Bala uLucanor

Bala uLucanor.

Bala uLucanor.

Bala uLucanor ngomunye wemisebenzi ebaluleke kakhulu yokulandisa yemibhalo yangenkathi ephakathi, eyenziwe nguDon Juan Manuel phakathi kuka-1331 no-1335. Umbhalo ophelele uqukethe izingxenye ezinhlanu, yize okugujwa kakhulu nokusatshalaliswa kungokugcina (okuqukethe izibonelo ezingama-51). Okuqukethwe kwalokhu kukhombisa ngokwethembeka inhloso ebaluleke kakhulu yokubhala ngalesi sikhathi: ingqikithi yokuziphatha.

Ngokufanayo, Bala uLucanor Ingesinye sezingcezu zokuqala ezinkulu ngeSpanishi — esinerekhodi elithembekile elibhaliwe— okwenkathi ephawule "ukuqala kokuphela" kwesiLatini njengolimi olusetshenziswa kabanzi. Ngokwesazi-mlando, lo mbhali uyiqedile le ndaba kwenye yezinqaba eziningi ezingaphansi kwakhe: iCastillo de Molina Seca (Murcia).

Umbhali we Bala uLucanor

Usana uDon Juan Manuel wayengomunye wabalingiswa abanamandla kakhulu eMbusweni waseCastile phakathi nengxenye yokuqala yekhulu le-XNUMX.. Eqinisweni, waletha inqwaba yeziqu ezihloniphekile empilweni yakhe yonke. Ngenxa yalokho, kwakuwumsebenzi "omuhle" ngokweqiniso (unikezwe isikhundla sombhali) ngesikhathi saso.

Kwakungeke kube ngenye indlela ngenxa yokhokho babo, kahle INkosi u-Alfonso X, "indoda ehlakaniphile", kwakungumalume wayo. Kanye noFernando III, "ongcwele", umkhulu wakhe, (bobabili abavela emndenini kayise). Umbhali waba yintandane eneminyaka eyisishiyagalombili, ngenxa yalesi sizathu iNkosi uSancho IV waseCastile waba ngumondli wakhe osemthethweni.

Uhlu lwezihloko ezinhle

Ngaphandle kokuba usana, uDon Juan Manuel waqamba ukuhlukaniswa kwamakhosi okungenakubalwa. Abanye babo bazuze njengefa ngenxa yohlu lozalo lwakhe, abanye banikwa yena njengokubonga ngomsebenzi owenziwe noma njengengxenye yezingxoxo zepolitiki. Uhlu lwezihloko luphethwe nguPríncipe noDuque de Villena (umuntu wokuqala ukuluthola) noSeñor de Escalona, Peñafiel no-Elche, phakathi kwamanye amadolobha.

Esikhathini sokuqala sempilo yakhe, waba omunye wamadoda anamandla kakhulu kuyo yonke i-Peninsula yase-Iberia. Waba nebutho lamaqhawe angafika enkulungwaneni! Abasabela kuphela emiyalweni yakhe. Waze wafaka nemali yakhe ekusakazweni iminyaka embalwa (inkambiso ebekelwe amakhosi; wayehlukile).

Indoda eyingozi

Isibalo sikaDon Juan Manuel baba nethonya elikhulu kangangokuba amakhosi uFernando IV no-Alfonso XI bacabanga iyalele ukubulawa kwakhe (ngalinye ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene). Kodwa-ke, bayeka izinhlelo zabo ngokubona kusengaphambili ukungazinzi okungahle kwenzeke ngemuva kokushona kwalo mlingiswa.

Isikhulu esingafaneleki?

Njengelungu lezikhulu eziphezulu, abaningi babenaka iqiniso lokuzinikela kwakhe ekubhaleni. Ngoba leli hhovisi belifanelekelwa njengelingalifanele isicukuthwane, kunalokho kugcinelwe abantu abavela kumucu ophansi. Kunoma ikuphi, uDon Juan Manuel wayishaya indiva leyo mibono edelelayo.

Ngisho nosana lwabona ukuthi isenzo sokubhala simlethela injabulo nenjabulo. Izinga lokuthi - lapho esethathe umhlalaphansi kwezepolitiki nasemidlalweni yamandla - iminyaka yakhe yokugcina yanikezelwa kuphela ekuthuthukiseni ubuciko bakhe. Uma kukhulunywa iqiniso, lezi zingoma zaziwumthombo wangempela wokuziqhenya ngaye.

Umbhali wesitayela sesiGreki

UDon Juan Manuel.

UDon Juan Manuel.

Konke okungenhla bekuyinto eyedlulele ngokweqile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, "ukwazi kombhali" kwakungekho ku inkathi ephakathi. Emuva lapho, labo ababhalayo babekhawulelwe ekubeni ngababhali bokubhala kuphela ababenamalayisense kuphela okuba "bahlobise" izindaba ezithathwe esikweni lomlomo.

Nokho, UDon Juan Manuel wenza isiqiniseko sokugcina imibhalo yakhe ingekho ezandleni zalaba “babhali bemibhalo”. Imisebenzi yakhe eminingi (phakathi kwayo, Bala uLucanor) yahlala ifihliwe amakhulu eminyaka esigodlweni seSan Pablo de Peñafiel.

Bala uLucanor, umsebenzi onesitayela sawo

Ungathenga incwadi lapha: Bala uLucanor

UDon Juan Manuel wayaziwa nangokuthi "iqhawe elihloniphekile", ngoba ezikhathini eziningana wahola ibutho lakhe enkundleni yempi, enqoba njalo. Ngokulandelana, okuhlangenwe nakho kwezempi kumsizile ukuthi aqinise isitayela semibhalo esihlukile.

Ngaphandle kwesimo esiphoqelekile sohlamvu lokuziphatha njenge-eksisi yayo yonke imisebenzi yakhe, inhloso eyinhloko ye- Bala uLucanor bekuthi ukwehluka kancane. Empeleni, inhloso yayo kwakuwukukhuluma ngomugqa ophakeme kakhulu womphakathi ... kubantu abahloniphekile nabakhanyiselwe.

Kusuka kokungabonakali kuya kukhonkolo

Lokhu kusesha okuthile kwamvumela ukuthi athuthukise indaba ekwazi ukuhambisa ngezinto ezingabonakali ukugxila kumaqiniso aphathekayo. Ngokulinganayo, inhloso yakhe enkulu kwakuwukudlulisa imiqondo emikhulu kunayo yonke, esebenzisa inani elincane lamagama. Ngalesi sizathu, ezinye izazi-mlando zimchaza njengo "mqondo" ngaphambi kwesikhathi sakhe.

Bala uLucanor, isibonelo esicacile se-Wisdom Literature

Impela, iphuzu "elixhashazwe" ngokugcwele nangolwazi lomlobi lwamaqiniso, umqondo we-Wisdom Literature. Empeleni, Kuluhlu lwezincwadi ezimfushane ezinemisho enamandla, njalo ezinesimo sokuziphatha. Ngokwengeziwe, umsuka wezimpikiswano zabo ubuyela emuva kubahlakaniphileyo baseGrisi yasendulo.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Ababalisi bezindaba abahamba phambili emlandweni

Bala uLucanor Ikhomba kule ndlela efanayo, yize uhlobo lwezindaba lunemvelaphi eguquguqukayo. Ngalo mqondo, UDon Juan Manuel uthathe okuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe kwezombusazwe nasezinkundleni zempi. Ngokufanayo, ibisuselwa ezingxoxweni zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene. Ukusuka kwakhe namanye amalungu ezikhulu futhi ahlangana namakhosi, kuya kuma-anecdotes ezinceku zakhe.

Macho umoya

Umoya owandile wale nkathi ubonakala ngokusobala kokuziphatha ngakunye kwezibonelo ezincane. Le yimisho efana nokuthi "ezintweni ezithile ongazethemba zona, ngaphezu kwemicabango okufanele uyisuse". "Uzoyithanda ingcebo yeqiniso ngaphezu kwakho konke, uzodelela, ekugcineni, ubuhle obonakalayo." "Lowo isitha sakho ebekade singelutho futhi akufanele neze ukholwe."

Lapho ubuyekeza "ngamehlo Izinkulungwane zeminyaka"Umsebenzi wonke, isichasiso" macho "sigxuma siphume. Enye yalezi zinganekwane ifingqiwe ngesiqubulo esilandelayo: "Kusukela ekuqaleni, indoda kufanele ifundise umkayo indlela yokuziphatha." Kunoma ikuphi (ukulungela umbhali) kuyadingeka ukuhlaziya ukucabanga kombhali ngokomongo wayo, kunjalo, ngaphandle kokufihla amaqiniso athile.

Umlingiswa "we-movie"

Ukucaphuna kukaDon Juan Manuel.

Ukucaphuna kukaDon Juan Manuel.

Inkathi Ephakathi ingesinye sezikhathi ezinempikiswano enkulu emlandweni wesintu. Ikakhulukazi, imidlalo yezepolitiki eyayenzeka ezindaweni manje ezaziphethwe iSpain nePortugal kwakuyizakhiwo zeqiniso zaseMachiavellian. Ngokwalesi sizathu, UDon Juan Manuel ungumlingiswa ofanele inganekwane ekuphakameni kwefa lakhe.

Kungaba namiphi imiphumela uma “umkhokheli ohloniphekile” ezivalela enqabeni futhi azidingise emhlabeni ukuze azinikele ekubhalweni? Kunjalo, Umsebenzi wakhe ubongwa kakhulu namuhla, isihloko sokuhlaziywa okungabaleki nezifundo. Abantu besikhathi sakhe (Amakhosi, Ababaliwe kanye neNkosi) bazokuthola kanjani Bala uLucanor?… Izimfundiso zakhe zazibhekiswe kubo kuphela.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.