Takaita Rayuwa mafarki ne

Pedro Calderon de la Barca.

Pedro Calderon de la Barca.

Rayuwa Mafarki ne An yi la'akari da mafi kyawun yanki na gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Calderonian. An fara gabatar da wannan aikin ne a Madrid a shekarar 1635. A wannan lokacin, turka-turka a babban birnin kasar Sipaniya ta gudana a farfajiyar farfajiyar murabba'i (mai fadin mita 15 - 17 da tsawon mita 30 - 40), kewaye da gidaje masu baranda.

Haka kuma, wannan aikin misali ne na gargajiya na baroque dramaaturgy, mamaye jigogin falsafa da tattaunawa game da rayuwa. Bugu da kari, a cikin irin wannan wakilcin hotunan hotunan sun nuna bambancin tunanin adawa, da kuma yaduwar wayewa akan dabbanci (jahilci).

Game da marubucin, Pedro Calderón de la Barca

Cikakken sunansa Pedro Calderon de la Barca da kuma Barreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño.Ya ga hasken a karon farko a Madrid, a ranar 17 ga Janairu, 1600. Shi ne na uku cikin yara shida (biyu sun mutu a ƙaramin shekaru) na auren Diego Calderón da Ana María de Henao, dukkaninsu dangin masu martaba ne. Yayi karatun wasiƙu, tiyoloji, Latin da Girkanci a Kwalejin Imperial na Jesuits da ke Madrid.

A lokacin da yake da shekaru 14, ya yi rajista a Jami'ar Alcalá, amma ya yi watsi da karatunsa saboda matsalolin iyali. Daga baya, Ya sami damar ci gaba da karatun ilimi a Jami'ar Salamanca, inda ya sami digiri na farko a cikin Dokar Canon da na farar hula (1619). A cikin 1621, ya shiga aikin soja don fidda bashin iyali da kuma taimaka wa hisan uwansa.

Soja, malami kuma marubucin wasan kwaikwayo

Kodayake wasu kafofin sun nuna Daji mai rikitarwa (1622) a matsayin fim dinsa na farko, mai ban dariya Loveauna, girmamawa da iko (1623) shine taken da ya sanar dashi. Tun daga nan, ya sami damar hada aikin sa na soja tare da kirkirar sa mai ban mamaki. A zahiri, an kira shi Knight na Order of Santiago kuma an san shi da aikinsa na soja a Fuenterrabía (1638) da Catalonia (1640).

Har ila yau, An nada shi a matsayin firist (1651), malamin Reyes Nuevos de Toledo (1653) da malamin girmamawa na sarki (1663). Hakanan - godiya ga bambancinsa, wadataccen kayan fasaharsa - a lokacin 1640s ya zama sanannen ɗan wasan kwaikwayo a lokacinsa.

Aikinsa, a takaice

Wasu tushe kamar Ruiza et. zuwa ga (2004) daga tashar Tarihi da Rayuka, Tabbatar da cewa Pedro Calderón de la Barca ya kirga abubuwan da ya kirkira jim kadan kafin mutuwarsa (Mayu 1681). Aikin nasa ya hada da "comedies dari da goma da sacramentales tamanin, yabo, abubuwan ciye-ciye da sauran kananan ayyuka.

Halayen gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Calderonian

La Calderonian wasan kwaikwayo an samo shi a cikin lokacin baroque. An bayyana shi da kyakkyawar mataki na kammala fasaha, kazalika da salon nutsuwa, tare da raguwar haruffa da madaidaicin makircin makirci a kusa da jarumar. Tsagewar Sigismund na Rayuwa Mafarki ne tabbas shine mafi yawan mutane a cikin duk manyan halayen sa.

Takaitawa na Rayuwa Mafarki ne

Rayuwa Mafarki ne.

Rayuwa Mafarki ne.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Rayuwa Mafarki ne

Wannan aikin yana wakiltar karbuwa ga Kiristanci na koyarwar addinin Buddha na mai bacci. Koyaya, babu shakka ɗabi'a tana nuna koyarwar Kirista: dawwama a rayuwar duniya —Kawai mafarkin wucewa - idan aka kwatanta shi da rayuwar lahira.

An gabatar da waɗannan jigogi tare da kyakkyawar haɗakar falsafar gaske da izgili ta Calderón de la Barca. Bugu da ƙari, yayin wakilcin wasu haruffa suna bayyana a cikin sutura daban-daban don ƙara rashin tabbas na mai kallo game da abubuwan da ke faruwa na gaske da waɗanda ke faruwa.

Fursuna

Basilio, masarautar Poland, ta hanyar duba ta hangen nesa cewa ɗan sa Sigismund zai zama azzalumi. Saboda wannan dalili, ya kulle shi a cikin kurkukun wata hasumiya. A can, basaraken ya la'anci sa'arsa yayin da yake cikin sarƙoƙi, yana mai cewa bai aikata wani laifi ba. A saboda wannan dalili, yana cike da zalunci kuma yana so ya kashe wasu mutane biyu da ake zargin 'yan leƙen asirin da suka zo wurinsa.

Su ba 'yan leƙen asiri ba ne da gaske, su ne Rosaura na Muscovite - a cikin suturar mutum - da Clarín, bawanta. Wadanda suka isa karkara da kafa saboda dokin matar ya tsere da ban mamaki. Daga baya, Sigismund yana jin tausayin Rosaura kuma ya karɓi roƙonta don jinƙai.

Mai gadin

Clotaldo, mai gadin hasumiyar, ya fasa shiga don hukunta waɗanda ke waje saboda duk wata alaƙa da fursuna hukuncin kisa ne. Amma 'yan banga sun yi jinkirin aiwatar da umarnin sarauta lokacin da Rosaura ta nuna masa takobi mai nasaba da rayuwar Clotaldo. Da kyau, ya ba wa ƙaunataccen mai suna Violette tare da alƙawarin gane ɗanta a cikin mai ɗaukar takobi.

Tashin hankali game da yiwuwar kashe dan nasa (Rosaura, mai wuce gona da iri), Clotaldo ya kai fursunonin gaban sarki don neman rahamar su. A halin yanzu, sarki ya yi farin ciki da zuwan hisan uwansa Astolfo (Duke na Moscovia) da Estrella don kammala shirye-shiryen nasa. Wannan karshen yana da shakku sosai game da lambar da duke ke ɗauke da hoton mace.

Gwajin

A lokacin gaskiya, ba da daɗewa ba Sarki Basilio ya bayyana wa masu shigowa da kuma kotu kasancewar ɗa na asali. Daidai, sarki yana shakkar hasashen farko game da halin zalunci na zuriyarsa. Sabili da haka, ya yanke shawarar yin gwaji kafin tsammanin duk mutanensa: sanya Sigismund yayi bacci, ya bayyana asalin sa na ainihi kuma ya ɗora shi akan karagar mulki na kwana ɗaya.

Darajar Rosaura

Basilio ya ba da sanarwar cewa tuntuɓar Sigismund ba ta da hukunci a yanzu. A wannan lokacin, Clotaldo yana so ya bayyana kansa a matsayin mahaifin mai ɗaukar takobi, amma Rosaura (har yanzu a ɓoye) ya ce ya zo ya sadu da Astolfo don ɗaukar fansar girmamawarsa. Bayan haka, Rosaura ta bayyana cewa ita mace ce kuma tana tafiya tare da bawanta. Bayan haka - tuni ta canza tufafinta - ta nuna kamar 'yar ƙwaryar Clotaldo ce.

Sarauta na yini

Sigismund mai bacci ana jagorantar shi zuwa ɗakin kwanan masarauta kuma ana sanye da kayan sarki. Lokacin da ya farka yana cikin rudani kuma da wuya ya fahimci mai kula da hasumiyar da yake so ya kashe shi. Daga baya, yarima mai jiran gado ya bi da bayin da rashin ladabi (har ma ya jefa ɗayan ta taga) da Astolfo.

Sarki ya sami masaniya game da mummunan halin ɗansa, saboda haka, fursuna ne na yanke kauna saboda ya ƙi yarda da annabce-annabce game da magajinsa. Duk da haka, Lokacin da Basilio yayi ƙoƙari ya rungumi Sigismund, ya ƙi shi yayin da yake ikirarin haƙƙin ikonsa wanda ba za a iya musantawa ba. A wannan lokacin, Basilio ya gaya masa cewa watakila "mafarki ne kawai."

Komawa kan hasumiyar

Sigismund ya zama abin birgewa saboda kyan Rosaura kuma yana ƙoƙarin yaudarar ta da kalmomin sassauci. Kodayake lokacin da ta ƙi shi, basaraken ya aika da duk bayin wurin su tafi da ita da ƙarfi. Clotaldo ya dakatar da cin zarafin daga baya kuma faɗa ya kaure wanda har Astolfo ba zai iya dakatarwa ba. Sarki kawai ke kulawa don kawo karshen gasar.

Basilio ya ba da umarnin a sake sanya ɗansa ya yi barci. Sau ɗaya a cikin hasumiyar, Clarín an sanya shi a bayan sanduna saboda ya san abubuwa da yawa game da batun. A lokaci guda, Clotaldo ya bayyana wa Sigismund cewa zamaninsa a kan karagar mulki mafarki ne kawai. Daga wannan lokacin, basarake bai bambanta mafarkin da kyau da gaskiya ba, sabili da haka, ya fahimci cewa dole ne ya yi hankali sosai.

Kujerar mulki

Rosaura da Estrella sun ƙaura daga Astolfo lokacin da suka gano dabarun soyayyarsa saboda hoton (na farkon) wanda ya rataya a wuyan duke. A gefe guda kuma, gungun mutane gama gari sun isa hasumiyar don 'yantar da Clarín (bisa kuskure sun yi imanin cewa shi ne sarki). Kara, Lokacin da Sigismund ya bayyana, taron suna da'awar fatan magaji na gaskiya a kan karagar mulki kuma a shirye suke su yi yaƙi da shi.

Kalmomin daga Pedro Calderon de la Barca.

Kalmomin daga Pedro Calderon de la Barca.

Yarima mai jiran gado ya kula da kansa kuma ya yi daidai (har yanzu ba tare da sanin ko mafarki yake yi ko a'a ba), har ma da ran Clotaldo mai murabus. Kafin nan, A cikin fadar Clarín ya sanar da Astolfo da Estrella game da abubuwan da suka faru. Jama'a sun kasu kashi biyu tsakanin wadanda suka ci gaba da biyayya ga Basilio a kan wadancan magoya bayan Sigismund.

Resolutionuduri

A lokacin yakin, Rosaura ta fito a filin don rokon Sigismund don taimaka mata ta kashe Astolfo (kuma don haka fanshe darajarsa). Da zarar an fara faɗa, Clarín ya mutu ne sakamakon harbin bindiga kuma Basilio ya fahimci cewa ba zai iya fuskantar ɗan nasa ba. Saboda wannan dalili, ya sallama a ƙafafunku. Amma annabcin bai cika ba ta hanyar da ake tsammani.

Sigismund ba azzalumi bane, ya kai ga mahaifinsa ya tashe shi. A ƙarshe, an yi shelar ɗa a matsayin halattaccen magajin da mazaunan da kotu suka yarda da shi.. Bugu da kari, sabon sarki ya bar kowa cikin farin ciki: ya maido da martabar Rosaura ta hanyar aurenta da Astolfo kuma shi da kansa ya nemi hannun Estrella, wanda ya karɓa.

Rayuwa Mafarki ne

A cikin aiki na ƙarshe, Sigismund ya bayyana dalilan canjin sa na ban mamaki: ya koyi zama sarki adali ta hanyar mafarki. Sabili da haka, idan kasancewar ɗan adam na duniya ruɗi ne, yana so ya yi amfani da wannan fitilar da ke rayuwa don ya zama sarki mai adalci.

Gutsure

"Amma, zama gaskiya ko mafarki,

yin kyau shine abin mahimmanci.

Idan gaskiya ne, don kasancewar sa;

in ba haka ba, don cin nasara abokai

domin idan mun farka ”.


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