Samuel Beckett

Ukubukeka kwe-Ireland.

Ukubukeka kwe-Ireland.

USamuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989) wayengumbhali odumile wase-Ireland. Wenza kahle emikhakheni eyahlukene yezincwadi, efana nezinkondlo, amanoveli nemidlalo yezemidlalo. Ekusebenzeni kwakhe kuleli gatsha lokugcina, umsebenzi wakhe Ilinde uGodot ibe nempumelelo enkulu, futhi namuhla ibhentshimakhi ngaphakathi kwenkundla yemidlalo engenangqondo. Umzamo ophawulekayo emsebenzini wakhe omude - owaqalwa ngawokuqala nokujula kwemibhalo yakhe - kwamzuzela iNobel Prize for Literature ngo-1969.

U-Becket ubonakala ngokuveza ngendlela engacacile, emnyama futhi emfushane iqiniso lomuntu, kugcizelelwa ukungabi bikho kobukhona babo. Ngakho-ke, abagxeki abaningi bayihlela ngaphakathi kokukhohlisa. Yize imibhalo yakhe yayimifushane, umbhali ukwazile ukunikeza ukujula okukhulu ngokusebenzisa izinsizakusebenza ezahlukahlukene zemibhalo, lapho izithombe zazigqame ngaphezu kwakho konke okunye. Mhlawumbe umnikelo wakhe obaluleke kakhulu ezincwadini wayephula imithetho eminingi eyasungulwa waze wafika.

Imininingwane yomlando womlobi, uSamuel Beckett

USamuel Barclay Beckett wazalwa ngoLwesihlanu ngo-Ephreli 13, 1906 edolobhaneni laseDublin eFoxrock, Ireland. Wayengumntwana wesibili womshado phakathi kukaWilliam Beckett noMay Roe - umhlola kanye nomhlengikazi, ngokulandelana. Ngomama wakhe, umbhali wayehlala ekhumbula ukuzinikela emsebenzini wakhe nokuzinikela kwakhe okuphawulekayo kwezenkolo.

Ubuntwana nezifundo

Kusukela ebuntwaneni bakhe, u-Beckett wazisa izinto ezimbalwa ezimnandi. Futhi lokho, okuphambene nomfowabo uFrank, umbhali ubesezacile futhi ejwayele ukugula ngokuqhubekayo. Mayelana naleso sikhathi, wake wathi: "Nganginethalente elincane lenjabulo."

Ngenkathi efunda imfundo yokuqala wayenendlela emfushane yokuqeqeshwa komculo. Imfundo yakhe eyinhloko yenzeka e-Earlsford House School waze waba neminyaka eyi-13; kamuva wabhaliswa ePortora Royal School. Kuleli sayithi wahlangana noFrank, umfowabo omdala. Kuze kube namuhla, lesi sikole sokugcina sijabulela udumo olukhulu, kusukela u-Oscar Wilde odumile naye wabona amakilasi emakilasini awo.

Beckett, i-polymath

Isigaba esilandelayo ekwakhiweni kukaBeckett senzeka eTrinity College, eDublin. Lapho, kwavela izici zakhe eziningi, ukuthanda kwakhe izilimi kwakungezinye zazo. Mayelana nalokhu kuzilibazisa, kuyadingeka ukugqamisa ukuthi umbhali waqeqeshwa ngesiNgisi, isiFulentshi nesiNtaliyane. Wakwenza ngokukhethekile phakathi kuka-1923 no-1927, kwathi kamuva waphothula izifundo ze-Modern Philology.

Abafundisi bakhe ababili bolimi kwakungu-AA Luce noThomas B. Rudmose-Brown; Owokugcina nguyena owamvulela iminyango yezincwadi zaseFrance futhi wabuye wamethula nomsebenzi kaDante Alighieri. Bobabili othisha bazwakalise ukumangala kwabo ngokwenza kahle kukaBeckett ekilasini, ngokomqondo nangokusebenza.

Kuleli khampasi lezifundo izipho zakhe zezemidlalo nazo zaqashelwa ngokuqinile, kusukela U-Beckett uphume phambili kwi-chess, umbhoxo, ithenisi, futhi-kakhulu, ngaphezulu - ikhilikithi. Ukusebenza kwakhe emdlalweni welulwane nebhola bekuze igama lakhe livele ku- U-Wisman Cricketers 'Almanack.

Ngaphezu kwalokhu okungenhla, umbhali naye ubengeyena umfokazi kwezobuciko namasiko jikelele. Ngokuphathelene nalokhu, emisebenzini kaJames Knowlson - omunye wababhali bokuphila owaziwa kakhulu wombhali - i-polymathy kaSamuel ivezwe ngokuqinile. Futhi ukuthi ukwehlukaniswa kwemikhakha eyahlukahlukene kukaBekkett kwakudume kabi, ikakhulukazi ngendlela enhle kakhulu aziphatha ngayo emsebenzini ngamunye awusebenzisayo.

Beckett, inkundla yemidlalo yaseshashalazini nokuxhumana kwayo okusondelene noJames Joyce

E-Trinity College, eDublin, kwenzeka okuthile okwathatha isinqumo empilweni ka-Beckett: ukuhlangana kwakhe nemisebenzi yaseshashalazini ka ULuigi Pirandello. Lo mbhali Kwakuyinto ebalulekile ekukhuleni kukaSamuel kamuva njengombhali wemidlalo.

Kamuva, U-Beckett waxhumana okokuqala noJames Joyce. Kwenzeka ngesikhathi somunye wemibuthano eminingi yama-bohemian edolobheni, sibonga ukuncenga kukaThomas MacGreevy —Umngani kaSamuel - obethule. I-chemistry eyayiphakathi kwabo yayishesha, futhi lokho kwakungokwejwayelekile, ngoba bobabili babengabathandi bomsebenzi kaDante nezazi ze-philologists ezinothando.

Ukuhlangana noJoyce kwakuyisihluthulelo somsebenzi nempilo kaBekkett. Umbhali waba umsizi wombhali owine izindondo, waba ngumuntu osondelene nomndeni wakhe. Ngenxa yesixhumanisi, uSamuel waze waba nohlobo oluthile lobudlelwano noLucia Joyce - indodakazi kaJame.yebo - kepha akuphelanga kahle - empeleni, wagcina ephethwe yischizophrenia.

Ngaso leso sikhathi, ngenxa yalokho "ukungabi naluthando", kwaba nokuhlukana phakathi kwabo bobabili ababhali; kodwa-ke, ngemuva konyaka benze amaphasi. Kulobu bungani, ukwazisa nokuthopha okwenziwa uJoyce kwakwenza kabi. maqondana nokusebenza kwengqondo kukaBeckett.

Becket nokubhala

UDante… Bruno. UVico… Joyce kwakuwumbhalo wokuqala owashicilelwa ngokusemthethweni nguBeckett. Kwavela ngo-1929 futhi kwakuyindatshana ebucayi yombhali eyayizoba yingxenye yemigqa yencwadi Ukucabanga Kwethu Kuzungeze Ukufakwa Kwakhe Kokufakwa Komsebenzi Ekuqhubekeni -Umbhalo mayelana nokufundwa komsebenzi kaJames Joyce. Abanye ababhali abavelele nabo babhala leso sihloko, kubandakanya uThomas MacGreevy noWilliam Carlos Williams.

Maphakathi nonyaka, kwavela Indaba emfushane yokuqala kaBeckett: Ukuqagela. Umagazini ukuguquka kwakuyipulatifomu eyayisingatha umbhalo. Lesi sikhala semibhalo se-avant-garde sithathe isinqumo ekuthuthukiseni nasekuhlanganiseni umsebenzi we-Irishman.

Ngo-1930 washicilela inkondlo I-Whoroscope, lo mbhalo omncane wamzuzela udumo lwendawo. Ngonyaka olandelayo wabuyela eTrinity College, kodwa manje esenguprofesa. Isipiliyoni sokufundisa besisesikhashana, njengoba adela unyaka futhi wazinikela ekuhambeleni iYurophu. Ngenxa yalelo khefu, wabhala le nkondlo I-Gnome, eyashicilelwa ngokusemthethweni eminyakeni emithathu kamuva ku Umagazini waseDublin. Ngonyaka olandelayo kwashicilelwa inoveli yokuqala, Ngiphupha ngabesifazane ukuthi hhayi fu noma fa (1932).

Ukushona kukababa wakhe

Ngo-1933 kwenzeka okuthile okwazamazamisa ubukhona bukaBeckett: ukufa kukayise. Umbhali wayengazi ukuthi angasisingatha kanjani kahle lesi sigameko futhi kwakudingeka abonane nodokotela wezengqondo - uDkt Wilfred Bion.. Eminye imibhalo ebhalwe ngumbhali nayo iyaziwa kusukela ngaleso sikhathi. Phakathi kwalokhu, kukhona okukodwa okuvelele: Ukuthula Kwabantu (1934), emigqeni yakhe wenza ukuhlaziywa okubucayi kweqoqo lezinkondlo zikaThomas MacGreevy.

Icala lika- "Sinclair v. Gogarty" kanye nokuzidinga kukaBekkett

Lo mcimbi wawusho ushintsho olukhulu empilweni yombhali, njengoba wamholela ezinhlotsheni zokuzidingisa. Kwakuyimpikiswano phakathi kukaHenry Sinclair - umalume kaSamuel - no-Oliver St. John Gogarty. Owokuqala wahlambalaza owesibili, emmangalela ngokubolekisa ngemali, kanti uBeckett wayengufakazi ecaleni - iphutha elikhulu.

Ummeli kaGogarty usebenzise isu eliqine kakhulu ngokumelene nalo mbhali ukumhlambalaza nokubhubhisa izinsolo zakhe. Phakathi kwezinto ezimbi ezavezwa obala, ukungakholelwa ku-Beckett kobukhona bukaNkulunkulu nokuziphatha kwakhe okubi ngokobulili kugqamile. Lesi senzo sibe nomthelela omkhulu empilweni yomlobi yezenhlalo neyangasese, yingakho ethathe isinqumo sokuya eParis., cishe ngokuqinisekile.

EParis: ukuthandana kwasendle, ukuxhumana nokufa nokuhlangana nothando

I-Eiffel tower

I-Eiffel tower

Okuthile okuphawule uBeckett ngenkathi engena eminyakeni engamashumi amathathu, ngaphezu kokukhishwa kwakhe okukhulu kwezincwadi, kwakuwukuziphatha kwakhe okubi. Kuyena, iParis yayiyindawo efanelekile yokuveza intelezi yakhe nabesifazane. Enye yezindatshana ezaziwa kakhulu maqondana nalokhu yavela phakathi kokuphela kuka-1937 nasekuqaleni kuka-1938, maphakathi nemikhosi ngaphambi nangemva kokuphela konyaka.

Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kwaziwa ukuthi u-Beckett ubenezindaba zothando ngasikhathi sinye nabesifazane abathathu. Kulaba, omunye ikakhulukazi ugqama, ngoba, ngaphezu kokuba yisithandwa, wayengumphathi wombhali: uPeggy Guggenheim.

Esinye isigameko esibuhlungu esenzeke ngenkathi ngisafika eParis wayeyisisulu sokugwazwa (1938). Isilonda sasijulile futhi sithinte kancane inhliziyo kaBekett, owasindiswa ngokuyisimangaliso. Umhlaseli kwakuyindoda egama linguPrudent, isishoshovu sendawo okwathi kamuva enkantolo - futhi sabhekana nombhali - sathi asazi ukuthi kwenzekeni kuye ngaleso sikhathi, nokuthi siyaxolisa kakhulu.

U-Beckett wasindiswa ngenxa yesenzo esisheshayo sikaJames Joyce. Umbhali owine indondo wathutha amathonya akhe futhi ngokushesha wafunela umngani wakhe igumbi esibhedlela esizimele. Lapho, uSamuel walulama kancane kancane.

USuzanne Dechevaux-Dumesnil —Umculi owaziwayo nomsubathi— wayazi ukuthi kwenzekeniNokho, ngesikhathi esifushane, lesi sigameko saziwa cishe kuyo yonke iParis. Yena wenza ukulinganisa ku-Beckett lokho kuzocaca-ke abaphindanga bahlukana.

Eminyakeni emibili kamuva, ngo-1940, uBeckett wahlangana okokugcina -ngazi- con indoda esindise impilo yayo, umngani wayo othandekayo nomeluleki wayo James Joyce. Umbhali wase-Ireland owine umklomelo wadlula emhlabeni kungekudala, ekuqaleni kuka-1941.

Beckett neMpi Yezwe II

U-Beckett wayengayazi kahle le mpi yempi. Ngokushesha nje lapho amaJalimane engena eFrance ngo-1940, umbhali wajoyina i-Resistance. Indima yakhe ibiyisisekelo: ukuphatha umphathi; Kodwa-ke, yize wawungumsebenzi olula, wawusayingozi. Eqinisweni, ngenkathi enza lo msebenzi, uSamuel wavuma ukuthi wayesengozini yokubanjwa amaGestapo kaningi.

Ngemuva kokuthi iyunithi ebinamathiselwe kuyo iveziwe, umbhali kumele aphunyuke ngokushesha noSuzanne. Baya eningizimu, ikakhulukazi e-villa de Roussillon. Kwakuyihlobo lika-1942.

Eminyakeni emibili eyalandela, bobabili - uBeckett noDechevaux - bazenza izakhamuzi zomphakathi. Noma kunjalo, ngendlela eyebe kakhulu bazinikele ekufihleni izikhali ukugcina ukusebenzisana kwabo neResistance.; Ngaphezu kwalokho, uSamuel wasiza abashokobezi kweminye imisebenzi.

Isenzo sakhe sesibindi asidlulanga ize emehlweni kahulumeni waseFrance, ngakho-ke uBeckett Kamuva wanikezwa iCroix de Guerre 1939-1945 kanye neMédaille de la Résistance. Ngaphandle kokuthi kubangane bakhe abangama-80 kuphela abangama-30 abasala bephila, futhi besengozini yokufa kaningi, U-Beckett akazange azibheke njengofanelwe udumo olunje.. Naye ngokwakhe uchaze izenzo zakhe "njengezinto ze iscout boy".

USamuel Beckett ucaphuna

USamuel Beckett ucaphuna

Kwakukulesi sikhathi - phakathi kuka-1941-1945 - lapho uBeckett abhala khona Watt, inoveli eyashicilelwa eminyakeni eyi-8 kamuva (1953). Kamuva ubuyele kafushane eDublin, lapho — phakathi komsebenzi wakhe neRed Cross nokuhlangana kabusha nomndeni- wabhala enye yemisebenzi yakhe edumile, idrama yaseshashalazini I-Tape Yokugcina kaKrapp. Ochwepheshe abaningi bathi ngumbhalo oqondene nokuphila komuntu.

Ama-40s kanye nama-50s kanye nokuqina kwezincwadi kukaBeckett

Uma kukhona okuthile okuveze umsebenzi wokubhala wama-Irish ngawo-XNUMX nango-XNUMX ngokulandelana, lokho kwaba ukukhiqiza kwabo. Washicilela imibhalo eminingi ezinhlotsheni ezahlukene - izindaba, amanoveli, ama-eseyi, imidlalo. Kusukela ngalesi sikhathi, ukubala izingcezu ezimbalwa, ivelele indaba yakhe ethi "Suite", inoveli UMercier et Camier, nokudlala Ilinde uGodot.

Ukushicilelwa kwe- Ilinde uGodot

Le ngxenye ifika emashumini amabili eminyaka ngemuva kokuba "ukuvuswa kwayo kokubhala" kuqale kumagazini inguquko. Ilinde uGodot (1952) - Esinye sezinkomba eziyisisekelo zeshashalazi elingenangqondo futhi esikhombe ngaphambi nangemva kokusebenza kwakhe—, yabhalwa ngaphansi kwethonya eliphawuleka lempi, ukulahleka okunzima kukayise nokunye ukungavumelani empilweni uqobo.

Thengisa Ilinde uGodot: ...
Ilinde uGodot: ...
Azikho izibuyekezo

U-Beckett: umuntu onamaphutha

Ngokusobala, bonke ubuhlakani buphawulwa ngokweqisa nokuziphatha okudlula izinkambiso ezisunguliwe. UBeckett akazange akuphunyule lokhu. Ukuphuza kwakhe nokuziphatha kabi ngokobulili kwakwaziwa. Eqinisweni uobunye bobudlelwano bakhe bezothando obaziwa kakhulu fue la que igcinwe noBarbara Bray. Ngaleso sikhathi wayesebenzela i-BBC eLondon. Wayengowesifazane omuhle wezincwadi ezinikezelwe ekuhleleni nasekuhumusheni.

Kungashiwo, ngenxa yesimo sengqondo sabo bobabili, ukuthi ukukhanga kwabo kwakukhona ngokushesha futhi kunganqandeki. Mayelana nalobu budlelwano, UJames Knowlson wabhala: “Kubukeka sengathi uBeckett wamheha ngokushesha, kuye njengaye. Umhlangano wabo ububaluleke kakhulu kubo bobabili, kwazise bekuyisiqalo sobudlelwano obufana nobikaSuzanne, obuzohlala impilo yonke ”.

Futhi ngempela, ngaphandle kokuba khona kukaSuzanne, uBeckett noBray bahlala begcina isibopho. Kodwa-ke, ukubaluleka kukaSuzanne empilweni kaBekkett kwakungeyona into emangalisayo — umbhali ofanayo wakumemezela kaningi kwesinye isikhathi—; Ngisho nangemva nje kwalokho, ngo-1961, lo mbhangqwana washada. Inyunyana yabo yacishe yagcina ukuphela eminyakeni engamashumi amathathu kamuva.

"Konke ngikukweleta uSuzanne," kungatholakala kumlando wakhe wezinto eziphilayo; Le nkulumo enamandla yashiwo lapho ukufa kwakhe kwase kusondele.

USamuel Beckett noSuzanne Dechevaux

USamuel Beckett noSuzanne Dechevaux

INobel, ukuhamba, ukuqashelwa nokuhamba

Isikhathi esisele sempilo kaBeckett ngemuva komshado wakhe sichithwe phakathi kokuhamba nokwaziwa. Phakathi kwawo wonke umsebenzi wakhe omkhulu, njengoba kushiwo,Ufuna uGodot kwaba nguye imele inqwaba yawo wonke ama-accolades akhe, kufaka phakathi indondo yeNobel Yezincwadi ngo-1969. Okuthile okungamangalisi kangako ebuntwini bombhali kwakuwukusabela kwakhe ngemuva kokuzwa ukuthi uzuze umklomelo omkhulu kangako: wazihlukanisa nezwe futhi akabazisanga lutho ngaye. Ake sithi u-Beckett wayengahambisani nalezo zinhlobo zemihlangano.

Ngemuva kweminyaka engama-28 beshadile, kwagcwaliseka isisekelo ababevumelene ngaso ukuhlanganyela emshadweni: "Kuze kube yilapho nihlukana nokufa." Suzanne waba ngowokuqala ukufa. Ukufa kwenzeke ushone ngoMsombuluko, Julayi 17, 1989. Beckett, kusenjalo, wahamba ekupheleni kuka-dngawo lowo nyaka, ULwesihlanu, Disemba 22. Umbhali wayeneminyaka engama-83.

Izinsalela zombhangqwana zihlala emathuneni aseMontparnasse eParis.

Ukuphawula ngomsebenzi kaBecket

  • “UBeckett ubhidlize imihlangano eminingi lapho izinganekwane zesimanje nezeshashalazi zisekelwe khona; wanikezelwa, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ukuhlambalaza igama njengezindlela zokuveza ubuciko futhi wenza izinkondlo zezithombe, kokubili okubabazekayo nokulandisayo ”u-Antonia Rodríguez-Gago.
  • “Yonke imisebenzi kaBeckett iveza ukuhlupheka kwesimo somuntu emhlabeni ongenaye uNkulunkulu, ongenawo umthetho futhi ongenanjongo. Ubuqiniso bombono wakho, ubukhazikhazi obushubile bolimi lwabo (ngesiFulentshi nangesiNgisi) kube nomthelela kubabhali abasebasha emhlabeni jikelele" I-Encyclopedia of World Literature ngekhulu lama-20.
  • “UBeckett wenqabe umgomo kaJoycean wokuthi ukwazi okwengeziwe kwakuyindlela yokuqonda nokulawula umhlaba ngobuciko. Kusukela lapho kuqhubeke Umsebenzi wakhe uqhubekele phambili endleleni ye-elemental, yokwehluleka, nokudingiswa; yomuntu ongazi nowahlukanisiwe ”, uJames Knowlson.
  • Mayelana Ilinde uGodot: “Wayenze into engenakwenzeka ethiyori: idrama lapho kungenzeki lutho, nokho egcina umbukeli ethe njo esihlalweni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, njengoba isenzo sesibili cishe silingisa esokuqala, U-Beckett ubhale umdlalo lapho, kabili, kungenzeki lutho ”, UVivian Mercier.

Isebenza nguSamuel Beckett

Indawo yaseshashalazini

  • I-Eleutheria (kubhalwe ngo-1947; kushicilelwe ngo-1995)
  • Ilinde uGodot (1952)
  • Yenza ngaphandle kwamagama (1956)
  • Ukuphela komdlalo (1957)
  • Iteyipu yokugcina (1958)
  • Kunzima kwethiyetha I (sekwephuzile ngama-50s)
  • Ilungele Ithiyetha II (sekwephuzile ngama-50s)
  • Izinsuku ezimnandi (1960)
  • Play (1963)
  • Woza uhambe (1965)
  • Breath (ikhishwe ngo-1969)
  • Hhayi mina (1972)
  • Ngaleso sikhathi (1975)
  • Izinyawo (1975)
  • Ingcezu ye-Monologue (1980)
  • I-Rockaby (1981)
  • I-Ohio Impromptu (1981)
  • nenhlekelele (1982)
  • Yini lapho (1983)

Novelas

  • Iphupho Lokulunga Kwabesifazane Abaphakathi (1932; eyanyatheliswa ngo-1992)
  • Murphy (1938)
  • Watt (1945)
  • UMercier noCamier (1946)
  • Molloy (1951)
  • UMalone uyafa (1951)
  • Abangenagama (1953)
  • Injani (1961)

Inoveli emfushane

  • Abaxoshiwe (1946)
  • Ukuthula (1946)
  • Isiphetho (1946)
  • Abalahlekile (1971)
  • Inkampani (1979)
  • Ukugula Ukubona Ukugula Kusho (1981)
  • Okubi kakhulu UHo (1984)

Izinganekwane

  • Izinduku Eziningi Kunokukhahlela (1934)
  • Izindaba Nemibhalo Yize (1954)
  • Uthando lokuqala (1973)
  • Ama-fizzles (1976)
  • Ukunyakaza Kusekhona (1988)

Izinkondlo

  • I-Whoroscope (1930)
  • Amathambo kaEcho namanye ama Precipitates (1935)
  • Izinkondlo Eziqoqiwe NgesiNgisi (1961)
  • Izinkondlo eziqoqiwe ngesiNgisi nangesiFulentshi (1977)
  • Lithini igama (1989)

Izindatshana, i-colloquia

  • Ukuziqhenya (1931)
  • Izingxoxo ezintathu (1958)
  • Qeda (1983)

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.