USamuel Beckett

Indawo yaseIreland.

Indawo yaseIreland.

USamuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989) wayengumbhali owaziwayo waseIreland. Ugqwesile kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zoncwadi, ezinje ngemibongo, iinoveli kunye nomdlalo weqonga. Kwindlela yakhe yokusebenza kweli sebe lokugqibela, umsebenzi wakhe Ukulinda uGodot ube nempumelelo enkulu, kwaye namhlanje luphawu lokulinganisa ngaphakathi kwethiyetha yezinto ezingenangqondo. Inzame ephawulekayo kwikhondo lakhe elide-elalicaciswa yimvelaphi kunye nobunzulu beetekisi zakhe-lamzuzela iNobel Prize yoNcwadi ngo-1969.

U-Becket ubonakaliswe ngokuzoba ngendlela ekrwada, emnyama nangendlela emfutshane yokwenyani komntu, Ukugxininisa ukungabi nasizathu sobukho babo. Yiyo loo nto abagxeki abaninzi beyile ngaphakathi. Nangona iitekisi zakhe zazimfutshane, umbhali wakwazi ukunika ubunzulu obukhulu ngokusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezahlukeneyo zoncwadi, apho imifanekiso yayibalasele ngaphezu kwayo yonke enye into. Mhlawumbi elona galelo lakhe libalulekileyo kuncwadi yayikukwaphula imithetho emininzi de kwasekufikeni kwakhe.

Iinkcukacha zembali yombhali, uSamuel Beckett

USamuel Barclay Beckett wazalwa ngolwesiHlanu ngo-Epreli 13, 1906 kwidolophana yaseDublin eFoxrock, Ireland. Wayengumntwana wesibini womtshato phakathi kukaWilliam Beckett kunye noMeyi Roe - umvavanyi kunye nomongikazi ngokwahlukeneyo. Ngomama, umbhali wayesoloko ekhumbula ukuzinikezela kwakhe kunye nokuzinikela kwakhe kunqulo.

Ubuntwana kunye nezifundo

Ukususela ebuntwaneni bakhe, u-Beckett wawaxabisa amava amnandi ambalwa. Kwaye, ngokuchasene nomntakwabo uFrank, umbhali wayecekeceke kakhulu kwaye wayehlala egula ngokuqhubekayo. Ngokumalunga nelo xesha, wayekhe wathi: "Ndandinetalente encinci yolonwabo."

Ngelixa wayefunda kwimfundo yokuqala wayenendlela emfutshane yoqeqesho lomculo. Umyalelo wakhe wokuqala wenziwa e-Earlsford House School de wayeneminyaka eli-13 ubudala; kamva wayebhalise kwisikolo iRoyal Portora. Kule ndawo wadibana noFrank, umntakwabo omdala. Kude kube namhlanje, esi sikolo sokugqibela sinandipha udumo olukhulu, ukusukela oko u-Oscar Wilde odumileyo naye wabona iiklasi kumagumbi okufundela.

Beckett, ipolymath

Isigaba esilandelayo ekubunjweni kuka-Beckett senzeka kwiKholeji yaseTrinity, eDublin. Apho, uninzi lweempawu zakhe zavela, ukuthanda kwakhe iilwimi yenye yazo. Ngokumalunga nale nto uyithandayo, kufuneka ubonise ukuba umbhali waqeqeshwa ngesiNgesi, isiFrentshi kunye nesiTaliyane. Wenza ngokukodwa phakathi kuka-1923 no-1927, kwaye kamva waphumelela kwi-Modern Philology.

Abahlohli bakhe ababini beelwimi yayinguAA Luce noThomas B. Rudmose-Brown; Owokugqibela ngulo wamvulela iminyango yoncwadi lwesiFrentshi kwaye wamazisa nomsebenzi kaDante Alighieri. Bobabini ootitshala bavakalise ukumangaliswa kukugqwesa kuka-Beckett eklasini, zombini ithiyori kunye nokusebenza.

Kule khampasi yezifundo izipho zakhe zemidlalo zaqatshelwa kakhulu, ukusukela U-Beckett uphumelele kwi-chess, umbhoxo, intenetya, kwaye-kakhulu, kakhulu kwiqakamba.. Ukudlala kwakhe kwimidlalo yelulwane kunye nebhola kangangokuba igama lakhe livela kwi IAlmanack kaWisden Cricketers.

Ukongeza koku kuchazwe ngasentla, Umbhali wayengenguye owasemzini kwezobugcisa nenkcubeko ngokubanzi. Malunga noku, kwimisebenzi kaJames Knowlson - omnye wababhali bebhayografi abaziwayo ombhali -Ipolymathy kaSamuweli ityhilwe ngamandla. Kwaye kungenxa yokuba iinkcubeko ezininzi zikaBekkett zazidume kakubi, ngakumbi ngendlela ebalaseleyo awaziphatha ngayo kurhwebo ngalunye awayelusebenzisa.

Beckett, indawo yemidlalo yeqonga kunye nonxibelelwano olusondeleyo noJames Joyce

Kwikholeji yaseTrinity, eDublin, kwenzeka into eyayithatha isigqibo kubomi buka-Beckett: ukudibana kwakhe nemisebenzi yeqonga Luigi pirandello. Lo mbhali Yayiyinto ephambili ekukhuleni kukaSamuweli kamva njengomdlali odlalayo.

Kamva, U-Beckett wadibana okokuqala noJames Joyce. Kwenzeke kwenye yeendibano ezininzi ze-bohemian esixekweni, Enkosi ngokuthetha kukaThomas MacGreevy —Umhlobo kaSamuweli - owabazisa. I-chemistry phakathi kwabo yayikhawuleza, kwaye yayiqhelekile, kuba bobabini babengabathandi bomsebenzi kaDante kunye neepilologists ezinomdla.

Ukudibana noJoyce kwakuyeyona nto iphambili emsebenzini nakubomi bukaBekkett. Umbhali waba ngumncedisi kumbhali ophumelele amabhaso, kunye nomntu osondeleyo kusapho. Ngenxa yesivumelwano, uSamuel wayenehlobo oluthile lobudlelwane noLucia Joyce - intombi kaJame.ewe- kodwa ayiphelanga kakuhle- eneneni, wagqibela ephethwe sisifo sengqondo.

Ngephanyazo, ngenxa yoko "ukungabikho kothando", kwabakho ukungavisisani phakathi kwabo bobabini ababhali; nangona kunjalo, emva konyaka benze ipasi. Kobu buhlobo, ukuxabisa kunye nokubabaza awakwenzayo uJoyce kwakudume kakubi. malunga nokusebenza kwengqondo kukaBekkett.

Becket nokubhala

UDante… UBruno. Vico… Joyce Yayingumbhalo wokuqala opapashwe ngokusesikweni nguBeckett. Kwavela ngo-1929 kwaye yayisisincoko esinzulu ngumbhali esiya kuba yinxalenye yemigca yencwadi Ukujonga kwethu ngokujikeleza ukuBekwa kweNgcaciso yokuFakwa koMsebenzi kwiNkqubela phambili -Isicatshulwa malunga nokufundwa komsebenzi kaJames Joyce. Abanye ababhali abadumileyo nabo babhala eso sihloko, kubandakanya uThomas MacGreevy noWilliam Carlos Williams.

Embindini wonyaka, kwavela ukukhanya Ibali elifutshane lokuqala likaBekkett: Ingcinga. Imagazini Utshintsho yayiliqonga elalisingatha isicatshulwa. Esi sithuba soncwadi lwe-avant-garde sasithatha isigqibo ekuphuhliseni nasekuhlanganiseni umsebenzi waseIreland.

Ngo-1930 wapapasha lo mbongo I-Whososcope, lo mbhalo mncinci wamzisela iwonga lendawo. Ngomnyaka olandelayo wabuyela kwiKholeji yaseTrinity, kodwa ngoku njengonjingalwazi. Amava okufundisa ahlala ixesha elifutshane, njengoko wawushiya unyaka kwaye wazinikela ekutyeleleni iYurophu. Ngenxa yekhefu, wabhala umbongo gnome, eyapapashwa ngokusemthethweni kwiminyaka emithathu kamva kwi Imagazini yaseDublin. Kunyaka olandelayo inoveli yokuqala yapapashwa, Ndiphupha ngabafazi ukuba hayi fu okanye fa (1932).

Ukusweleka kukatata wakhe

Ngo-1933 kwenzeka isiganeko esashukumisa ubukho buka Beckett: ukufa kukayise. Umbhali wayengazi ukusisingatha kakuhle esi sehlo kwaye kwafuneka abonane nogqirha wezengqondo - uGqirha Wilfred Bion.. Ezinye izincoko ezibhalwe ngumbhali ziyaziwa ngelo xesha. Phakathi kwezi, kukho enye ngokukodwa ebonakalayo: Ukuthula kwabantu (1934), kwimigca yakhe wenza uhlalutyo olunzima lokuqokelela imibongo nguThomas MacGreevy.

Ityala lika "Sinclair v. Gogarty" kunye nokuzimela kuka-Beckett

Esi siganeko sasithetha utshintsho olukhulu kubomi bombhali, njengoko samkhokelela kuhlobo lokuthinjwa. Yayiyimpikiswano phakathi kukaHenry Sinclair - umalume kaSamuel- kunye no-Oliver St. John Gogarty. Umntu wangaphambili wamnyelisa lo wamva, emtyhola ngothatha imali, kwaye u-Beckett wayelingqina kwityala ... impazamo enkulu.

Igqwetha likaGogarty lisebenzise iqhinga elinamandla ngokuchasene nombhali ukumhlazisa kunye nokutshabalalisa isityholo sakhe. Phakathi kwezinto ezimbi ezavezwa, ukungakholelwa kuka-Beckett kunye nokuziphatha kakubi ngokwesondo kubonakala. Eli nyathelo laba nefuthe elikhulu kubomi bombhali nakwintlalo yakhe, kungoko ke wagqiba kwelokuba aye eParis., phantse ngokuqinisekileyo.

EParis: ukuthandana kwasendle, ukunxibelelana nokufa kunye nokudibana nothando

I-Eiffel tower

I-Eiffel tower

Into ebonakalise u-Beckett xa engena kwiminyaka yakhe yamashumi amathathu, ukongeza kwimveliso yakhe enkulu yoncwadi, yayikukuziphatha kwakhe okubi. Kuye, iParis yayiyindawo efanelekileyo yokukhupha umtsalane kunye nabasetyhini. Enye yeengxelo ezaziwayo malunga noku yavela phakathi kokuphela kuka-1937 nasekuqaleni kuka-1938, kumaqela apheleleyo ngaphambi nasemva kokuphela konyaka.

Ukususela ngelo xesha kwaziwa ukuba u-Beckett wayenemicimbi yothando kunye nabasetyhini abathathu. Kwezi, omnye ngokukhethekileyo umile, kuba, ukongeza ekubeni ngumthandi, wayengumxhasi wombhali: uPeggy Guggenheim.

Esinye isiganeko esibuhlungu esenzeke xa ndandifika EParis wayelixhoba lokuhlaba (ngo-1938). Inxeba lalinzulu kwaye layichukumisa kancinci intliziyo kaBekett, owasindiswa ngokungummangaliso. Umhlaseli yindoda egama linguPrudent, umpimpi walapho owathi kamva enkundleni - wajongana nombhali- wathi akayazi into eyenzekileyo kuye ngalo mzuzu, kwaye uyazisola.

U-Beckett wasindiswa ngenxa yesenzo esikhawulezileyo sikaJames Joyce. Umbhali ophumelele amabhaso wasusa ifuthe lakhe kwaye wakhusela umhlobo wakhe igumbi labucala kwisibhedlele sabucala. Kulapho, uSamuel wachacha khona ngokuthe ngcembe.

USuzanne Dechevaux-Dumesnil -Imvumi eyaziwayo kunye nembaleki- wayeyazi into eyenzekileyoEwe, ngexeshana elifutshane, eso siganeko saziwa phantse kuyo yonke iParis. Yena wenza uqikelelo ku-Beckett iya kuba ngokuqinisekileyo, emva koko khange baphinde bohlukane.

Kwiminyaka emibini kamva, ngo-1940, u-Beckett wahlangana okokugqibela -ngazi- nge Indoda esindise ubomi bayo, umhlobo wayo othandekayo kunye nomcebisi UJames joyce. Umbhali ophumelele amabhaso waseIreland usweleke kungekudala emva koko, ekuqaleni kuka-1941.

Beckett kunye neMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi

U-Beckett wayengengowasemzini kule mfazwe. Ngokukhawuleza xa amaJamani ahlala eFrance ngo-1940, umbhali wajoyina i-Resistance. Indima yakhe yayisisiseko: ukuphatha ikhuriya; Nangona kunjalo, nangona wawungumsebenzi olula, wawuyingozi. Ngapha koko, ngelixa wayesenza lo msebenzi, uSamuel wavuma ukuba wayesengozini yokuthinjwa ngamaGestapo amatyeli aliqela.

Emva kokuba iyunithi ebincanyathiselwe kuyo iveziwe, Umbhali kufuneka abaleke ngokukhawuleza noSuzanne. Baya emazantsi, ngakumbi ngakumbi kwi-villa de Roussillon. Kwakusehlotyeni ngo-1942.

Kwiminyaka emibini ezayo, bobabini-u-Beckett no-Dechevaux-bezenza ngathi bangabahlali basekuhlaleni. Nangona kunjalo, ngendlela eyoyikisayo kakhulu bazinikezele ekufihleni izixhobo ukuze kugcinwe ukusebenzisana kwabo kunye neNkcaso.; Ngapha koko, uSamuel wanceda abanqolobi kweminye imisebenzi.

Isenzo sakhe senkalipho asizange sidlule ilize ngaseburhulumenteni base-France, ke u-Beckett Kamva wanikwa iCroix de Guerre 1939-1945 kunye neMédaille de la Résistance. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba amaqabane akhe angama-80 kuphela angama-30 ashiyekileyo ephila, kwaye ebesengozini yokufa amatyeli aliqela, U-Beckett akazange azicingele ukuba ufanelekile kwezi ndumiso.. Yena ngokwakhe wachaza izenzo zakhe "njengezinto ze umhlola umfana".

USamuel Beckett ucaphula

USamuel Beckett ucaphula

Kwakukho ngeli xesha-phakathi kuka-1941-1945-ukuba u-Beckett wabhala Watt, Inoveli eyapapashwa kwiminyaka esi-8 kamva (1953). Kamva ngokufutshane wabuyela eDublin, apho-phakathi komsebenzi wakhe neRed Cross kunye nokudibana nezihlobo- wabhala enye yemisebenzi yakhe edumileyo, umdlalo weqonga Itheyiphu yokugqibela yeKrapp. Iingcali ezininzi zithi lo mbhalo ubhalwe ngokuphila kwakhe.

I-40 kunye nee-50s kunye nokubhalwa kwempendulo ka-Beckett

Ukuba kukho into ebonakalise umsebenzi wokubhala waseIreland ngoo-XNUMX no-XNUMX ngokwahlukeneyo, leyo yayiyimveliso yabo. Upapashe inani elininzi leetekisi kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo - amabali, iinoveli, izincoko, imidlalo. Ukusukela ngeli xesha, ukubala iziqwenga ezimbalwa, phuma ibali lakhe "Suite", inoveli Mercier kunye neCamier, kunye nokudlala Ukulinda uGodot.

Upapasho lwe Ukulinda uGodot

Esi siqwenga siza kumashumi amabini eminyaka emva kokuba "ukuvuswa koncwadi" kuqale kwiphephancwadi utshintsho. Ukulinda uGodot (1952) -Enye yeembekiselo ezisisiseko zemidlalo yeqonga engenangqondo neyaphawula ngaphambili nasemva kwekhondo lakhe-, yabhalwa phantsi kwempembelelo ebonakalayo yemfazwe, ilahleko enzima kayise kunye nokunye ukungavisisani ebomini ngokwako.

U-Beckett: umntu owonayo

Kuyabonakala ukuba, bonke ubukrelekrele buphawulwa ngokugqithileyo kunye nokuziphatha okungaphaya kwemilinganiselo emiselweyo. U-Beckett akazange abaleke koku. Ukusela kwakhe kunye nokuziphatha kakubi kwakusaziwa. Ngapha koko uOlunye ulwalamano lwakhe oludumileyo lwezothando kwakunjalo la que igcinwe noBarbara Bray. Ngelo xesha wayesebenzela i-BBC eLondon. Wayengumfazi omhle weeleta ezinikele ekuhleleni nasekuguquleleni.

Kunokuthiwa, ngenxa yesimo sengqondo sabo bobabini, ukuba umtsalane wabo wawukhawuleza kwaye unganqandeki. Ngokubhekisele kobu budlelwane, UJames Knowlson ubhale wathi: “Kubonakala ngathi u-Beckett watsala umdla kwangoko kuye, efanayo kuye. Ukuhlangana kwabo kwakubaluleke kakhulu kubo bobabini, kuba yayisisiqalo sobudlelwane ngokuhambelana nesikaSuzanne, esasiza kuhlala ubomi bonke ”.

Kwaye, ngaphandle kobukho bukaSuzanne, u-Beckett kunye no-Bray bahlala begcina ubudlelwane. Nangona kunjalo, ukubaluleka kukaSuzanne kubomi buka-Beckett kwakungeyonto ingummangaliso-kwa-umbhali omnye wakubhengeza oku ngaphezu kwesihlandlo esinye-; Kamsinya nje emva koko, ngo-1961, esi sibini sitshatile. Umanyano wabo wawuphantse waphela emva kweminyaka engamashumi amathathu kamva.

"Ndinetyala lonke kuSuzanne," inokufumaneka kwincwadi yobomi bakhe; Eli binzana linamandla lathi xa ukufa kwakhe kusondele.

USamuel Beckett noSuzanne Dechevaux

USamuel Beckett noSuzanne Dechevaux

INobel, uhambo, ukwamkelwa kunye nokuhamba

Ixesha eliseleyo lobomi bukaBeckett emva komtshato wakhe wachitha phakathi kokuhamba kunye nokwamkelwa. Kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe omninzi, njengoko bekutshiwo,Ukukhangela uGodot ibinguye lowo Imele uninzi lwawo onke amawonga, kubandakanya ibhaso likaNobel loNcwadi ngo-1969. Into engothusiyo kubuntu bombhali yindlela awasabela ngayo emva kokufunda ukuba uphumelele ibhaso elingaka: wazihlukanisa nehlabathi kwaye akabazisa nto ngaye. Masithi u-Beckett wayengekho ngaphandle kwezi ntlobo zeendibano.

Emva kweminyaka engama-28 betshatile, isiseko sazaliseka ngaphambi kokuba bavumelane ngokutshata: "Kude kube sekufeni." Suzanne wayengowokuqala ukufa. Ukufa kwenzeka Usweleke ngoMvulo, nge-17 kaJulayi 1989. Beckett, ngeli xesha, wemka ekupheleni kuka-dkwangalo nyaka, NgoLwesihlanu, nge-22 kaDisemba. Umbhali wayeneminyaka engama-83 ubudala.

Intsalela yesi sibini yaphumla eMontparnasse Cemetery eParis.

Amagqabantshintshi ngomsebenzi kaBekket

  • “U-Beckett watshabalalisa iindibano ezininzi ezazisekwe kwiintsomi zeqonga nakwithiyetha; wazinikezelwa, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ukugculela igama njengesixhobo sokubonisa ubugcisa kwaye wenza imbongi yemifanekiso, zombini ziyimbali kwaye ziyabalisa ”UAntonia Rodríguez-Gago.
  • “Yonke le ncwadi kaBekkett isibonisa imeko elusizi yabantu kwihlabathi elingenaThixo, elingenamthetho nengenantsingiselo. Ukunyaniseka kombono wakho, ubuqaqawuli obuthile bolwimi lwabo (ngesiFrentshi nangesiNgesi) buchaphazele ababhali abancinci kwihlabathi liphela" IEncyclopedia yoNcwadi lweHlabathi kwikhulu lama-20.
  • “U-Beckett wawugatya umthetho-siseko waseJoycean othi ukwazi okungakumbi kwakuyindlela yokuqonda kunye nolawulo lwehlabathi. Ukusuka apho ukuya phambili Umsebenzi wakhe uqhubele phambili kwindlela yezinto zokuqala, ukusilela, ukugxothwa nokuphulukana; yendoda engazi nto nezahlukanisileyo ”, uJames Knowlson.
  • Ngokubhekisele Ukulinda u-Godot: “Wayenze into engenakwenzeka ithiyori: umdlalo weqonga apho kungekho nto yenzekayo, ethi igcine umbukeli ethe nca esihlalweni. Ngaphezu koko, ekubeni isenzo sesibini sisebenza ngaphandle kokulinganisa eyokuqala, U-Beckett ubhale umdlalo weqonga apho, kabini, akukho nto yenzekayo ”, UVivian Mercier.

Imisebenzi kaSamuel Beckett

Ithiyetha

  • I-Eleutheria (ebhaliweyo ngo-1947; eyapapashwa ngo-1995)
  • Ukulinda uGodot (1952)
  • Yenza ngaphandle kwamagama (1956)
  • Ukuphela komdlalo (1957)
  • Iteyiphu yokugqibela (1958)
  • Imbi yeTheatre I (emva kweminyaka engama-50)
  • Imbi yeTheatre II (emva kweminyaka engama-50)
  • Iintsuku ezimnandi (1960)
  • umdlalo (1963)
  • Yiza kwaye uhambe (1965)
  • umphefumlo (Kukhutshwa ngo-1969)
  • Ayindim (1972)
  • Elo xesha (1975)
  • Iinyawo (1975)
  • Inxalenye yeMonologue (1980)
  • I-Rockaby (1981)
  • IOhio Impromptu (1981)
  • intlekele (1982)
  • Yintoni apho (1983)

Novelas

  • Iphupha lokuLunga kwabafazi abaPhakathi (Ngo-1932; ngo-1992)
  • Murphy (1938)
  • Watt (1945)
  • Mercier kunye neCamier (1946)
  • Molloy (1951)
  • UMalone uyafa (1951)
  • Abangenamagama (1953)
  • Injani i (1961)

Inoveli emfutshane

  • Abagxothiweyo (1946)
  • Ukuzola (1946)
  • Ukuphela (1946)
  • Abalahlekileyo (1971)
  • Nkampani (1979)
  • Ndigula ndibona ukuThetha (1981)
  • Okubi kakhulu U-Ho (1984)

Iintsomi

  • Iimpawu ezingaphezulu kokukhaba (1934)
  • Amabali kunye neTekisi ngeze (1954)
  • Uthando lokuqala (1973)
  • Iimpawu (1976)
  • Ukuvuselela okwangoku (1988)

Imibongo

  • Whososcope (1930)
  • Amathambo e-Echo kunye nezinye izinto eziNqabileyo (1935)
  • Imibongo eqokelelweyo ngesiNgesi (1961)
  • Imibongo eqokelelweyo ngesiNgesi nangesiFrentshi (1977)
  • Liliphi eli gama (1989)

Izincoko, colloquia

  • Iqhayiya (1931)
  • Iingxoxo ezintathu (1958)
  • Khupha (1983)

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.