Uwuhlalutya njani umbongo

Iqhekeza lombongo kaMiguel Hernández.

Iqhekeza lombongo kaMiguel Hernández.

Ukusuka kwinqanaba lokujonga, Ukwazi amanyathelo oza kuwalandela ukwazi ukuhlalutya umbongo kubalulekile. Okwangoku, zonke iintlobo zemisebenzi zihlala zifumaneka kwi-Intanethi, ukusuka kumanqaku ewebhu angekho sesikweni ukuya kumaxwebhu okufundisa kwiijenali ezinesalathiso. Zonke zihlala zihambelana kwinqanaba elinye: imibongo luhlobo lweengoma ezivakalayo ezihlelwe kwiivesi.

Ke ngoko, xa uhlalutya umbongo Kubalulekile ukuphonononga iinkcazo ezinje nge: isitanza, into enesingqisho, isingqisho, isynalepha, isyneresisi, phakathi kwabanye. Ngale ndlela, imibongo inokuhlelwa, itolikwe kwaye “kulinganiswe”. Ewe kunjalo, ngaphandle kokuzenza ngathi benza imvumelwano ngamxhelo-mnye, kuba ibali elibhaliweyo livela ekuphefumleleni lihlala linomthwalo omkhulu kwabo bawufundayo.

Imibongo

Imibongo yinkqubo okanye inkqubo yohlalutyo lwemibongo. Isekwe ekuchongeni ezona zinto zichaphazelekayo kubume bombongo. Ngelixa umbongo kufuneka uqondwe ngakumbi xa uwonke, ukonwaba kwawo akuveli ekuhlukaniseni iinxalenye zawo ukuze zihlolisiswe ngokweenkcukacha. Kuba, ngapha koko, umbongo yimbonakalo yobuhle ngamagama abhaliweyo.

Nangona ingezizo zonke ezibonakalisayo xa kufikwa kwimibongo, imibongo ekhuthazwa luloyiko okanye uloyiko ayinakuhoywa. Ngayiphi na imeko, uninzi ziindalo ngokwendalo, iingoma zazo ezinokubonisa ukuphakanyiswa okanye ukubonakaliswa okumangalisayo, ukuthandana kunye nobuhlobo. Imibongo isekelwe kwezi ngcamango zilandelayo:

Uhlaziyo

Luhlalutyo lwesimbo olufuna ukwahlula umbongo (kwi-sonnet, kwi-ode, kwezothando ...), kunye nokumisela uhlobo lweendawo (quatrain, limerick, yesibhozo okanye yeshumi). Kwangokunjalo, ukuguquguquka kugubungela isingqisho (isononisi okanye isivumelanisi), isichazi-magama (amagama aphambili, ukusetyenziswa kwezibizo, izichazi) kunye nezixhobo zoncwadi (isimntwiso, izikweko, onomatopoeia, anaphora).

Umxholo nokutolika

Imalunga nenjongo okanye into ebhaliweyo. Umbuzo obalulekileyo ngulo: uthini umyalezo wombongo? Ke, "njani" umamkeli oqonda intsingiselo yomsebenzi uxhomekeke ngqo kwilayini ebalisayo eyenziwe ngumbhali. Okubalulekileyo kweli nqanaba kukukwazi kombhali ukukhupha iimvakalelo, imifanekiso, iimvakalelo- kunye ne-intuition- kumfundi, ngokusebenzisa izifaniso okanye ii-antitheses.

Ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo zoncwadi kufuneka kungqinelane nomxholo wombongo. Kuqhelekile ukuba eyona misebenzi mihle kangaka ibe yile iveza imeko yengqondo yembongi. Nokuba ubhekisa kusapho, isizungu okanye ukusinda.

UJosé de Espronceda.

UJosé de Espronceda.

Iimpawu zohlobo lweengoma

Into yesicatshulwa:

Ngumntu, iqumrhu okanye imeko ebangela iimvakalelo kwilizwi lesibongo. Ihlala inendawo yokubambeka, echanekileyo kunye nekhonkrithi (into ephilayo okanye into ethile, umzekelo).

Isithethi esiqhelekileyo:

Lilizwi lombongo, likhutshwa ngumbalisi. Isenokuba lilizwi lomlinganiswa ongenguye umbhali okwincwadi engumbhali. Veza iimvakalelo kunye neemvakalelo kwindawo yangaphakathi yokujonga kwilizwe lomsebenzi.

Isimo sengqikelelo:

Isimo okanye indlela yokuvakalisa izimvo kumbongo Ukuchaza inyani. Ingayi:

  • Ubunyani: xa isithethi esimnandi sibhekisa kumntu wokuqala okanye wesithathu kwimeko okanye kwinto yangaphandle kuye.
  • I-apostrophic: apho isithethi seengoma sikhomba umntu wesibini (intsingiselo) enokuthi okanye ingangqinelani nento yeengoma.
  • UCarmine: xa ukubonakaliswa kwesithethi seengoma kuvela ngaphakathi kwangaphakathi. Ihlala ingumntu wokuqala kwaye inombono ophawulekileyo wokuzimela.

Ukuhamba ngesiqendu okanye umxholo:

Imele imeko, useto, iingcinga kunye neemvakalelo eziphilisa uvakalelo lwembongi.

Ubushushu:

Ibhekisa kwimo yeemvakalelo ebonakaliswe yimbongi. Oku kungabonakalisa ukudabuka, okanye uvuyo. Umsindo, ingqumbo, okanye uloyiko ziqhelekile.

Umlinganiselo weevesi

Inani lamalungu kumbhalo ngamnye limisela ukuba zezobugcisa obuncinci na (Ngamalungu ezisibhozo metric okanye ngaphantsi. Kananjalo ukuba zezobugcisa obukhulu (amalungu alithoba nangaphezulu eetriki). Ngokunjalo kufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo ukuba ii-umlauts, ii-synalephas okanye ii-syneresis ziyajongwa. Ezi zinto ziguqula inani lamalungu eevesi.

I-Dieresis:

Ukwahlulwa kwezikhamiso ezinokuthi kube lilungu elinye. Oku kuvelisa utshintsho kwindlela eqhelekileyo yokubiza igama. Kuboniswa yikholoni (umlaut), kwizikhamiso ezibuthathaka ezichaphazelekayo (ï, ü), njengoko kubonisiwe kule vesi ilandelayo nguFray Luis de León:

  • Lowo ungowakhengoko yena mund-da-nal rü-i-do.

I-Syneresis:

Umanyano lwezikhamiso ezibini ezomeleleyo zamalungu amabini ahlukeneyo ngokwembono yegrama. Umzekelo ungabonakala kule vesi ilandelayo ye-14 metric syllables (alejandrino) nguJosé Asunción Silva:

  • Ndikunye mo-vi-mien-ukuya kwisingqisho-mi-co he da-lan-Cea inkwenkwe.

ISinalefa:

Ukuqulunqwa kwe syllable yeetriki ukusuka kwizikhamiso ezimbini okanye nangaphezulu zamagama ahlukeneyo. Kungenzeka nakwimpawu zokubhala phakathi. Umzekelo (ivesi e-octosyllable ye espronceda):

  • Umoya-ukungena kwi po-pa, ukuya ukuyibona.

Umthetho wokugqibela we-accent:

Ngokwe syllable egxininisiweyo yegama lokugqibela, iisilabhili zemetric ziyongezwa okanye zithatyathwe kwinani elipheleleyo levesi. Ukuba igama libukhali, kongezwa elinye; ukuba yi-esdrújula, omnye uthabathe; xa inzulu, ihlala ihleli.

IRyme

UMiguel Hernandez.

UMiguel Hernandez.

Xa uhlalutya umbongo elinye lamanyathelo abalulekileyo kukujonga uhlobo lwesingqisho samagama okugqibela endinyana nganye. Ukuba ihambelana nezikhamiso kunye neqabane, ibizwa ngokuba yi "consonant." Kwangokunjalo, ibizwa ngokuba "lilizwi eligqibeleleyo" ukuba amalungu aqinisekisiweyo nawo ayangqinelana. Njengoko kunokubonwa kwisiqwengana esilandelayo se- UMiguel Hernandez:

... "Zonke ezintlanuero

yonke inyanga kaJanuwarindiya

izihlangu zam ziya kuhambaero

kwifestile frndiya"…

Kunoko, xa kuphela izikhamiso zokugqibela zingqinelana kwisicengcelezo, ibizwa ngokuba yi- «assonance». Kwisiqwenga esilandelayo sika-Antonio Machado, olu hlobo lwesicengcelezo luyabonwa phakathi kwevesi 2 kunye ne-4:

“Bubusuku basebusika.

Ikhephu liwela ngokujikelezaino.

Umjikelo weAlvargonzález

umlilo waphantse wacimaido".

Istanza

Enye yezinto ezibalulekileyo xa uhlalutya umbongo ziimpawu zezigaba. Ezo zihlelwa ngokwenani nobude beevesi. Ukuqonda ngesitanza "iqela leevesi eziqukethe isingqisho kunye nesingqisho". Ezi zilandelayo ziindidi ezahlukeneyo zezitanza:

  • Ngababini (izitanza zemigca emibini)
  • Izitanza zemigca emithathu:
    • Isithathu.
    • Linelanga.
  • Izitanza zemigca emine:
    • Quartet.
    • I-Redondilla.
    • Serventesio.
    • Quatrain.
    • Ukudibanisa.
    • Seguidilla.
    • U-Sash.
  • Iziqendu ezinemigca emihlanu:
    • Quintet.
    • Limerick.
    • ULira.
  • Izitanza ezinemigca emithandathu:
    • USestina.
    • I-Sextilla
    • Ukuqhawulwa kweenyawo ezaphukileyo.
  • Izitanza zemigca esibhozo:
    • USodolophu waseCopla de Arte.
    • IRoyal yesibhozo.
    • I-Itali yesibhozo.
    • Iphetshana
  • Izitanza zemigca elishumi:
    • Ishumi.
  • Izitanza ngaphandle kwenani elimiselweyo leendinyana:
    • Ezothando.
    • Ukutsala.
    • Ezothando.
    • USilva.

Ulwazi lwezi zinto lukhokelela ekuqondeni ngokupheleleyo

Qonda kwaye Ukufundisisa ngendlela encomekayo nganye yezi zinto zichaziweyo apha kuvula umnyango omkhulu kwabo banomdla wokufunda imibongo. Nangona olu hlobo luxhomekeke kakhulu ekuthobeleni, ukwazi yonke imiba engenelela ekudalweni kwayo kubalulekile ekuphumezeni imisebenzi enzima ehlangabezana nokucaciswa okuyimfuneko kunye nomyalezo ofikelela kubafundi.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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