Iintshukumo zoncwadi

Miguel de Cervantes kunye neRenaissance.

Miguel de Cervantes kunye neRenaissance.

Ukutyhubela imbali, iintshukumo ezahlukeneyo zoncwadi ziye zasekwa kwilizwe leeleta. Ngamnye ngexesha lakhe, ukuhlanganisa uphando kunye neminqweno yoluntu. Kanye njengoloyiko lwakho olunzulu kunye noloyiko. Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, ubugcisa buhlala busebenza njengembonakaliso yenyani.

Uninzi lweentshukumo luyazazi. Banamaxwebhu okusekwa kunye neembonakalo ezinika ingxelo ngezizathu, iinjongo kunye neemfuno. Kwiimeko ezininzi, isihloko siphendula kuphononongo lwembali olungabandakanyi uncwadi okanye ubugcisa kuphela.

Ixesha eliqhelekileyo: ukumodareyitha

Konke kwaqala eGrisi emva koko kwasasazeka kwaya eRoma. Ewe oku kuyimbono ye-Eurocentric ngokupheleleyo. I-Classicism iquka i-XNUMXth century BC. C. de kube ngu-V d. C. Ibhalansi nemvisiswano yayiyeyona migaqo iphambili. Ababhali babenomdla kumbukeli. Ukonwabisa yenye yezizathu zokukhuthaza. Kodwa phakamisa umphefumlo.

I-Iliad Homer kunye UKumkani Oedipus Sophocles yimifuziselo emibini yeli xesha. Enye indlela okanye enye, kule minyaka idlulileyo, uncwadi luhlala lubuyela kwaba babhali. Ngapha koko, "ubume beAristotelian" iyaqhubeka nokuba yiparadigm enkulu xa kufikwa kumabali. Umbono wokuba oko kwasungulwa i-cinema ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX ukuqinisekisile ukusebenza kwayo.

AmaXesha Aphakathi: ubumnyama?

Ubuhle buyekile ukubaluleka. Yonke into yaqala yajikeleza kuThixo ... kakuhle, ngakumbi ukumoyika. Ixesha elinempikiswano njengoko lide. Isusela ekuweni kobukhosi baseNtshona baseRoma ukuya ekufikeni kukaColumbus eMelika. Oku kuhambelana ngokulandelelana ngokulandelelana kobukhosi baseByzantium kunye nokuveliswa komatshini wokushicilela.

Ababhali bamaxesha aphakathi, ngokubanzi, bazalisekisile umsebenzi owenziweyo. "Umsebenzi" wakhe yayikukukhuthaza imigangatho yokuziphatha kunye nokuba abantu bayazi imigaqo yentlalo ekufuneka beyithobele. Uninzi lwemisebenzi lusindile ngenxa yokudluliselwa ngomlomo, nto leyo eyonyusa inqanaba lokungaqondakali kuhlalutyo lweli xesha. Nangona kunjalo, iziqwenga ezisisiseko zafikelela kwiintsuku zethu. Inkqubo ye- Cula ngeCid yam bubungqina bayo.

Ukuzalwa kwakhona (kobuntu)

Ukubuya kokukhanya. Uninzi luchaza okwenzekileyo kuninzi lweYurophu ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX neye-XNUMX ngeli binzana. Ukungqinelwa kweentshukumo zakudala ezazikhutshwe kwiGrisi yakudala. Lelinye lawona maxesha abonakalayo kwezobugcisa kwimbali yoluntu. Nangona ubugcisa obubonwayo kunye nolwakhiwo luzilawula zonke iindawo ezibalaseleyo, uncwadi yinto engenakuhoywa.

Indalo ithatha indawo ephambili. Kuyafana nokujonga okuhlaziyiweyo kwifilosofi, kodwa ngoku kuyaqondwa njengenxalenye yobuKristu. Le yimihla kaLeonardo Da Vinci noMichelangelo. Le yokugqibela, imbongi edumileyo, ukongeza kwinto eyaziwayo njengomzobi kunye nomkroli. UShakespeare, uMacavavelli kunye noLuther nabo bayabonakala. Kuyafana nowona msebenzi ubalulekileyo kwiCastilian ngalo lonke ixesha: Don Quixote NguCervantes.

Ukulayisha kwakhona kwe-baroque

I-Baroque yabonakala ngathi iyaqhekeka kunye nokubonakala okuqhelekileyo okukhoyo ngexesha loKuvuselelwa. Ukusebenza ngexesha leshumi elinesixhenxe, Nangona igcine umoya weklasikhi, amazwi oqhankqalazo aphakamisa iingxelo ezinzima ngakumbi kuncwadi. Apho kunganikwanga kuphela ingqalelo kwiifom. Ukukhethwa kwezihloko ekuza kuxoxwa ngazo kwakubalulekile

Amabali e-Chivalric aqhubekile kwifashoni, eshiya negumbi leentsomi zabefundisi kunye neepicaresque. Iintshukumo ezininzi zokuzithemba zazenziwe ngaphakathi kuye, uninzi lwazo lwaluchasene. Njengokuba kwenzekile eSpain ngeCulteranismo, emelwe nguLuis de Góngora y Argote kunye neConceptualismo, eyayinomdlali wayo omkhulu kwiFrancisco de Quevedo.

I-Neoclassicism: uhlaziyo olutsha kumaxabiso aqhelekileyo

Ngaphezulu kweenkulungwane, ubuntu buye bakhula ngesantya esihamba ngokuqina. Oku kubonakaliswe ngokugqibeleleyo kubugcisa: "amaxesha anamhlanje", ukungavumelani kunye notshintsho lubonakala ngokukhawuleza. U-LUkuhlaziywa kweBaroque kufumene impendulo ngokukhawuleza ngeNeoclassicism. Enye into ebuyela kwinto eyaphakanyiswa ngamaGrike namaRoma.

Ngexesha lenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, iileta zafumana injongo yokuziphatha, nangona eli xesha laligxile kwizizathu. Iifom zazisabalulekile, kodwa injongo yayikukufezekisa unxibelelwano olucocekileyo, olucacileyo nolulula. Imihombiso engafunekiyo ishiywe ecaleni. Ubuqaqawuli IGoethe lelinye lamaqhekeza amele eli xesha.

Ukuthandana kunye nobugcisa bokuphupha

Ngexesha lokuqala lenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ubungxowankulu kunye nepragmatism zaqala ukuvela njengeparadigms yangoku. Uncwadi alubonisanga mdlandla ngaphambi kwale panorama kwaye lwaphendula ngokuvela kweRomanticism. Ukukhusela inkululeko yomntu yenye yeenjini eziphambili zolu hlobo. Kananjalo nokuthethelelwa kwe-subjective, iphupha kunye nokusondelelana.

Iingxelo zokuqala zobuntatheli zaphuhliswa kungekuphela ngombono wolwazi okanye njengokuqhankqalaza. Ezi zikwabonwa njengehlobo lokubonakaliswa kobugcisa. Uluhlu lwamagama oluvela kweli xesha lubanzi njengoko luchaseneyo: UMary Shelley, uBram Stoker, Edgar Allan Poe, UGustavo Adolfo Bécquer kunye neetetera ende kakhulu.

Yinyani

"Ulawulo" lokuthandana aluzange luhlale ixesha elide. Ngenkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba wafumana inkcaso kwiRealism. Akuyi kuphinda kuthotyelwe izinto, kungasayi kubakho kufutshane. Uhlalutyo lwenyani kunye namava abantu ngokudibeneyo agcwalisa imeko. Iimvakalelo kunye nesidingo sokubaleka zigwetyelwe ukungabikho.

Madam Bovary UGustave Flaubert umele kwi-non plus ultra yeli xesha. Incwadana ethi, ngaphezu kokuphikisana, yayiyinguqu enkulu kakhulu. Amagama anjengoAlexandre Dumas noHenry James, phakathi kwamanye amaninzi, nawo ayabonakala.

Ixesha langoku

URubén Darío kunye neNightism.

URubén Darío kunye neNightism.

"Amaxesha anamhlanje" ekugqibeleni afikile. Ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, emva kwesiphango sentshukumo kunye neentshukumo eziphikisayo ezavela kwinkulungwane edlulileyo, Uncwadi lwanamhlanje luvela, ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba elithile, elidlulileyo kwakhona. Uthando kunye neenkanuko zithatha indawo. Ukubaleka ukuhamba kwexesha kuvunyelwe kwakhona.

Iingoma zesiLatin American sele zikhulile ngoku. Oko kuvela eSpain akulandiswanga kuphela, kodwa kuyacetyiswa. Kakhulu kangangokuba ireferensi enkulu yeengoma zeli xesha yazalwa kanye embindini welizwekazikazi ebisoloko ithi yeyayo. Sithetha ngeNicaragua URubén Darío kunye nesiqwenga sayo esisisiseko: Azul.

El Iluncedo - Garde

UFranz Kafka kunye neAvant-garde.

"Konke ngokuchasene nehlabathi." Mhlawumbi eli binzana libaxiwe, kodwa i-avant-gardes yobugcisa yazalelwa ukwahlula kunye nayo yonke eyangaphambili. Baphakama kwakhona ukuba bathandabuze ngexabiso lokufunda. Lixesha elingonelisekanga kakhulu apho ibango eliphambili ligxile kwinkululeko yokuthetha.

Wazalelwa ngokuhambelana nexesha langoku, Kwaye esi siqwenga sinye esabeka i-brake kwi "owayephila ngexesha laso" (iMfazwe yesibini yeHlabathi) sanyanzela ukubaluleka kwaso ukuba siphononongwe. Amagama ngokwahluka njengezichazi kwimbali yoonobumba avela phakathi kwababonisi babo. Imizekelo emine:

  • UAndré Breton.
  • UJulio Cortazar.
  • Franz Kafka.
  • Ernest Hemingway

Ixesha le "Post"

Ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba elithile, lixesha esiphila kulo. Sithetha nge-postmodernism, kunye ne-post-avant-garde. Kuzo zombini, ezinye iintshukumo ezibalulekileyo zibalulekile kwimbali yoncwadi. Eyona nto ibaluleke ngakumbi kwiileta zaseLatin American, ubunyani bobugqi, kunye noGabriel García Márquez njengenye yezona ngxelo zakhe zibalulekileyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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