidwa munyuzipepala M'mawa wa Temuco. Patadutsa zaka ziwiri, adakumana ndi wolemba ndakatulo a Gabriela Mistral, omwe adamuphunzitsa kuti aziwerenga ndikumulimbikitsa kuti adyetse ndi ntchito zolembedwa ndi olemba odziwika aku Russia. Kuyambira 1921 adasaina ntchito yake ngati Pablo Neruda, ngakhale sizinachitike mpaka 1946 pomwe dzinali ladziwika.

Mu 1924 adasindikiza ndakatulo zomwe zidamupangitsa kukhala wotchuka: Ndakatulo zachikondi makumi awiri ndi nyimbo yosimidwa. Kuchokera pamenepo, Adapereka ntchito zoposa 40 akadali moyo ndipo anali ndi ntchito 20 atamwalira. Mu ntchito yake, Neruda adapatsidwa mwayi kangapo, kuphatikiza izi: Chilene National Prize for Literature (1945), Lenin Peace Prize (1966) ndi Nobel Prize for Literature (1971).

Ndemanga ya Pablo Neruda.

Ndemanga ya Pablo Neruda.

Neruda anali wokwatiwa katatu. Mwana wake wamkazi yekha, Malva Marina Trinidad, adabadwa m'banja lake loyamba, yemwe adamwalira ali ndi zaka 8 zokha chifukwa cha hydrocephalus. Masiku omaliza a moyo wa Pablo Neruda adakhala ku Santiago, komwe adamwalira pa Seputembara 23, 1973. kuchokera ku khansa ya prostate.

Roberto Bolaño

Roberto Bolaño adabadwa pa Epulo 28, 1953 ku Santiago de Chile. Ubwana wake udadutsa pakati pa Valparaíso, Viña del Mar ndi tawuni ya Los Ángeles, komwe adamaliza maphunziro ake oyambira. Ali ndi zaka 15 anasamukira ku Mexico ndi banja lake. Mdziko la Aztec adapitiliza maphunziro ake aku sekondale, zomwe adazisiya patatha chaka chimodzi kuti adzipereke yekha ku kuwerenga ndi kulemba.

Ku Mexico City, Bolaño anakumana ndi wolemba ndakatulo Mario Santiago ndi olemba ena achichepere. Gululi lidagawana zokonda zingapo, pang'ono ndi pang'ono adayamba kucheza kwambiri. Kuyambira ubwenzi anabadwa ndakatulo kayendedwe infrarealism, yomwe idakhazikitsidwa mu 1975. Chaka chotsatira, Roberto adafalitsa ntchitoyi Reinvent chikondi. Msonkhanowu unali woyamba mwa zisanu ndi chimodzi zomwe adapereka pantchito yake yonse, kuphatikiza mitundu iwiri atamwalira. Mabuku ake ndi awa: Agalu achikondi (1993), Zitatu (2000) ndi Yunivesite Yosadziwika (2007).

Bukhu lake loyamba, Malangizo ochokera kwa wophunzira wa Morrison kwa wokonda Joyce (1984), adapatsidwa mphotho ya Literary Field. Komabe, ngakhale anali atagwira ntchito yayitali, ntchito yomwe idapangitsa wolemba kuti adziwike inali buku lake lachisanu ndi chimodzi: Ofufuza zakutchire (1998). Bukuli lidamupangitsa kukhala wopambana mphotho ya Herralde de Novela (1998) -woyamba Chile kuti alandire- ndi Mphoto ya Rómulo Gallegos (1999).

Roberto Bolaño anamwalira ali ndi zaka 50 ku Barcelona (Spain), pa Julayi 15, 2003, atadwala chiwindi kwa nthawi yayitali. Wolemba waku Chile adasiya mabuku ambiri omwe sanamalizidwe, omwe adasindikizidwa patadutsa zaka zingapo atamwalira. Mwaluso udatuluka pakuphatikizika, bukuli 2666 (2004), yomwe adapambana nawo mphotho zofunika monga: Salambó, Ciudad de Barcelona ndi Altazor.

Alejandra Costamagna

Alejandra Costamagna Crivell adabwera padziko lapansi pa Marichi 23, 1970, ku Santiago de Chile. Popeza anali wamng'ono, ankakonda kulemba, koma mpaka adakwanitsa zaka XNUMX kuti agwire ntchitoyi mozama. Mphunzitsi wake Guillermo Gómez anali ndi zambiri zokhudzana ndi chidwi ichi. Panthawi imeneyi ya moyo wake adayamba kuwerenga Mistral, Neruda, Shakespeare ndi Nicanor Parra; onse amuthandiza kwambiri.

Costamagna adaphunzira utolankhani ku Yunivesite ya Diego Portales. Pambuyo pake, adamaliza digiri ya masters mu sukulu yomweyo. Pa ntchito yake yonse, adadzipereka pakuphunzitsa zokambirana, komanso adagwira ntchito ngati mkonzi, wolemba ndemanga pa zisudzo komanso wolemba mbiri m'magazini angapo adziko lonse.

Monga wolemba, adapereka ntchito yake yoyamba mu 1996, Mwakachetechete, yomwe idalandira ndemanga zabwino kwambiri ndikupambana mphotho ya Gabriela Mistral Literary Games (1996). Costamagna yalemba mabuku opambana, monga: Usiku woyipa (2000), Moto womaliza (2005), ndi Ziweto (2011). Otsutsa angapo adaphatikizanso zina mwa zomwe adalemba Zolemba za ana.

Alberto fuguet

Santiago de Chile adabadwa Alberto Felipe Fuguet de Goyeneche pa Marichi 7, 1964. Ubwana wake adakhala ku United States, ndipo mpaka 1975 pomwe adabwerera kudziko lakwawo. Ochepetsedwa ndi chilankhulo, wolemba wamtsogolo adayamba kuwerenga mabuku m'Chisipanishi kuti adziwe chilankhulo chake. Adaulula kuti Zolemba Wolemba Marcela Paz adamuthandiza kwambiri, zomwe zimawoneka m'buku lake loyamba.

Anaphunzira ku University of Chile. Chisankho chake choyamba chinali ntchito yokhudzana ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu, yomwe adaphunzira kwa chaka chimodzi, komabe, adasamukira ku utolankhani, pomwe adaphunzira ndipo adakhala chimodzi mwazokonda zake. Kuphatikiza pa ntchito yake yolemba, adapanga ntchito yodziwika ngati wolemba nkhani, wolemba mabuku, wolemba zenera, nyimbo komanso wotsutsa mafilimu. Imadziwika chifukwa cha kutengera kwa olemba amakono, kubetcha pamabuku enieni komanso akumatauni.

Mu 1990 adapereka nkhani yake yoyamba, Bongo, yomwe adapambana Mphotho ya Municipal for Literature of Santiago. Chaka chotsatira adasindikiza buku lomwe lidamupangitsa kuchita bwino: Mafunde oyipa. Ntchito yake ikuwunikiranso: Inki yofiira, buku lomwe lidasinthidwa kukhala kanema mu 2000. Patatha zaka zitatu, adatulutsa mbiri yonena za mbiri yakale yotchedwa Makanema amoyo wanga, mabuku ake atsopano ndi awa: Zopeka (2015) ndi Thukuta (2016).


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