Mabhuku akakosha paETA

Chirevo naFernando Aramburu

Chirevo naFernando Aramburu

Nhasi, kutaurwa kweETA kunounza kupesana kunotyisa muSpanish sociopolitical sphere. Mazhinji emakakatanwa aripo anoenderana nemutemo uchangobva kudzikwa weDemocratic Memory Law, uchitsigirwa nevezvematongerwo enyika anofambira mberi uye uchimhurwa nevanochengetedza. Iwo ekupedzisira anotsanangura mutemo wambotaurwa se "revanchist, sectarian uye anobvumirana nemagandanga."

Chokwadi, mazhinji emademocracies ekuMadokero uye masangano epasirese ane simba guru rehurumende -UN, OAS, European Union, pakati pezvimwe- vaiona ETA seboka rinopfurikidza mwero. Sezviri pachena, Haisi nyaya iri nyore kutaura. Nokuda kwechikonzero ichi, mabhuku akatevedzana ane maonero akasiyana-siyana pamusoro pekukwira, kusimuka uye kupera kweETA kunoratidzwa pasi apa.

Nezve ETA

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna rakanga riri sangano raizviti “rakazvimiririra, rekuda nyika, resocialist uye reshanduko” rainyanya kushanda muBasque Country (kuchamhembe kweSpain neFrance). Chinangwa chikuru chesangano chaive chekusimudzira mavambo ehurumende yakasununguka yakasununguka muEuskal Herria.

Huzhinji hwezviitiko zvehutsotsi hweETA hwakatanga mushure mekufa kwa Francisco Franco (1975) kusvika pakati pemakore ekuma 1990. Zvaisanganisira ugororo, kubhomba, kubiwa, kutengesa zvombo, uye chiokomuhomwe, nokudaro chimiro chavo semagandanga. Boka iri rakatokwanisa kukwidza mari inosvika zana nemakumi maviri emamiriyoni emadhora ekuAmerica nekuda kwehumbavha hwaro. Muna 2011, boka racho rakasununguka zvachose.

chiyero chekutya

  • Ongororo yakaitwa nevakuru veFrance neSpain inoratidza izvozvo ETA yakauraya vanhu vanopfuura 860 (kusanganisira vana 22);
  • Vazhinji vevakabatwa vake vaive veBasque mavambo uye vaisanganisira varindi vehurumende (zvikurukuru), mamejasitiriti, vezvematongerwo enyika, vemabhizimisi, vatori venhau uye mapurofesa;
  • Mabhomba ake yakakonzera kufa kwakawanda kune vanhuwo zvavo, yakanzi "kukuvadza kwechibvumirano", maererano nesangano.

Synopsis yemabhuku akakosha eETA

Patria (2016)

Ichi chinyorwa chinomiririra chiitiko chakakosha mubasa rekunyora raFernando Aramburu. Muchokwadi, bhuku iri rakawana mibairo yakawanda - seMubairo weVatsoropodzi kana Mubairo Wenyika Yekurondedzera, pakati pevamwe - kumunyori kubva kuSan Sebastian. Pamusoro pezvo, muna 2017 HBO Spain yakazivisa kuti zita racho richashandurwa kuita terevhizheni (kutanga kwayo kwakanonoka nekuda kweCovid-19 denda).

Fernando Aramburu

Fernando Aramburu

Patria inopa nyaya yaBittori, chirikadzi yemumwe muzvinabhizimisi akaurayiwa neETA munzvimbo yekunyepedzera yekumaruwa muGuipúzcoa. Pamavambo ebhuku racho, anoshanyira guva romurume wake kuti amuudze kuti ari kudzokera kutaundi uko kwaakapondwa. Asi, zvisinei nekuregedzwa kwekupedzisira kweboka remagandanga, mumusha iwoyo mune kunetsana kunoshungurudza kwakafukidzwa nerunyararo rwenhema rwuripo.

ETA uye heroin kurangana (2020)

Muna 1980, ETA yakapomera nyika yeSpain kuunza heroin sechishandiso chezvematongerwo enyika chekumisa uye kuparadza vechidiki veBasque. Zvadaro, pasi penharo iyoyo, sangano re regionalist rakatanga munhu anopomerwa kurwisa kutengeswa kwezvinodhaka. Asi, mumaonero emunyori Pablo García Varela, "drug mafia" yaiva ngano yakagadzirwa neboka remagandanga.

Kupikisa pfungwa yako, Varela -PhD muContemporary History kubva kuUPV/EHU— Akaita tsvakurudzo huru panyaya yacho. Mhedzisiro yacho chinyorwa chinojekesa nedata uye humbowo kuti chinangwa chaicho cheETA chaive chekubatanidza chikamu chayo chepfuti. Zvakare, munyori anopa zvinogona kukonzera dambudziko rezvinodhaka muBasque Country nemhinduro dzayo.

1980. Hugandanga hunopesana neShanduko (2020)

Kutanga muna 1976, Spain yakatanga nzira inononoka uye inoshungurudza yekuchinja kubva kuhudzvanyiriri hweFranco kuenda kudemokrasi. Kwakanga kuchingopfuura makore matanhatu umo ugandanga hwakamirira tyisidziro hurusa kukudzikama kwenyika yaiva munhamo. Chinangwa chemhosva idzi kwaive kurambwa kwakasimba kweTransition nemapoka akakasharara ane nhoroondo dzakasiyana dzezvematongerwo enyika.

Zvamazvirokwazvo, zvisinei nemaitiro akasiyana emasangano aya (vanoparadzana, vanonyanya-kuruboshwe, vane kodzero…) vese vakasarudza kushandisa hugandanga kuputsa Hurumende. Mukati memakore iwayo, nyongano hurusa yakanga iri 1980, apo kurwisa 395 kwakanyoreswa., zvichikonzera kufa kwevanhu 132, 100 kukuvadzwa uye 20 kubiwa.

Faira

Coordinators: Gaizka Fernández Soldevilla naMaría Jiménez Ramos. nhanganyaya: Luisa Etxenike.

Vanyori. Matteo Re, Barbara Van der Leeuw.

wedzero: Technos.

Rondedzero dzehugandanga (2020)

Yakarongedzwa naAntonio Rivera naAntonio Mateo Santamaría, Bhuku rino rinounza pamwe chete maonero evanyori makumi maviri pakati penyanzvi munhoroondo, uzivi, magariro evanhu, uye kutaurirana. Kunyanya, vanyori vanoongorora kupera kwemabasa ehutsotsi uye kuparara kweETA. Saizvozvowo, chinyorwa chinotarisa mumamiriro ezvinhu ehugandanga pamwe nekumisikidzwa kwayo mumhando dzese dzetsika.

Nekuda kweizvozvo, hutsinye hwakatekeshera muhuwandu kuburikidza nenhau, mabhaisikopo, mabhuku uye terevhizheni. Tichipa kupararira kwakadaro, vanyori vanopokana nzira iyo nhoroondo iri kuudzwa kuzvizvarwa zvitsva. Vanonyevera kuti ngozi huru ndeyokuti rondedzero ine rusaruro inogona kuuya kuzopembedza mhirizhonga yemagandanga uye kufuratira kutambura kwevari kuitirwa.

NYAYA DZE...
NYAYA DZE...
Hapana wongororo

Fernando Buesa, nhoroondo yezvematongerwo enyika. Hazvina kukodzera kuuraya kana kufa (2020)

Musi waFebruary 22, 2000, wezvematongerwo enyika wesocialist Fernando Buesa - pamwe chete nemuperekedzi wake, Jorge Díez Elorza - vakapondwa neETA. Mufi ari kutaurwa uyu akange atyisidzirwa nesangano remagandanga nekuda kwekupokana kwake nesangano renyika yemapato anoenderana neETA. Iyi secessionist ideological ideological maitiro ainyatsojeka muPNV (Basque Nationalist Party) uye mamwe mapato ePSE (Socialist Party yeEuskadi).

Pamusoro pebhuku, Mikel Buesa, munun'una waFernando Buesa, akazivisa kuLibertad Digital kuti chinyorwa chinotadza kurondedzera zvimwe zvakakosha zvehupenyu. yevakapondwa Nekudaro, iro rakaburitswa nemunyori wenhoroondo Antonio Rivera naEduardo Mateo - mumiriri kuFernando Buesa Foundation- rinoburitsa zvakadzama zvine chekuita nekunetsana kwemukati muAlava socialism.

Fernando Buesa,...
Fernando Buesa,...
Hapana wongororo

Marwadzo uye ndangariro (2021)

Iyi komiki yakanyorwa naAurora Cuadrado Fernández uye yakaburitswa naSaure inopa nyaya gumi nezvekutambudzika, kusurukirwa, kusiiwa, kutya uye rufu.. Vatambi vake vanoita se "zvakajairika", nekuti hapana mumwe wavo aida kuva protagonist. Zvisinei, munhu wose anomanikidzwa kufamba nzira yakaoma yekusimba kuitira kuti agone kutarisana nenhamo uye kugamuchira ramangwana.

Ivo vanhu vane mamiriro akasiyana kwazvo, asi vane chinhu chimwe chete chakafanana: hupenyu hwavo hwakashandurwa zvakanyanya nechiito chegandanga. Kuti aunganidze nyaya, munyori akashandisa zvipupuriro zvevakabatwa uye hama dzakakanganisika nemapoka anonyanyisa akadai seETA, GRAPO kana Islamic hugandanga (11-M). Varatidziri vakuru vekomiki ndiDaniel Rodríguez, Carlos Cecilia, Alfonso Pinedo naFran Tapias.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako