UBenito Pérez Galdós, ummeleli ophakeme we-Realism yaseSpain

UBenito Pérez Galdós, kanye noLeopoldo Alas «Clarín», bangabamele abaphezulu kunabo bonke Ukusebenza kweSpanishi. Kodwa-ke, namuhla asikunaki okwesibili, esizoxoxa ngakho kwenye indatshana kungekudala, futhi sigxile ngaphezu kwakho konke ngomsebenzi wokuqala, uGaldós.

UBenito Pérez Galdós noveli yakhe

Emsebenzini kaGaldós, ukukhiqizwa kwakhe okuhle kwamanoveli kugqame kakhulu, lapho kuhlukaniswa khona amaqembu amaningi:

  • I-Los Iziqephu Zikazwelonke bakha iqoqo lamanoveli angama-46 alandisa ngomlando waseSpain kusukela e-Battle of Trafalgar kuya ekubuyiselweni kwamakhosi. Iziqu zakhe ezigqame kakhulu kulezi ziqephu zikazwelonke yilezi "I-Trafalgar", "Bailen" y "Saragossa".
  • Kumanoveli okuqala kaGaldós, lokhu ngokusobala ikhombisa isimo sayo sokuqhubeka: Abalingiswa abamele imibono esezingeni eliphakeme bavame ukubhekana nabanye abagcina imikhuba, ababonisa ukungabekezelelani nokungahambelani. Isebenza njenge "Ntokazi enhle" (1876), "Udumo" (1877) futhi "Umndeni kaLeon Roch" (1878). Iningi lalamanoveli limayelana «Amanoveli eThesisi»Ngamanye amagama, amaqiniso aveziwe asezelwa umqondo futhi abalingiswa abakakhombisi ukubonakala okuyinkimbinkimbi kwezigaba zakamuva.
  • Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amaGaldós, ngokugcwele ukuvuthwa kwemibhalo, ubhala amanoveli aseSpain angaleso sikhathi. Kuzo, khetha i- ukuma okuqonde ngokwengeziwe futhi ulahle indlela enemibono kusobala kakhulu. Kulezi zinoveli ithonya lemvelo nalo liyabonakala, kepha alakhelwanga kule nhlangano yize kusetshenziswa izindlela ezijwayelekile zemvelo. IMadrid imvamisa idolobha elikhethwe ngumlobi walezi zinoveli: «Tormento» (1884), "La de Bringas" (1884), "Meow" (1888) futhi «Fortunata noJacinta» (1887).

  • Kusuka 1889, isikhathi sokugcina sokukhiqiza sombhali. Lokhu kubonakala ngokuqinisa imisebenzi yakhe, ngoba uGaldós ugxile kumuntu nencazelo yokuba khona kwakhe. Kulesi sikhathi, uvivinya ngamasu amasha okulandisa futhi afake izinto ezinjengamaphupho, okungokomfanekiso noma okumnandi. Amanoveli anjenge "Iqiniso" (1889), «Angel Guerra» (1891), "Tristana" (1892), "Nazarín" (1895) noma "Isihe" (1897).

Imibono nengqikimba yomsebenzi wakhe

Kunemibono nezindikimba eziningi ezingabhekwa njenge- "Galdosian" ngokuphelele:

  1. La ukugxekwa emphakathini. UGaldós uzizwa ezihlonipha kakhulu izigaba zabantu abahlwempu, njengabaceli, abagulayo noma abakhubazekile, ngasikhathi sinye lapho akhombisa khona ukuzwana nalabo abangazange bazivumelanise nezikhathi zamanje, njengabefundisi, izicukuthwane noma abangenzi lutho. Isigaba senhlalo esigxeka kakhulu emsebenzini wakhe ngongxiwankulu.
  2. La ezombusazwe, eshushiswa ngokombono womlando waleso sikhathi. Kunemisebenzi eyihlaziyo eliphumelelayo kakhulu lesikhathi samanje kanye nesikhathi esedlule esedlule sombhali wabo. Kulokhu kuvela umoya wenkululeko, oweriphabhulikhi nowezenhlalo owengamele ukuvela kwemibono yakhe. UGaldós uqhubekela phambili ekuboneni umbono ongenathemba lomlando, ikakhulukazi ekugugeni kwakhe, okuholela ekutheni abheke isiphetho esibuhlungu sezwe njengokuthile okugxile kakhulu eSpain.
  3. La inkolo. Uphikisana namandla abefundisi, yize eveza ukuzwelana nompristi wevangeli.

Isitayela esingokoqobo sikaGaldós

UGaldós udala emisebenzini yakhe indawo eqanjiwe ethembekile kwiqiniso. Umphakathi wesikhathi samanje, empeleni, ungumthombo wakhe wokhuthazo. Ngakho-ke, enkulumweni yakhe yokungena e I-Royal Spanish Academy, enesihloko esikhulu "Umphakathi wethule njengesihloko senoveli", ithi:

«Isithombe sempilo yiNoveli, futhi ubuciko bokuyibhala buxhomeke ekukhiqizeni abalingiswa babantu, izinkanuko, ubuthakathaka, abakhulu nabancane, imiphefumulo kanye nama-physiognomies, konke okungokomoya nokomzimba okuyikho nathi okusizungezile, nolimi, okuwuphawu lohlanga, nezindawo zokuhlala, okuyizimpawu zomndeni, nezingubo, ezakha iminonjana yokugcina yobuntu: konke lokhu ngaphandle kokukhohlwa ukuthi kufanele kube nokulingana okuphelele okuthembekile phakathi kokunemba nobuhle bokuzala. 

Izingxoxo kanye namahlaya nakho kuyizici ezibalulekile zesitayela sikaGaldós.

Uma uyithanda inoveli yesitayela seqiniso, kusasa sizoqhubeka nokuyifunda, siphinde sihlaziye omunye umbhali oyisihlabani wale nhlangano: I-Leopoldo Alas «Clarín».


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.