Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle ngu-Isabel Allende

Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle.

Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle.

Ishicilelwe ngo-2009, Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle inoveli ngu Umbhali waseChile-waseMelika u-Isabel Allende. Ilandisa ngomzabalazo wenkululeko yesigqila uZarité - esaziwa ngokuthi iTeté - eHaiti ngekhulu le-1810. Le ncwadi ihlanganisa iminyaka engamashumi amane kusukela enesihluku futhi egcwele ukwesaba ebuntwaneni kuya ku-XNUMX, isikhathi sokulungiswa kokugcina eNew Orleans.

Kwakhiwa incwadi yefa yensimbi ngokuxhaswa ezinye izigqila zesigqi sezigubhu zase-Afrika ne-voodoo. Ngaleyo ndlela kuvela owesifazane ozimisele ngokuyeka imithwalo yesikhathi esedlule bese ethola uthando yize ehlupheka. Ngokusho kukaK. Samaikya (2015) wase-Acharya Nagarjuna University (India), "Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle kungenye yezindaba ezimangalisa kakhulu zekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa. Futhi kungukulandisa okuphathelene nokuhlubuka kwezigqila okuyimpumelelo emhlabeni wonke ”.

Mayelana no-Isabel Allende

Ukuzalwa nomndeni

U-Isabel Allende Llona wazalelwa eLima, ePeru, ngo-Agasti 2, 1942. Ungowokuqala ezinganeni zakwabo ezintathu. ngomshado phakathi kukaTomás Allende (umzala wokuqala kaSalvador Allende, umongameli waseChile kusuka ngo-1970 kuya ku-1973) noFrancisca Llona. Ubaba wakhe wayesebenza njengonobhala wenxusa laseChile eLima ngesikhathi sokuzalwa kwakhe. Ngemuva kokudivosa kwabashadikazi ngo-1945, uLlona wabuyela eChile nezingane zakhe ezintathu.

Izifundo

Unina wayezophinda ashade noRamón Huidobro Rodríguez ngo-1953, ongusomaqhinga owayebelwe eBolivia kusukela ngalowo nyaka. Lapho, u-Isabel osemusha wafunda esikoleni saseMelika eLa Paz. Kamuva, waqeda izifundo zakhe esikhungweni esizimele saseBrithani eLebanon. Lapho ebuyela eChile ngo-1959 washada noMiguel Frías, ayenezingane ezimbili phakathi neminyaka engama-25 benyunyana, uPaula (1963-1992) noNicolás (1967).

Izincwadi zokuqala

Phakathi kuka-1959-1965, u-Isabel Allende wayeyingxenye yeNhlangano Yezokudla Nezolimo yeNhlangano Yezizwe (i-FAO). Kusukela ngo-1967 wabhala izindatshana zalo magazini Paula. En 1974 wenza ushicilelo lwakhe lokuqala kumagazini wezingane Mampato, Ugogo Panchita. Ngawo lowo nyaka waphinde wethula AmaLauchas nama-lauchones, amagundane namagundane (Izindaba zezingane).

Ukudingiselwa eVenezuela

Ngo-1975, u-Isabel Allende waphoqeleka ekudingisweni nomndeni wakhe eVenezuela ngenxa yokuqina kobushiqela basePinochet. ECaracas ubesebenzela iphephandaba El Nacional nasesikoleni esiphakeme, kuze kushicilelwe inoveli yakhe yokuqala Indlu Yemimoya (1982). Kwakuyisiqalo senganekwane yokuhlela eyamthatha njengombhali ophilayo ofundwa kakhulu phakathi kwezikhulumi zaseSpain kuze kube manje.

Umbhali othengisa kakhulu hhayi ngaphandle kokugxekwa okungathandeki

Kuze kube manje, U-Isabel Allende uthengise izincwadi ezingaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-71, ihunyushelwa ezilimini ezingama-42. Ngaphandle kwempumelelo yayo enkulu yezentengiso - ikakhulukazi e-United States -, Sekube nabaphikisi abaningi besitayela sakhe semibhalo. Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle akubanga njalo. Mayelana, Abashicileli Weekly (2009) uyayigxeka le noveli, ngoba “… iveza umbhali ofunde inqwaba yamaqiniso ngaphandle kokufunda iqiniso elilodwa”.

Ngokufanayo, UJanis Isabel (Incwadi Esiphethe, 2020) ichitha ithi "ayiphekiwe kahle" futhi "ibhale ngaphezulu" izigcawu eziningi zocansi ze Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle. Iphinde ithi u-Allende "ulahla ukulinganiswa nozwela olubalulekile odabeni olunjalo" (ubugqila). Noma kunjalo, Booklist kubikezelwe ekwethulweni kwayo: "Isidingo sale noveli emangalisayo nesicwilisa ngesibindi sabesilisa nabesifazane ababeka konke engcupheni yenkululeko sizobe siphezulu."

Ukufingqwa kwesiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle

Isiqalo sendaba siseSaint - Domingue Island (Hispaniola) ngawo-1770s. Lapho, kukhonjiswa iZarite encane futhi ezacile kakhulu (eyaziwa ngeTete). Uyindodakazi yesigqila sase-Afrika angakaze ahlangane naso futhi omunye wamatilosi amhlophe aletha umama wakhe ezweni elisha. Ngobuntwana obunzima obugcwele ukwesaba, uthola ukukhululeka phakathi kwemisindo yezigubhu ne-voodoo loa okwenziwa ezinye izigqila.

UTete uthengwa nguViolette - isikhulu se-mulatto courtesan - egameni likaToulouse Valmorain, indlalifa engamashumi amabili nokuthile yaseFrance endaweni etshalwa ushukela. Umnikazi womhlaba uncike encekwini, yize inhloso yakhe yasekuqaleni kwakungukumthengela intombi yakhe, u-Eugenia García del Solar. Ngemuva komshado, impilo ka-Eugenia iqala ukuwohloka futhi uhlushwa yizisu eziningana ezilandelanayo ezimfaka onqenqemeni lokusangana.

Unya nethemba

Eminyakeni embalwa ngaphambi kokushona, u-Eugenia wakwazi ukubeletha ingane ephilayo, uMaurice, enikezwe uZarite ngokukhuliswa kwakhe. Kuleli qophelo, uTete owayekade enodlame useshintshe waba yintsha enezinto ezinamandla, efunwa uValmorain ngenkanuko. Inkosi ehlukumezayo igcina ngokudlwengula isigqila sayo kungakhathalekile ubudlelwano obunothando bomama nendodana wakhula nezibulo lakhe. UTete ukhulelwa ingane ezothathwa kuye ngesikhathi ezalwa.

Isabel Allende.

Isabel Allende.

UValmorain unikela ingane kuViolette, oseshade ngalesi sikhathi noCaptain Étienne Relais. UTete uthola induduzo nothando encekwini esanda kufika kule nsimu, eGambo. Kepha ukudlwengulwa kweToulouse kuyaqhubeka, ngakho-ke lapho uGambo eqa ukujoyina izigqila ezihlubukayo, akakwazi ukumlandela ngoba ukhulelwe futhi. Yize, kulokhu bamvumela ukuthi ahlale nentombazane, ebizwa ngoRosette.

Ukuguqulwa kwezigqila nempi yombango

URosette uthola imfundo yenceku futhi ahlukane noMaurice, yize uValmorain engakuvumeli lokho. Ngemuva kokuqubuka kokuhlubuka kwezigqila okuholwa nguToussaint Louverture, uGambo uxwayisa uZarite wakhe amthandayo ukuthi insimu yaseValmorain izoshiswa. Kepha uyenqaba ukulahla uMaurice, kunalokho uxwayisa umnikazi womhlaba waseFrance ngenhloso yokuthola inkululeko yakhe neyendodakazi yakhe.

Umndeni waseValmorain uthuthela ngokuphelele eLe Cap, kufaka phakathi uZarite noRosette. Uma esefakiwe, uTete uqala ukuthola imiyalo esemthethweni evela kuZacharie, umphathi wezinduna wesihlalo sikahulumeni. Kamuva, amaValmorain aphoqeleka ukuba abuyele ekudingisweni ngemuva kokugqashuka kwempi okuzophela ngokwakhiwa kweBlack Republic yaseHaiti.

New Orleans

ELouisiana, iValmorain isungula isimu entsha futhi ishada noHortense Guizot, owesifazane odlondlobele nohahayo. Umqashi omusha akathathi isikhathi eside ukungqubuzana noMaurice, uZarite noRosette, ngakho-ke, akanqikazi ukuphatha kabi izisebenzi zakhe ezimnyama. Inkinga enkulu ukuthi uTete nendodakazi yakhe basathathwa njengezigqila.

UValmorain namanje akaligcini izwi lakhe yize esayine inkululeko yezinceku zakhe ezimnyama. UMaurice uyasiphikisa lesi simo esehlisa isithunzi futhi uthunyelwa ukuyofunda esikoleni okuhlalwa kuso eBoston, lapho ejoyina khona imbangela yokuqeda nya. Ngemuva kweminyaka embalwa, uZarite ukwazile ukusebenzisa ngempumelelo inkululeko ebilindelwe yena nendodakazi yakhe ngosizo lompristi.

Ukuhlangana okujabulisayo kukaZarite

UTete uphinde wahlangana eNew Orleans noViolette noJean Relais, lona empeleni uyindodana yakhe yokuqala eyayihlukaniswe noValmorain. Ngokunjalo, waqala ukusebenza njengowesifazane okhululekile esitolo sikaViolette (owayeshade ngaleso sikhathi noSancho García del Solar). Injabulo kaZarite yanda kakhulu lapho itholakala noZacharie. Bobabili bathandana futhi ngenxa yalolo thando bangenisa intombazane.

Ukubuya kukaMaurice

Ngokushesha lapho uMaurice ebuyela eNew Orleans, ukhuluma nobaba wakhe (ogula) ngenhloso yakhe yokushada noRosette. UValmorain uthukuthele wagana unwabu futhi uphikisana ngeze nomshado phakathi kwezingane zakubo, njengoba uZarite noZacharie benza uzungu lokwenza umshado ube nokwenzeka. Ngokushesha uRosette wakhulelwa, kodwa, waboshwa "ngokushaya owesifazane omhlophe" (Hortense Guizot) esidlangalaleni.

Impilo kaRosette iyawohloka ngokushesha ejele. Ekugcineni ukhishwe ngenxa yokulamula kweValmorain ukufa futhi ezimisele ukubuyisana nendodana yakhe. Ekugcineni, uRosette ushona ebeletha ingane egama linguJustin. UMaurice, enenhliziyo ebuhlungu, unquma ukuzungeza umhlaba. Ngaphambi kokuhamba, uphathisa ukukhulisa indodana yakhe kuZarite noZacharie, ababheke ikusasa ngethemba nomndeni omusha.

Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle

Ukubuyekezwa kwe- Ukubuyekezwa kweNcwadi yeNew York Times ufaka uphawu lwenoveli olujabulisa kakhulu, "Ibekwe ngaphansi kohlaka lwe-republic yokuqala emnyama emhlabeni." Lokhu kubuyekezwa kuphinde kukhulume "ngeqiniso lemilingo elicwengiweyo", elinemininingwane eyeqisayo, eliluthayo kumfundi. Ngale njongo, u-Isabel Allende wasebenzisa umbalisi owazi konke cishe ngaso sonke isikhathi kumuntu wesithathu, enezingxenye ezithile zomlingiswa oyinhloko.

Ngenxa yalokho, izincazelo ezingenangqondo zesilwane esingenabuntu sobugqila esikhishwe yi-protagonist uqobo singaphazamisa abafundi abangenayo. Noma kunjalo, ezinye izindima zinde ingokungadingekile umbhalo ngoba awudluli umphumela wesakhiwo futhi azinikeli ekujuleni kwabalingiswa.

Ukucaphuna ngo-Isabel Allende.

¿Is Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle incwadi yomlando?

Impendulo yalo mbuzo ithola imisho emihle nabahlambalazi ngezilinganiso ezifanayo, isimo esijwayelekile semisebenzi eminingi ka-Isabel Allende. Ukubuyekezwa kwe- Umtapo Wezincwadi (2009) ukhuluma ngo “… indaba egcwele ama-adventures, abalingiswa abagqamile nezincazelo ezicebile kakhulu futhi eziningiliziwe zempilo eCaribbean ngaleso sikhathi”. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ingosi Ukufingqa (2020) uyachaza:

"Uma indaba yangempela ka-Allende ingaphelele futhi iyindida, indaba yakhe eqanjiwe ayilayishwanga ngemininingwane yesikhathi esingeqile nje kuphela, kodwa futhi nangokulunga kwezepolitiki okungahambisani nesikhathi, wephula umthetho oyinhloko womlobi wamanoveli okufanele umuntu awukhombise kunokuba awutshele ”. Kunoma ikuphi, indlela efanayo iphetha ngokuthi: "Isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle yinhle, iyahamba futhi igcwele umuzwa weqiniso wokulahleka ”.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Luciano kakhulu kusho

    … 'Luyini ulwandle luka-isabel allende? slds.

  2.   imbali kusho

    kungani ibizwa ngokuthi isiqhingi esingaphansi kolwandle?