UFederico García Lorca: imibongo ebalaseleyo, ubomi kunye nomsebenzi

UFederico García Lorca.

UFederico García Lorca.

Imibongo kaFederico García Lorca bubutyebi boncwadi, Enye yeebhanile eziqaqambileyo kwiileta zaseSpain zenkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Ngaphandle kobukho bayo obufutshane, igama lakhe limi njengesinye sezona zibalulekileyo phakathi kweembongi zembali yaseSpain.

Umbhali Wazalwa ngoJuni 5, 1898, eFuente de Vaqueros, idolophu encinci yabalimi kwithafa laseGranada, eAndalusia, eBukumkani baseSpain. Abazali bakhe yayinguVicenta Lorca Romero (utitshala wesikolo) kunye noFederico García Rodríguez (umnini mhlaba). Wayenomntakwabo, uFrancisco, kunye noodadewabo ababini, uConchita noIsabel.

Ubuntwana, ixesha lokufikisa kunye nohambo lokufunda

Ubomi kweli lizwe babonisa ukuphefumlelwa kwakheOku ngaphandle kwento yokuba usapho lonke lwafudukela kwisixeko saseGranada ngo-1909, xa uFederico wayeneminyaka elishumi elinanye ubudala. Eli nyathelo liza kumchaphazela ngokubonakalayo, njengoko kamva wabalisa kwisincoko ngobomi bakhe kummandla wasemaphandleni waseFuente de Vaqueros.

Uninzi lwamava emizwa (ukucula kweentaka, ukuhamba kwemilambo, ivumba lengca, incasa yeziqhamo, imifanekiso yenyanga ...) wakhupha kamva. Ngapha koko, uFederico, inkwenkwe, uchithe ixesha elininzi lasehlotyeni kwindawo esemaphandleni e-Asquerosa (okwangoku iValderrubio). Kuloo ndawo, engqongwe yimvelo, wabhala imibongo yakhe yokuqala.

Uhlala egcina imeko eqinileyo yokuba lilungu leelali, ngaphandle kokuchazwa "njengenene lomzi." Ekufikiseni kwakhe, waqala ukuphazamisa umba wokungalingani ekuhlaleni. Ngexesha lokuhamba kwakhe okuninzi efunda, wabona indlela abalimi abane "ntliziyo zimsulwa" kunye "nezandla ezisebenzayo" ababethwa phantsi ngabahlali bedolophu.

Umbhali owaziwayo ngaphambi kwexesha kunye nootitshala abamqeqeshayo

Wabhalisa kwiYunivesithi yaseGranada ngo-1914, kwikhosi evumela ukungena kwiidigri zefilosofi kunye neeleta kunye nomthetho. Nangona kunjalo, ngelo xesha oogxa bakhe abafundileyo babemazi ngakumbi njengesixhobo somculo hayi ngokubhala kwakhe. Wayethathe izifundo zepiyano kunye no-Antonio Segura Mesa kwaye wawathanda amanqaku ka-Beethoven, Chopin no-Debussy, phakathi kwabanye.

UFederico, intombazana ekwishumi elivisayo, wayeyithanda imidlalo yeqonga kwaye wayehlala edibana neqela lezifundiswa ezisencinci kwindawo yokutyela "El Rinconcillo". Oonjingalwazi ababenempembelelo kuye ngexesha lakhe kwiYunivesithi UFernando de los Ríos (Umthetho Wezopolitiko Othelekisayo) kunye noMartín Domínguez Berrueta (Ithiyori yoNcwadi kunye nezoBugcisa).

Imibongo yokuqala epapashiweyo

Uhambo lokufunda lukaFederico García Lorca lwamvumela ukuba azi amanye amaphondo aseSpain kwaye wagqibela ngokukhuthaza ubizo lwakhe njengembongi. Enkosi ngoncedo lwezezimali lukayise, ngo-1918 wapapasha incwadi yakhe yokuqala yeprose ebizwa ngokuba Imifanekiso kunye nokuma komhlaba, Ukudityaniswa kwamaphepha akhe aphambili-de kube lelo xesha-apho wayethetha ngemicimbi yezopolitiko neyayimchaphazela.

Kulo mbhalo wesandla Uvakalise iingxaki zakhe zonqulo kunye nomdla wobugcisa kunye nobuhle (Ingoma kaGregory, isitayela soKuvuselela, i-Baroque, ingoma eyaziwayo ...). Ngo-1918, utitshala wakhe womculo wasweleka, umsitho owathi ekugqibeleni wamkhokelela kwilizwe lemibongo.

Indawo yokuhlala yaseMadrid

Ngo-1919 uFederico oselula wafudukela eMadrid kwaye wazinza-de kwangowe-1926- eResidencia de Estudiantes, apho waphinda wadibana khona namalungu aliqela e- "El Rinconcillo". Yayiyindawo engaqhelekanga leyo, kuba indawo ibisebenza njengesixhobo sokutshintshiselana ngenkcubeko phakathi kwabaseSpain nabangaphandle, indawo egqibeleleyo yokukhula kwengqondo kukaGarcía Lorca.

Kwindawo yokuhlala waba ngumhlobo nababhali belizwe abanomdla kunye nabazobi bamaxesha, Phakathi kwabo kwakume uLuis Buñuel, uRafael Alberti noSalvador Dalí. Abo bakhankanyiweyo, kunye noGarcía Lorca, uJorge Guillén, uPedro Salinas noGerardo Diego, ukubala nje abambalwa, kwiminyaka ethile kamva basungula umbutho wobugcisa obizwa ngokuba yi "The Generation of 27".

nayo, Le ndawo yokuhlala yayiyindawo yeentlanganiso yoososayensi abadumileyo bamanye amazwe, iimvumi kunye nababhali Njengo: Claudel, Valéry, Cendrans, Max Jabob, Marie Curie, Le Corbusier, Ravel, phakathi kwabanye abaninzi. Kukhenketho lwakhe lwesixeko wadibana nabalawuli bemidlalo yeqonga abanjengo-Eduardo Marquina noGregorio Martínez Sierra, kunye nabantu abadumileyo kwezobugcisa njengoRamón Gómez de la Serna okanye uVicente Huidobro.

USalvador Dalí noFederico García Lorca.

USalvador Dalí noFederico García Lorca.

Ukudibana kwakhe notitshala owamenza umbongi

Ngelo xesha uGarcía Lorca wavelisa iqhekeza lakhe lokuqala lomdlalo weqonga: Ibhabhathane Hex (Oku akuzange kwamkelwe kakuhle). Enkosi ngeleta yengcebiso evela kuFernando de los Ríos, a ngasekupheleni kuka-1919 UFederico omncinci wadibana noJuan Ramón Jiménez, owaba ngumcebisi wakhe njengembongi kunye nomhlobo othandekayo ubomi bakhe bonke.

Phakathi kowe-1920 nowe-1922, uGarcía Lorca wapapasha ezinye zeevesi zakhe kwiimagazini ezaziwayo ezifana neSpain, Index y Usiba. UJuan Ramón Jiménez wamkhuthaza ukuba ahlele incwadi yakhe yemibongo (ebhalwe ukusukela ngo-1918) kwindlu yokushicilela kaGabriel García Maroto, nangona yayiyindlu encinci yokupapasha, uFederico wakwazi ukujongana nazo zonke iinkcukacha zokushicilela, de umsebenzi waqaliswa unyaka Ngo-1921.

Ukuguquguquka kokubhalwa kweencwadi kukaGarcia Lorca

Ngexesha lehlobo le1921 wadibana noManuel de Falla eGranada, ngelo xesha ubhale ukwakheka kwakhe Suites kunye nePoema del cante jondo (epapashwe ngo-1931). Elokugqibela lijongana nemisebenzi ekhuthazwe bubufutshane, uxinano kunye nomdlandla womxholo wentetho yobugcisa bemigca emithathu okanye emine.

Ngo-1923 wadala Iipopi zeBlackjack, uhlobo lokuya kwindawo yokubonela, awayedlala kuyo Intombazana enisela iBasil kunye nenkosana emangazayo. Le yayiyihlaya elinobukho bukaFalla njengomdibanisi kunye nomculo (ipiyano).

Ukungcwaliswa koncwadi lukaGarcía Lorca kwafika ngo-1925 kunye nokupapashwa kwengqokelela yakhe yemibongo Amaculo. Ngaxeshanye, imidlalo yeqonga eyaziwayo eMadrid nguMariana Pineda yavela, apho uSalvador Dalí wapeyinta iiseti. Ukongeza, kunye noDalí wakhenketha iCatalonia, umhlaba lowo-ngokukaFederico ngokwakhe-owandisa ubuchule bakhe bokudala.

U-1928 uthathwa njengomzuzu wokuvuthwa okuqinisekileyo kwembongi, ngaloo nyaka kwakukhona nini ibonakalise ukuzazisa kwakhe kunye nesitayile esithandwayo kunye nenkcubeko, iimpawu athe wazibamba Ukuthandana kwamaGypsy, Umsebenzi wempumelelo. Ngo-1929 waya kwiYunivesithi yaseColumbia kwisifundi; kummandla waseMelika wabhala enye yemisebenzi yakhe ye-avant-garde: Imbongi eNew York.

Ebudeni bowe-1931 kwasekwa iRiphabliki yesibini yaseSpain. Umhlobo wakhe uFernando de los Ríos wonyulwa njengoMphathiswa Wezemfundo Yoluntu, owathi yena, wamisela uGarcía Lorca ongumlawuli-co weLa Barraca (inkampani yeqonga eyunivesithi eyenza intetho kumaphondo).

Ngelo xesha wabhala Umtshato wegazi, umsebenzi owaziwa kwilizwe liphelangokunjalo uludlolo y UDoña Rosita uSoltera. Imixholo yakho eqhubeka rhoqo babesabelana ngesondo, uthando, ukufa kunye nokungabikho kokusesikweni kwezentlalo.

Imibongo kaFederico García Lorca.

UFederico García Lorca: Imibongo.

UFederico García Lorca: imibongo ebalaseleyo

Isifuba sembongi

Awusoze uyiqonde into endikuthanda ngayo
kuba ulele kum, kwaye ulele.
Ndiyakufihla ulila, utshutshiswa
ngelizwi lentsimbi ehlabayo.

Norm evuselela inyama efanayo kunye neenkwenkwezi
sele igqobhoza isifuba sam esibuhlungu
kwaye amagama abolileyo alumile
amaphiko omoya wakho ombi.

Iqela labantu lixhuma egadini
ndilinde umzimba wakho kunye nosizi lwam
kumahashe akhanyayo kunye nohlaza.

Kodwa qhubeka ulele, sithandwa sam.
Yiva igazi lam elaphukileyo kwiivayoli!
Jonga, basasibamba!

Imbongi iyathetha emnxebeni ngothando

Ilizwi lakho lankcenkceshela isanti yam
kwikhabhathi yeplanga emnandi.
Emazantsi eenyawo zam kwakusentwasahlobo
kwaye emantla ebunzi lam intyatyambo yefern.

Ukukhanya kwepayini kwisithuba esincinci
wacula ngaphandle kokusa nokuhlwayela
kwaye ukukhala kwam kwaqala okokuqala
Izithsaba zethemba ngaphaya kophahla.

Ilizwi elimnandi nelikude eligalelwe ndim.
Ilizwi elimnandi nelikude kum lithandile.
Ilizwi elikude nelimnandi elibulalayo.

Kukude njengexhama elimnyama.
Iswiti njenge sob kwikhephu.
Kude kwaye kumnandi kumongo!

Uluhlu olude

Uluhlu olude lwesilivere olushukunyisiweyo
umoya wobusuku uyancwina,
ndavula inxeba lam elidala ngesandla esingwevu
wahamba: bendijonge phambili.

Inxeba lothando eliza kundinika ubomi
igazi elingenasiphelo kunye nokukhanya okumsulwa kuphuma.
Ukuqhekeka apho uFilomela sisimumu
iya kuba nehlathi, iintlungu kunye nendlwane ethambileyo.

Yho hayi amarhe amnandi entlokweni yam!
Ndiza kungqengqa ecaleni kwentyatyambo elula
apho ubuhle bakho budada ngaphandle komphefumlo.
Amanzi ajikelezayo ajika abe tyheli,
Ngelixa igazi lam libaleka ematyholweni
kumanzi kwaye kunuka unxweme.

Imfazwe yamakhaya kunye nokubulawa

NgoJanuwari 1936, u-Lorca wajoyina i-Popular Front, kwaye ngoJulayi kwaqhambuka iMfazwe yamakhaya yase-Spain.. Esi siganeko siphawule ukuthunjwa kwabaninzi bezazi ze-Iberia. IColombia neMexico zanikezela ngeGarcía Lorca indawo yezopolitiko, kodwa waxhathisa ukushiya ilizwe lakhe wabuyela kwiphondo lakhe.

Ibinzana nguFederico García Lorca.

Ibinzana nguFederico García Lorca.

Ngo-Agasti 16, 1936, wabanjwa kwaye wagwintwa ngokomyalelo weRhuluneli yaseGranada., UJosé Valdez Guzmán, emva kwesikhalazo esingaziwayo. Kukholelwa ukuba umzimba wakhe ulele engcwabeni elininzi eliphakathi kweVíznar neAlfacar.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo, shiya eyakho

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   IFERNANDO GARCÍA ORTEGA sitsho

    LIXABISO ELIHLAWULWA NGAMAGCISA KURHULUMENTE WOBUCHAPHAZELELA NOKUBALA