Fernando de Rojas: wolemba malamulo

Ferdinand de Rojas

Fernando de Rojas (c. 1470-1541) amadziwika kuti ndi amene analemba bukuli. Celestine (1499), zolemba zakale zapadziko lonse lapansi za Chisipanishi. Komabe, olemba ake akhala akukayikiridwa kwambiri ndipo mwayi woti ntchitoyi ikhoza kuonedwa ngati yosadziwika yaganiziridwa. Ngakhale pakhala zokayikitsa zambiri pa moyo wa wolemba uyu komanso za yemwe analemba za chikondi cha Calisto ndi Melibea, zawonekeratu kuti Rojas ndiye mlengi weniweni wa Celestine.

Komabe, zakhala zosatheka kunena kuti zolemba zambiri zalembedwa ndi iye kuposa izi. Mtengo wa Celestine zakhala zokwanira kuti ziphatikizepo woweruza Fernando de Rojas pamndandanda wa olemba ofunikira kwambiri a zolemba za Chisipanishi. Ndipo apa tikukuuzani zambiri za wolemba uyu.

Fernando de Rojas: nkhani ndi moyo

Zokambirana za chiyambi cha Chiyuda cha wolemba

Fernando de Rojas akuganiziridwa kuti ndi achiyuda. Lingaliro ili likupatsidwa zowona zokwanira, ngakhale kuti si zokhazo. Mofananamo, Rojas adzakhala kutali ndi achibale ake achiyuda omaliza. Ndipo ndikuti wolembayo adafika pampando wapamwamba muutumiki wa boma zosatheka kwa munthu wochokera kubanja lomwe langotembenuka kumene. Ndiye zikuyerekezeredwa kuti iye angakhale Myuda wa m’badwo wachinayi.

Mu 1492 kuthamangitsidwa kwa Ayuda ku Spain kunalamulidwa ndi mafumu achikatolika. Mabanja ambiri anakakamizika kutembenukira ku chikhulupiriro chachikristu, koma ngakhale kuti anatero, anthu oŵerengeka anaimbidwa mlandu wopembedza Chiyuda, kapena kukhala Ayuda achinyengo, ndi kuchita chipembedzo chachiyuda m’nyumba zawo. Kukayikira kumeneku kunalemeranso pa banja la Fernando de Rojas. Ngakhale palinso mtundu wina womwe umati abambo ake anali hidalgo wotchedwa García González Ponce de Rojas.. M'malo mwake, pali zopempha kuchokera kubanja kuti zitsimikizire kuti ndi olemekezeka.

Anthu ena ambiri anazunzidwa ndi nzika Zachikristu iwo eni amene, m’lingaliro laling’ono, anathamangira kukatsutsa anansi awo. Zinalinso nkhani ya banja la ndale la Rojas. Chifukwa anakwatira Leonor Álvarez de Montalbán, yemwe anali mwana wamkazi wa wotembenuka amene anaimbidwa mlandu wotsatira chipembedzo chachiyuda, Álvaro de Montalbán.. Munthu ameneyu anayesa kupempha mkamwini wake, woweruza wodziwika bwino, kuti amuthandize. Koma Fernando de Rojas sakanachitira apongozi ake.

Umu unali mkhalidwe umene anauzira m’nthaŵi ya wolembayo ndipo, ngakhale kuti monga momwe tawonera iye sanali wachilendo m’nkhani imeneyi ya tsankho lachipembedzo; Fernando de Rojas adatha kukhala ndi moyo wabwino ndi banja lake, kutenga nawo mbali pagulu.

Chifaniziro cha Justice

moyo wa wolemba

Fernando de Rojas anabadwira ku La Puebla de Montalbán, ku Toledo, pakati pa 1465 ndi 1470.. Za chiyambi chake pakhala pali zokambirana zambiri ngati linali banja la hidalgos kapena otembenuka. Zochepa kwambiri zimadziwika ponena za ubwana wake ndi unyamata wake.. Kuti mudziwe zambiri za maphunziro ake, kapena ngati ntchito yokhayo yomwe imadziwika kuti ndi yake ndi yake, Celestine, tiyenera kupita kukawerenga ndi kuphunzira zolemba za nthawiyo.

Mwachitsanzo, anali ndi digiri ya ku yunivesite, ndithudi, chifukwa anali loya ndipo anali ndi maudindo osiyanasiyana okhudzana ndi anthu, monga Meya wa Talavera de la Reina (Toledo). Komanso, m'malemba a Celestine pali nkhani ya bachelor Fernando de Rojas, yomwe lero ingakhale mutu wa omaliza maphunziro kapena omaliza maphunziro. Ndiye zikunenedwanso kuti anamaliza maphunziro ake nthawi imodzi yomwe adalemba ntchitoyi chifukwa anali atamaliza kale maphunziro ake. Celestine mu 1499. Chifukwa cha zomwe zili m'buku lomweli, akukhulupirira kuti adaphunzira pa yunivesite ya Salamanca. Patapita nthawi ankapita ku Talavera de la Reina.

Anakwatirana mu 1512 ndi Leonor Álvarez de Montalban. ndipo kale anakhazikika ku Talavera de la Reina komwe adatha kusangalala ndi kutchuka. Pano pali zolembedwa zambiri za wolemba yemwe adagwira ntchito ngati loya komanso meya mtawuni ino, akuchita ntchito zolemekezeka kwambiri. Ndi mkazi wake anali ndi ana asanu ndi awiri onse.

Anasunga laibulale yaikulu, ndi ntchito yake Celestine kusonyeza chikondi chawo pa makalata ndi mabuku, kuposa momwe amachitira m’malamulo. Komabe, sizimalumikizidwa ndi zolemba zina kapena olemba, osindikiza kapena magulu olemba. Ndizofuna kudziwa momwe malemba amodzi adathandizira kumukweza m'mabuku a Chisipanishi, atalemba ntchito yake yaikulu ali wamng'ono.

Fernando de Rojas anamwalira mu 1541, kugogomezera m’chipangano chake chikhulupiriro Chachikristu chimene anali kunena..

Mabuku akale

Malingaliro ena okhudza La Celestina

Amatchula za munthu wake monga mlembi wa Celestine amachokera makamaka kwa anthu owazungulira. Mulimonsemo, palibe amene ananena kuti ndi mwini wake wa ntchitoyi, koma ngakhale dzina la Fernando de Rojas silinaoneke pachikuto cha makope oyambirira a bukhuli.

Ntchito inatuluka mu Baibulo loyamba monga Masewera a Calisto ndi Melibea ndiyeno wina wokhala ndi mutu wa Tragicomedy ya Calisto ndi Melibea, mwinamwake monga zotsatira zachindunji za khalidwe la ntchitoyo, komanso mosalunjika chifukwa cha mzimu wa anthu a ku Spain. Kuonjezera apo, malembawo adasintha machitidwe ndi zomwe zili chifukwa chawonjezeka kuchokera ku 16 kupita ku 21. Mabaibulo ochepa kwambiri a iwo amasungidwa ndipo malingaliro ndi ziweruzo ndizosiyana pa iwo, kuphatikizapo. Zimakayikiridwabe ngati anali Fernando de Rojas yemwe kwenikweni anali kuyang'anira zosintha zonsezi; popeza pali nkhani ya kukhalapo kwa olemba ena awiri.

Mawu chikwati, yomwe imapezeka mu dikishonale ndi tanthauzo ili: "pimp (mkazi amene amakonza ubale wachikondi)", amachokera ku ntchito iyi yomwe yapita m'mbiri yonse ngakhale zinsinsi zonse zozungulira wolemba wake. Ndi sewero m'ndime yomwe kupambana kwake kumamveka kuyambira pachiyambi ndi matanthauzidwe ake angapo ndi kutulutsanso. mu Chitaliyana, Chijeremani, Chingerezi, Chifalansa, Chidatchi ndi Chilatini.

Ndi nkhani yowona komanso yowoneka bwino, koma yovomerezeka, yomwe idadabwitsa panthawiyo ndikulimbikitsanso zina.. Zinakhudzanso olemba ena ndi ntchito. Celestine Yakhalanso ndi masinthidwe ambiri m'mapangidwe osiyanasiyana aluso ndipo ikukhalabe ngati ntchito yapadziko lonse lapansi m'moyo ndi chikhalidwe patatha zaka 500 itasindikizidwa.


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  1.   Luciano kwambiri anati

    Kupusa kwachikhalidwe cha Chisipanishi ngati chakuti-ndi-chakuti kapena chakuti-ndi-chakuti, ngakhale odziwika bwino a mbiri yakale, monga wolemba La Celestina, anali Ayuda ...

    1.    Belen Martin anati

      Inde, ndiko kulondola, Luciano. Nthawi zonse kubwereza nkhani yomweyo. Zikomo chifukwa cha ndemanga!