Okunye ukusonteka

Okunye ukusonteka.

Okunye ukusonteka.

Ishicilelwe ngo-1898, Okunye ukusonteka waziwa kakhulu futhi kukhulunywa kakhulu ngomsebenzi wombhali ovelele nomgxeki wezincwadi uHenry James. Kuyinoveli yezipoki nezipoki ngesitayela esithembeke kakhulu sezindaba "zendabuko" zama-gothic. Kepha ngesamba sezinto ezintsha nezintsha ezishiya abafundi bemangele njengoba benelisekile.

Umbhali ungomunye wabavezi abahamba phambili ekubukeni kwemibhalo. Eqinisweni, kuthatha lo mqondo kumkhawulo. Cishe akunakwenzeka ukwenza ukubuyekezwa kwale noveli ngaphandle kokudalula eminye imininingwane yetulo (elidume kakhulu ngokuthi spoiler). Yize kunjalo kuleli cala, ukwazi ezinye zezinto kusengaphambili akwenzi mehluko omkhulu.

Mayelana nomlobi, uHenry James

Ingenye yamagama abaluleke kakhulu ezincwadini ze-Anglo-Saxon zeqiniso kanye nesimanje. Kwabaningi, Okunye ukusonteka —Naphezu konyaka wokwethulwa kwayo - kumaka ngokusemthethweni ukuqala kwenhlangano yesimanje. Yikuphi, kwabusa izinhlamvu ngolimi lwesiNgisi phakathi nengxenye yokuqala yekhulu lama-XNUMX.

UHenry James Wazalelwa eNew York ngo-Ephreli 15, 1843, emndenini ocebile. Ubaba wakhe, elangazelela izingane zakhe ukuthola umhlaba ngamehlo abo, wamthumela ukuyofunda eYurophu. Ubezinze eParis bese eLondon. Kule dolobha elikhulu lokugcina wayezochitha impilo yakhe yonke.

Imikhuba eqondayo

Imibhalo yakhe ibisezindebeni zabafundi abaningi selokhu yavela. Noma kunjalo, ukuthengisa okwenziwe kwakunganele ukuthi uJames aphile kalula. Kodwa-ke, lokhu akuzange kumvimbe ekuhambeleni ngokunganqamuki imibuthano ephakeme yonxiwankulu baseYurophu, ikakhulukazi abaseBrithani.

Ngokwalokho umlobi ngokwakhe akuvumile, izimpikiswano ezinhle kakhulu zatholwa "ngokuthwebula." Ngamanye amagama, ngokulalela kaningi ezingxoxweni ezivamile ezigabeni eziphezulu zaseNgilandi, umbhali waseMelika waqeda ukupholisha izici ezithile zomsebenzi wakhe.

"Akekho umprofethi ezweni lakhe"

E-United States, phakathi neminyaka engamashumi amabili yokuqala yekhulu lama-XNUMX, imibhalo yakhe ayizange ivuse umdlandla omkhulu phakathi kwabagxeki. Kodwa-ke - ngaphezu kokucatshangelwa kwemibhalo - ukuhlaziywa bekuvame ukuzithoba kakhulu. Yebo, empeleni bekuyizikhalazo ezibhekiswe kumbhali ngesinqumo sakhe sokuphila njengomphambukeli.

IBrithani ekugcineni

Ngaphambi nje kokuba ashone, kwafika isahluko sokuqinisekisa sekhefu likaJames nezwe lakhe lokuzalwa. Lapho iBrithani yenziwa ubuzwe ngo-1915 ngokubhikisha ngemuva kwesinqumo se-United States sokungazihlanganisi nama-Allies ngesikhathi seMpi Enkulu. Ukuziphindiselela, phakathi neminyaka yokufa kwakhe, izincwadi zabo cishe wanyamalala emashalofini ezitolo zezincwadi zaseMelika.

UHenry James.

UHenry James.

Njengamanje, umsebenzi wokubhala kaHenry James uvame ukwaziswa ngokufanele, kepha "ukubuyisana" nesizwe saseMelika kusekude ukuphela. Kunzima kangako ukuqonda Kusenemikhakha ngaphakathi "kwenyunyana" ephikisana nokuyinika ukufaneleka. Kangangokuthi baze bazomxosha njengomunye umbhali wamaNgisi “obandayo”.

Ukuhlaziywa Okunye ukusonteka

Ungathenga inoveli lapha: Okunye ukusonteka

Isihloko sale noveli yisimemezelo semigomo. Indaba yakhe ihlanganisa imibhalo yezimangaliso ezethusayo nezingaphezu kwemvelo ngendlela yokuthi okusobala ukuthi kujwayelekile akusekho. Empeleni, yincwadi enesakhiwo esimnyama nesama-gothic, esethwe esithabathabeni somuzi wama-Victorian osizi emaphethelweni eLondon, ezungezwe amahlathi aminyene.

Ukuqedela i-cocktail, phakathi kwabalingiswa kukhona izipoki ezimbalwa, izibalo "ezinamarekhodi empilo" ezinamabala ezono ezingenakuthethelelwa. Ngokuqondile, iphutha elikhulu bekungaba ukunikela ekulingweni kwenyama ... ucansi olungathembekile (ingqikithi ejwayelekile kuJames, edala inzondo eyengeziwe).

Akukho lutho olubonakala ngathi?

Abalingiswa abaphambili be- Okunye ukusonteka bayizingane ezimbalwa "ezingenacala" (uFlora noMiles). Okuthi, ngaleso sikhathi, kwakumele ukuguquka okungavamile. Ngokufanayo, intuthuko egcwele izipoki, efile, nobulili kwakuyinhlanganisela "enamandla kakhulu". Ngakho-ke, kubafundi abaningi nabagxeki bemibhalo besikhathi sakhe, kwakungelona icebo elilula lokugaya.

Kunoma ikuphi, into emisha ngempela kaJames ukusebenzisa kwakhe umbono. Lapho ukulandisa kwendaba kugxile kuphela kumlingiswa womphathi (ophethe ukunakekela lezi zingane ezibalulwe ngenhla). Ngemuva kwalokho, abafundi (ngisho nabalingiswa) banokuhlangenwe nakho kwale ntombazane eneminyaka engama-20 ukwambula izimfihlakalo ezenzekile.

Umxoxi ongathembekile

UJames ubhekisa kubafundi bakhe inkinga engenakuphepheka, okuthi, ngokuya ngesiphetho esifinyelelwe yilowo nalowo, kube nomthelela encazelweni yokugcina enikezwe le ndaba. Ngalo mqondo, iphuzu eliphakamisa imibuzo eminingi ngukuthi umphathi kuphela ongabona izipoki nezipoki. Ngabe imicimbi eyejwayelekile iyenzeka ngempela noma ingabe konke kusekhanda lowesifazane?

UHenry James ucaphuna.

UHenry James ucaphuna.

Ngokwengeziwe, omunye wabalingiswa abasekelayo, umphathi wendlu ongenalwazi futhi onenhliziyo enhle, wesatshiswa yimicimbi engaphezu kwendalo yalesi sithabathaba somuzi. Impela le ncekukazi ayikaze ibone noma yikuphi ukubonakala komoya. Okungukuthi, ukwesaba kwakhe kusekelwe kuphela kokwesaba okuqhamuke ngokulalela izindaba zikathisha osemncane.

Ukukhanga okungavunyelwe

Ukwengeza eminye imibuzo kusibalo se- umphathi omncane futhi omuhle, ukhangwa ngokungenakuvinjelwa kumalume wabalingiswa abakhulu. Obuye asebenze njengomnakekeli osemthethweni ngemuva kokushona kwabazali begazi bezingane.

Kuleli qophelo, into engamashumi amabili-nalezi zinhlobo zemizwelo - kwesinye isikhathi echazwa njengokukhanga okukhanukayo kunomuzwa weplato - yanele ukufaka ukungabaza ekwahluleleni kwakhe okuhle. Isamba salezi nezinye izinto sivusa ukungabaza kwabafundi.

Umsebenzi owedlula yonke imithetho

UJames uthuthukisa indaba yakhe ngqo, ngokungafani nesitayela esivelele kuningi lokulandisa kwakhe. Ngakho-ke, izincazelo zikhawulelwe ekunikezeni imininingwane ephathelene nokulungiselelwa, kepha ngaphandle kokuncoma ngokweqile. Lapho imizwa (esabisayo) edluliswa ngumuntu okondlayo igcina futhi ikhulise ikhasi lokungezwani ngekhasi.

Ngisho nalabo bantu abangakafundi Okunye ukusonteka, impela bahlangabezane nomsebenzi othonywe ngqo noma ngokungaqondile ngale ndaba. Phakathi kokuguquguquka okuningi kwamafilimu, kukhona eyodwa lapho umoya wayo ukhombisa ngokuphelele imvelo eyenziwe nguJames: Abanye (2001) ngu-Alejandro Amenábar.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.