Ukukhumbula uHerman Melville. Amabinzana angama-20 emisebenzi yakhe

UHerman Melville dibana namhlanje 199 iminyaka. Kwaye i-bicentennial yayo kunyaka olandelayo ithembisa ukuba ngumthendeleko omkhulu. Lo mbhali waseMelika, uthathwa njengomnye wee-greats zoncwadi lwehlabathi, ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo isalathiso esisiseko senoveli yolonwabo, ngakumbi ezo zaphuhliswa kwi- umtshato, Icandelo elinamandla nelomeleleyo lwengqondo.

Namhlanje ndizisa Amabinzana e-20 ekhethwe kweyona misebenzi yakhe ibalaseleyo. Kwabo bathanda iincwadi zohlobo kunye nayo yonke into enukayo ulwandle, iinqanawa kunye nee-epics ezinkuluUmbhali womnenga omhlophe ongafiyo uMoby Dick umele ukuba unayo.

Ngubani uHerman Melville

Ngobomi obunamandla njengeenoveli zakhe, uMelville wazalelwa eNew York kwaye wayengowesithathu kubantwana abasibhozo. Ukusweleka kukayise, uAllan Melville, usapho lwalusengxakini enkulu yemali. Ke, ngo-1837 wawela ulwandle esiya Liverpool apho wayesebenza khona. Ekubuyeni kwakhe usebenze njenge ngutitshala kwaye ngo-1841, eneminyaka engama-22 ubudala, waya ku Ulwandle lwaseMzantsi ngaphakathi a ukuloba.

Emva konyaka onesiqingatha wokuwela, wayishiya inqanawa Iziqithi zeMarquesas kwaye waphila inyanga phakathi kwamatyezane, awathi kuwo wasinda kwinqanawa yomrhwebi wase-Australia ukuba ehle kuwo ETahiti, apho wachitha ixesha elithile entolongweni. Wayesebenza njengomlimi, esiya Honolulu Ukusuka apho, wagqiba ekubeni abhalise kwi-frigate yaseMelika.

1844 iyekile ukukhangela Kwaye wazinikela ekubhaleni iinoveli ngokusisigxina kwaye uhlala esekwe kweyakhe amava elwandle. Babezizihloko ezinje Uhlobo, Mardi okanye Redburn, phakathi kwabanye. Okanye njengoko UBilly Budd, oomatiloshe, Umsebenzi wokugqibela opapashiweyo xa iMelville iphantse yalibala. Ezinye izihloko zazikho Pierre, ukusilela okukhulu, kwaye Iimbali ezivela kwimbono, equlethe iakhawunti Bartleby unobhala.

Inoveli yakhe edumileyo yayi Moby Dick, yapapashwa ngo-1850, kodwa yalahlwa ekuqaleni. Emva koko yaba ngomnye wemisebenzi emikhulu yoncwadi kwindalo iphela, kumzobo kunye nesikweko sehlabathi kunye nendalo yomntu esikhepheni, i encinci, wabanjwa ngomnye wabalinganiswa ababalaseleyo abakhe badalwa, uKapteni UAhabhi. Wazinikela UNathaniel Hawthorne, umbhali owamchaphazela kakhulu kwaye wenza ubuhlobo naye ngo-1850.

Amabinzana angama-20 emisebenzi yakhe

Uhlobo (1846)

  1. Inqanawa embi! Inkangeleko yakho ibonisa iminqweno yakho; Ikho le meko imbi!
  2. Iintaba kunye nomphakathi zikhona kuphela iindawo ezizimeleyo nezithe cwaka zokujonga, ngaphandle kwemigqumo yezilwanyana ezingamaxhoba kwaye ziphiliswa ziisampulu ezimbalwa zezinto ezincinci.
  3. Inqanawa yethu yanikezela kuzo zonke iintlobo zeminyhadala kunye nokugqwetha. Akukho mqobo umncinci wawungenisiweyo phakathi kweenkanuko zabasebenzi kunye nolonwabo lwabo.
  4. Kodwa oku kubonakaliswa kunqabile ukuhlala engqondweni yam; Ndandiye ndizilahle njengoko iiyure zidlula, kwaye ukuba iingcinga ezingathandekiyo zize phezu kwam, ndandizikhupha ngokukhawuleza. Xa ndandincoma indawo ebiyelweyo endandivalelwe kuyo, ndandithambekele ekucingeni ukuba ndikwi "ntlambo yamaphupha" kwaye ngaphaya kweentaba bekukho kuphela ilizwe loxinzelelo kunye nexhala.
  5. Ukukhangela umnenga sasihamba ngenqanawe nge-Ikhweyitha malunga namashumi amabini eedigri entshona yeGalapagos; kwaye wonke umsebenzi wethu, emva kokumisela ikhosi yethu, yayikukuhlengahlengisa iiyadi kwaye sihlale siphantsi: isikhephe esihle kunye nomoya oqhubekayo oya kwenza konke okunye.

Moby Dick (1851)

  1. Ungandibiza ngokuba nguIsmael.
  2. Ukuhlanya kwabantu kuhlala kuyinto yobuqhetseba kunye nenkohliso. Xa kucingelwa ukuba ibalekile, mhlawumbi izenzele kumila kumbi ngendlela ethe cwaka nengacacanga.
  3. Ngokufa okunomdla, njengoko kuhlala kuchazwa ngabantu abenza iifilimu zedolophu abahlala bemisa inkampu ngeenkundla zamatyala, ngokufanayo, manene, aboni, aboni badla ngokugcwala kwezona ndawo zingcwele.
  4. Akukho kuyo nayiphi na imephu. Iindawo zangempela azikho.
  5. Umkhondo wexesha elizayo wesilwanyana ebumnyameni uphantse wamiselwa umzingeli onengqondo njengonxweme lomqhubi wenqwelomoya. Ke obu bubuchule obumangalisayo bomzingeli, umzekeliso wento ebhaliweyo emanzini, ukuvuka, kuyathembeka kuzo zonke iinjongo ezinqwenelekayo, njengomhlaba owomileyo.

Bartleby, unobhala (1853)

  1. Ndimele ukuthi, ngokwesiko lamagosa amaninzi aneeofisi kwizakhiwo ezinabantu abaninzi, umnyango wawunezitshixo ezininzi.
  2. Hayi, ulonwabo lufuna ukukhanya, yiyo loo nto sigweba ukuba umhlaba wonwabile; kodwa iintlungu zifihla kwisithukuthezi, yiyo loo nto sigweba ukuba iintlungu azikho.
  3. Kodwa wayebonakala eyedwa, eyedwa kwindalo iphela. Into efana nexhoba embindini woLwandlekazi lweAtlantic.
  4. Ndinganika amalizo emzimbeni wakhe; kodwa umzimba wakhe awuzange wenzakalise; umphefumlo wakhe uyagula, kwaye andikwazi ukufikelela emphefumlweni wakhe.
  5. Akuqhelekanga ukuba le ndoda iphikiswe ngendlela engaqhelekanga nengafanelekanga ngequbuliso ingakholelwa kolona kholo lwayo lokuqala. Uqala ukukroba kancinci ukuba, ngokungaqhelekanga kubonakala ngathi, bonke ubulungisa nazo zonke izizathu zikwelinye icala; ukuba kukho amangqina angakhethi cala, ujika aye kubo ngenjongo yokumomeleza.

UBilly Budd, oomatiloshe (1924)

  1. Inyaniso engaxelwanga ngokungathembeki iya kuhlala inamacala ayo amabi.
  2. Ngapha koko, wayengomnye weengcuka zolwandle apho ubunzima kunye nobungozi bobomi bamanzi aselwandle, kula maxesha emfazwe ethatha ixesha elide, engazange konakalise ithuku lemvelo lokuzonwabisa kwezimvo.
  3. Lo kaputeni wayengomnye wabo bantu baxabisekileyo abafunyanwa kuzo zonke iintlobo zobungcali, nkqu nabona babephantsi; uhlobo lomntu wonke umntu uyavuma ukubiza "indoda ehloniphekileyo."
  4. Xa kubhengezwa imfazwe, ngaba thina, abasemagunyeni abaphetheyo, babonisene ngaphambili? Silwa ngokulandela imiyalelo. Ukuba isigwebo sethu siyayamkela imfazwe, yinto eyenzekileyo.
  5. Ngubani kumnyama onokwenza umgca apho iphela khona i-purple kunye neorenji? Siwubona ngokucacileyo umahluko kwimibala, kodwa kuphi, ngokuchanekileyo, eyokuqala idideka neyesibini? Kukwanjalo nangempilo yengqondo kunye nokuhlanya.

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.