UJuan de Mena

Caphulelwa nguJuan de Mena.

Caphulelwa nguJuan de Mena.

UJuan de Mena (1411 - 1456) wayengumbhali waseSpain owaziwa ngokukhangela kwakhe isigama esiphakamileyo ngesiCastilian. Umsebenzi wakhe owaziwayo ngu ILabyrinth foiRtuna, kuye kukho iimpawu zengoma enesidima, engqwabalala kwaye engenakuguqulwa, ziyabonakala. Ke ngoko, isitayile sakhe sibeka phambili umxholo ophambili ekonakaleni kwentetho eqhelekileyo neyangoku.

Nangona umsebenzi wakhe wenziwe ngabaphengululi abaninzi njengenxalenye yexesha langaphambi koKuvuselelwa, I-metric yayo ibonisa "ukugqithisa" okuqhelekileyo kwebaroque. Ngokukodwa-ngaphandle kokuya phambili ngaphezulu kwekhulu leminyaka- Imibongo kaJuan de Mena ihambelana ngokugqibeleleyo neempawu zoncwadi ikhtuanmo.

I-Biography

Wazalelwa eCórdoba ngo-1411, wayeyinkedama esemncinci. Ngokwemithombo efana nababhali.org, "ukungabikho kwamaxwebhu kubazali bakhe kwenza umntu akrokreke ukuba unemvelaphi yokuguqula ubuJuda." Ngomnyaka we-1434 waphumelela kwiYunivesithi yaseSalamanca ngezinga le-Master of Arts. Ngo-1441, uMena waya eFlorence njengenxalenye yeqela likaKhadinali de Torquemada.

Ukusuka apho wafudukela eRoma ukuya kugqibezela uqeqesho lobuntu. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva wabuyela eCastile ukuba akhonze uJuan II njengonobhala wezinto ezenziwa eLatin. Kulo kumkani ukhankanywe ngasentla, uJuan de Mena wanikezela umbongo wakhe odumileyo, ILabyrinth yeFortuna. Ngo-1444 wonyulwa njengombhali wobukumkani, nangona abanye ababhali-mbali bephikisana nokubhalwa kwakhe kwemihla kaJohn II.

Imiba yobuqu

Zimbalwa iirekhodi ezinokuthenjwa kunye nenani elikhulu lokungaqiniseki malunga nobomi bukaJuan de Mena kunye nobomi babucala. Phakathi kwala "marhe", kukholelwa ukuba ngexesha lobutsha bakhe watshata intombazana encinci evela kusapho oluhle olusuka eCórdoba. Nangona kunjalo, igama lomfazi alichazwanga ngokuchanekileyo, kwaye esi sibini kubonakala ngathi asizalanga nayo nayiphi na inzala.

Kwelinye icala, uMarina de Sotomayor yenye yeentokazi ezinesidima ezinxulunyaniswa nembongi yaseCordovan. Kodwa iimbali-mlando azizange zivume ngokufanayo ekunqumeni ukuba ngaba kwindima yomfazi (wesibini) okanye umthandi. Akukho zirekhodi zisemthethweni zabantwana ezaziwa nguJuan de Mena.

Imbongi ithande umsebenzi wayo kwaye inxibelelene nezihandiba

UJuan de Mena wachazwa zizifundiswa ezibalaseleyo zexesha lakhe — phakathi kwabo uAlonso de Cartagena noJuan de Lucerna— yindoda ethe phithi yimibongo. Ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba, kangangokuba amaxesha amaninzi waye wayikhathalela impilo yakhe ngenxa yoko. Ngokukwanjalo, waba nobuhlobo obusondeleyo kwaye wabelana ngokuthanda uncwadi kunye nabantu abanjengo-vlvaro de Luna kunye no-igoñigo López de Mendoza, Marquis waseSantillana.

Ngokuchanekileyo ngokujikeleze inani lasebukhosini lokugqibela UJuan de Mena ubhale Amashumi amahlanu. Umbongo oxhaphake kakhulu kupapasho lwawo (1499), kwaziwa njenge Ukuxhonywa kweMarquis yaseSantillana. Ngokwenyani, isiseko salo msebenzi sabhalwa ngeprose, Amagqabantshintshi ngoKwenziwa kukaKorneli (1438).

Imibongo kaJuan de Mena

ICoplas ngokuchasene nezono ezisixhenxe ezibulalayo o Ukuqiqa ngokufa ibingumbongo wokugqibela obhalwe nguye. Umsebenzi wagqitywa emva kokufa, kuba uJuan de Mena wayengakwazi ukuwugqiba ngaphambi kokuba asweleke eTorrelaguna (Castilla), ngo-1456. Kude kube ekugqibeleni i-opera yakhe imbongi yaseSpain igcine ukungqinelana kwesitayile, ngokuhambelana nemibongo eyandulelayo.

Iimpawu kunye nesitayile

  • Imitha elishumi elinambini yesilayidi, isilela kwisingqisho, kunye nokuguquguquka okuncinci kunye nokugxininisa okukodwa kwisilabhili nganye engaxinzelelekanga.
  • Imibongo kubugcisa obuphezulu nesigama esintsonkothileyo. Ukongeza, eminye yemibhalo yakhe ibhalwe iivesi ezinamalungu asibhozo ezintsonkothileyo ezifanayo.
  • Inkcubeko kunye neologisms ngamagama aziswe ngqo ukusuka kwisiLatin (ngaphandle kokulungiswa).
  • Ukusetyenziswa rhoqo kwehyperbaton, kunye nezenzi kwinxaxheba yangoku kunye nokungapheliyo.
  • Ukusetyenziswa kwezinto zakudala ukuze kulingane neetriki.
  • I-baroque rhetoric ngabom-ilayishwe-kunye nokwandiswa: i-periphrasis (i-detours okanye i-evasions), i-epanalepsis, i-redundancies (anaphora), i-chiasms, iikopi okanye i-polyptoton, phakathi kwabanye.

ILabyrinth de Fortuna o Amakhulu amathathu

Yenziwe ngamaqela angama-297 kubugcisa obukhulu. NgokukaRuiza okqhubekayo. (2004) lo msebenzi “uthathwa njengeyona isampulu iphumeleleyo kutyekelo lwe-Dantean Kwavela kuncwadi lwaseSpain lwenkulungwane ye-XV, iLabyrinth yaseFortuna yema ngokukhethekileyo ekusebenziseni ubugcisa obukhulu, isingqisho sayo sesandi kunye nolwimi olucacileyo nolucokisekileyo ”.

Ngaphandle kwembonakaliso yayo, ukubaluleka kwesicatshulwa kulele kwinkcazo enomdla yeziganeko zembali ezifuna ukubhenela ukuthanda ilizwe laseIberia. Ke ngoko, Iinjongo zembongi yaseSpain zokuvelisa imvakalelo yomanyano lwesizwe emelwe nguKumkani uJuan II inokubonakala.

IChiaroscuro

ILabyrinth yelifa.

ILabyrinth yelifa.

Ungayithenga le ncwadi apha: Maze yethamsanqa

Lo msebenzi ubonakalisa ukutyeba kwembongi yaseCordovan yokulungiselela uncwadi olusulungekileyo. Iyasetyenziswa ngokusetyenziswa okuxubeneyo kweziteki zobugcisa obukhulu (iisilabhili ezilishumi elinambini) kunye nobugcisa obuncinci (octosyllables). Ngokulinganayo, kumxholo wayo, iingcinga zokuqonda zibonakala ngaphakathi kwimeko emnyama ngokwenene kwaye inesingqi esiqatha.

Iprozi kaJuan de Mena

Njengomsebenzi wakhe wombongo, UJuan de Mena wasebenzisa isichazi-magama sesiLatin kwiprose yakhe. Ngesi sizathu, indlela yakhe yokubhala yaphinda yabhekiswa kuyo ngabantu be-Renaissance humanists uHernán Núñez no-El Brocense. Ukongeza koku kuchazwe ngasentla Ukuxhonywa kweMarquis yaseSantillana, umbhali waseSpain wenza uhlengahlengiso Iliad, isihloko Homer ukuthandana (1442).

Ngokufanayo, unikezelwe kuKumkani uJohn II, Homer ukuthandana yanconywa kakhulu kwaye yaphumelela ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, kuba yayimele inguqulelo eyenziweyo ye- Iliad yangaphambili Ngokukwanjalo, ababhali-mbali kunye nabahlohli abavela kumaxesha ahlukeneyo bavumile ukuba bancome ukulungiswa kwamaphepha entetho yale ncwadi ngobugcisa bayo obungaqhelekanga.

Olunye uhlobo olubalulekileyo lukaJuan de Mena

Ngo-1445 wabhala Unyango kwisihloko seDuke, isicatshulwa esifutshane somlinganiswa osesikweni kunye nochivalric. UJuan de Mena wabhala olu xwebhu ngembeko yesidwangube uJuan de Guzmán, emva kokubhengezwa njengeDuke yaseMedina Sidonia nguKumkani uJuan II. Ekugqibeleni, Inkumbulo yeminye yemvelaphi yakudala (1448) ngumsebenzi wokugqibela owaziwayo wobukrelekrele baseSpain.

Le yokugqibela sisicatshulwa esihambelana nomthi wosapho wokwenyani (kunye nemifuziselo yawo) kaJohn II. Ukongeza, UJuan de Mena walungiselela intshayelelo kwincwadi ka-vlvaro de Luna, Incwadi yabasetyhini ecacileyo nenesidima. Apho, uyamncoma umhlobo wakhe kunye nomkhuseli ngesibindi sakhe sokukhusela abo bafazi babekhe baba ngundaba-mlonyeni ngezithuko kwiimpapasho ezahlukeneyo zexesha.

Imibongo kaJuan de Mena

Thelekisa

(CVIII)

Kulungile njengaxa omnye umenzi wobubi,

Ngexesha bonwabele omnye umgwebo,

Ukoyika usizi kumenza acekeze

ukusukela ngoko uye uphile ngcono,

Kodwa kuba uloyiko ludlulile kuye,

buyela kwizenzo zakhe ezimbi njengakuqala,

nantso indlela abandiqinisa ngayo ukuphelelwa lithemba

Iminqweno efuna ukuba isithandwa sife ”.

Cula iiMacia

(CVI)

"Uthando lwandinika isithsaba sothando

kuba igama lam lemilomo emininzi.

Ke yayingengobubi bam obubi

Xa bendivuyisa ngeentlungu zabo.

Iimpazamo ezimnandi zinqoba ingqondo,

kodwa azihlali ngonaphakade ngokukhawuleza njengoko zifuna;

Ewe, bandenze ndaziva kakubi ukuba uyakhula,

niyakwazi ukungaluthandi uthando, bathandi ”.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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