Emilia Pardo Bazan

Emilia Pardo Bazan.

Emilia Pardo Bazan.

Countididdigar Pardo Bazán Ta kasance mace mafi mahimmancin ilimi a cikin Spain a cikin shekarun da suka gabata na ƙarni na XNUMX da farkon ƙarni na XNUMX.. Godiya ga wadataccen horo na ilimi da mahaifinta ya bayar, Emilia Pardo Bazán ta yi fice a matsayin marubuciya, 'yar jarida, marubuciya, mai fassara, lacca da kuma jagorar haƙƙin mata.

Aikin adabin nasa yana da fadi kwarai, ya kunshi litattafai, wakoki, rubuce-rubuce, gyara da suka. Rigima wani yanayi ne mai maimaituwa a rayuwarsa kamar yadda yake amfani da hanyoyin fasaha na gaba-gaba (a matsayin share fage ga dabi'ar halitta) da kuma tabbatar da daidaiton jinsi. A saboda wannan dalili, duk da tarin cancantar da aka samu, ba a taɓa shigar da ita makarantar Royal Spanish Academy ba.

Yara, matasa da kuma ayyukan farko

Emilia Pardo-Bazán da de la Rúa Figueroa An haife shi ne a ranar 16 ga Satumba, 1851, a cikin dangin sarauta daga La Coruña, Spain. Ita marubuciya ce mai ƙwarewa, tun lokacin yarinta ta nuna ƙaddara sosai ga karatu da aikin ilimi. Yana dan shekara 13 ya rubuta littafinsa na farko, Abubuwan sha'awa na haɗari (an buga shi a 2012).

Bayan ta cika shekaru 16 (1868) ta auri José Quiroga kuma ta tafi zama a Madrid. Ma'auratan sun yi balaguro sosai a Turai; A cewar marubutan tarihin, ya kasance daidaitaccen haɗin kai. Doña Emilia ta buga tarihin wannan tafiya a jaridar El Imparcial, kuma a cikin littafinta Don Katolika Turai (1901), inda ya ba da shawarar yin tafiya aƙalla sau ɗaya a shekara don ilimantar da kai na ilimi, tare da bayyana buƙatar "Turawa daga Spain".

Ma'auratan suna da 'ya'ya uku: Jaime (1876), Blanca (1879) da Carmen (1881). A wannan lokacin ta yi wallafe-wallafe na farko a matsayin marubuciya, rubutun Nazari mai mahimmanci game da ayyukan Uba Feijoo da kuma littafin wakoki Jaime (wanda aka sadaukar da shi ga danshi na farko), dukkan ayyukan biyu daga shekarar 1976. Har ila yau, a 1877 ya bayyana matsayinsa sabanin ra'ayin Darwin game da asalin jinsin halittu a mujallar Kimiyyar Kirista. Idan Emilia Pardo Bazán ita ma ta yi fice a cikin wani abu, to saboda sanannun jimloli ne.

A cikin shekaru masu zuwa, Emilia Pardo Bazán yana samun sanannun abubuwa tare da, Pascual López, tarihin rayuwar ɗalibin likita (1879) y Amarci (1881), Littattafan soyayya guda biyu cikin salon labari mai gamsarwa. Tare da na karshen, bayyanannun fasalluka sun bayyana wanda ya sanya masanin Galician a matsayin daya daga cikin magabatan Naturalism, saboda cikakkun bayanai game da ilimin halittar jiki na abubuwan halitta da na haruffa.

magana daga Emilia Pardo Bazán.

magana daga Emilia Pardo Bazán.

Balaga ta adabi

Ya zuwa 1881, Emilia Pardo Bazán za ta ci gaba da tattaunawa da Benito Pérez Galdós. Da farko dangantakar adabi ce, sai dai, bayan bugawar Tambaya mai kuna (1883) an sami takaddama mai karfi game da littafin wanda ya kunyata mijinta kuma ya haifar da rabuwar abokantaka. Koda yawancin kawayenta da yawa sun auka wa aikin kasancewar aiki ne mara imani, wanda ya dace da "hotunan batsa na Faransa."

Shekara guda kafin (1882), Doña Emilia ta buga Manyan fure, aiki tare da fasalolin zamantakewar jama'a da aka yi da dabarun dabi'a, ya ɗauki ɗayan ayyukansa na farko don tabbatar da haƙƙin mata. Ari, a cikin wannan aikin ya haɗa proletariat a matsayin muhimmin abu na mahawarar.

Mataki ne wanda a ciki take kare adabin Mutanen Espanya tare da gabatar da shawarwarin dabi'a ta hanyar rubutunsa na jarida kan journalmilie Zola, wanda aka buga a mujallar Zamanin. A shekarar 1885 aka kaddamar da Matashiyar budurwa, yana nufin matsalar aure.

A cikin 1886 littafin da Emilia Pardo Bazán wanda aka fi sani da shi ya bayyana, A pazos de Ulloa. Aiki ne na kwastomomi da aka saita a ƙauyen Galician wanda ke nuni da rikici tsakanin tsabtataccen zamantakewar biranen da mutanen da suka fito daga ƙauyukan da suka fi karkata. A can, haruffan suna nuna farfajiyar Zola game da tasirin muhalli game da ilimin ɗan adam.

Labari mai dangantaka:
"The pazos de Ulloa" na Emilia Pardo Bazán

A pazos de Ulloa tsarkake Emilia Pardo Bazán a matsayin ɗayan manyan marubutan adabi na ƙasar Sifen kowane lokaci. Littafin yana magana ne da kyakkyawan hangen nesa game da ragin rawar da masarauta ke da ita a cikin al'umma. A 1887 ya buga Yanayin uwa, wani labari ne na dabi'a wanda yake ba da labarin lalata da lalata tsakanin samari biyu waɗanda ba su san cewa 'yan'uwan juna ba ne.

Nisanta daga dabi'ar halitta

Bayan rabuwa da mijinta, ta sami damar sadaukar da kanta kyauta don binciko sha'awar iliminsa. Ta kan shiga tsakani a cikin aikin jarida na siyasa da kuma gwagwarmayar kwato 'yancin mata. Ta wannan hanyar, rubutun kamar Juyin juya hali da labari a Rasha (1987) ko Matar Spain (1890), wanda jama'a da masu sukar adabi suka yaba.

Yanayin Uwa, littafin Emilia Pardo Bazán.

Yanayin Uwa, littafin Emilia Pardo Bazán.

Kodayake bai taɓa daina sha'awar koyarwar Zola ba, shekarun 1890 sun nuna kusancin Emilia Pardo Bazán zuwa ga kyakkyawan fata da alama, don cutar da dabi'ar halitta. An tabbatar da wannan juyin halitta a cikin ayyuka kamar Kirista (1890), Labaran da aka zaba (1891), Madam Milagros (1894), Chimera (1895), Memoirs na wani tuzuru (1896) Tatsuniyoyi masu tsarki (1899), The baki aljanna (1908) y Mai gida mai dadi (1911), da sauransu.

Wani dalili kuma da ya jagoranci Pardo Bazán don nisanta kansa da dabi'ar halitta shine ƙungiyoyi masu yanke hukuncin launin fata, latent a cikin nassoshin su game da al'adun launin fata da atavism na launin fata. Matsayi ne wanda yazo don tabbatar da shi Hoton zane-zane (1899), game da ƙiyayya da Semitism na al'amarin Dreyfus. Koyaya, ya zama dole a bayyana cewa ba ta taɓa bayyana kanta a matsayin mai wariyar launin fata ba (gaskiyar da masana ƙwararrun adabi suka tabbatar).

Sabon Musanya Wasan kwaikwayo

Bayan mutuwar mahaifinta a 1890, Doña Emilia yayi amfani da rabon gadon mahaifinsa don samar da kudi ga Sabon Musanya Wasan kwaikwayo.Tace littafin mujallar ce ta zamantakewa da siyasa da ta rubuta don girmamawa ga ƙaunataccen Benito Jerónimo Feijoo. Ya ƙunshi rubuce-rubuce, sukar adabi, bayani kan wasu marubuta da bincike na siyasa da nazarin zaman jama'a domin nuna gaskiyar ilimin zamaninsa.

A lokacin kwanakin farko, Sabon Musanya Wasan kwaikwayo ya samu karbuwa sosai saboda salon sa kai tsaye, a takaice kuma mai gaskiya. Amma wannan mujallar ta kawo sabbin masu zaginta (musamman a duniyar masu ra'ayin mazan jiya na masarautar Sifen), wadanda suka kira ta da son zuciya da neman sauyi (alamar tawaye, kawai don ta kasance mace).

Bayan shekaru uku, Pardo Bazán ya yi ban kwana da masu karatun sa yana jayayya cewa mujallar ta jawo masa "asarar kudi da abin dariya."

Legacy of Emilia Pardo Bazán

Rikici ya kasance abu ne na yau da kullun a cikin ayyukan Countess. Fiye da kayan aiki don ƙulla mai karatu ta hanyar cikakkun bayanai, hanya ce ta la'antar zagi na zahiri, na tunani da na ɗabi'a wanda ya fi wahala cikin al'umma.

Kodayake bai cire nau'ikan zalunci ga manyan halayen maza ba, mafi kyawun ɗanyen aikinta ya kasance a cikin cin zarafin da yara da mata - musamman - mata. A dalilin haka ne ake mata kallon daya daga cikin masu rajin kare hakkin mata. Ba a yaba da inganci, aiki da faɗi, da faɗin aikinsa ba sai da shekaru da yawa bayan ɓacewarsa ta zahiri.

Emilia Pardo Bazán a cikin karatu.

Emilia Pardo Bazán a cikin karatu.

Duk da matsayinsa da sanin iliminsa, har zuwa ƙarshen ranakinta al'ummar macho ta Spain ba ta daina kai hari ba zuwa Bazán. An hana marubuciyar guraben da ta fi samu ta hanyar aikinta, musamman a Royal Academy (an ƙi ta sau uku).

Emilia Pardo Bazan ya mutu ranar 12 ga Mayu, 1921, a lamba 27 Calle de la Princesa, Madrid.


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