Ukuthetha noJavier Alonso García-Pozuelo, umbhali we La cajita de snuff

Namhlanje ndithetha no UJavier Alonso García-Pozuelo, Umbhali waseMadrid endabelana naye ngeengcambu ezivela eLa Mancha. Incwadana yakhe yokuqala, Ibhokisi yesinemfu, epapashwe kunyaka ophelileyo, ibe yimpumelelo apha nakwamanye amazwe ixesha elithile. Ndiyifundile ngeloxesha kwaye ndiyayithanda imixube ye inoveli yembali ibhalwe kakuhle kwaye ibekwe ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX iMadrid kunye nayo iyelenqe lamapolisa Umlingisi Umhloli uJosé María Benítez, Uhlobo lukaSherlock Holmes okanye iVidocq yesiko. Ugqirha ngobuchwephesha, uGarcía-Pozuelo undiphendula ngemibuzo ethile kwaye usuka apha enkosi.

Ngubani uJavier Alonso García-Pozuelo

Ugqirha, utitshala kunye nombhali ovela eMadrid, ngu uphumelele kunyango nasekutyandeni yiYunivesithi ezimeleyo yaseMadrid, kunye IDiploma kwiNtsebenziswano yaMazwe ngaMazwe yiYunivesithi yeComplutense. Usebenze ngaphezulu kweshumi leminyaka njengoko Unjingalwazi we-Biostatistics kunye neMpilo yoLuntu ngaphandle kokusebenza njenge umbhali, ofunda uvavanyo nomhleli kwizicatshulwa zenzululwazi.

Okwangoku udibanisa isikhundla sakhe njenge Umlawuli kwezemfundo kunye nokuhlela kweLatin America ukusuka kwisikolo soqeqesho lwezonyango AMIR ngomsebenzi wakhe wokubhala. Kwiminyaka embalwa uye wakhokela kwaye wahlela Ukutyunjwa eGlorietaImbali yokusebenzisana kunye nebhlog yoncwadi, kwaye ikhokelela kwifayile Iveki eNtsundu kwiGlorieta, umnyhadala woncwadi onikezelwe kuhlobo lwabantu abamnyama namapolisa.

U dliwano

Lithetha ntoni uncwadi kuwe? Ikunika ntoni kwaye kutheni ucinga ukuba iyimfuneko?

Ukufunda kubalulekile ebomini bam njengobuhlobo, uthando, ukupheka okumnandi okanye umculo. Ndinguye endibulela kuye, ubukhulu becala, kule nto ndiyifundileyo. Iincwadi ziyinxalenye ebalulekileyo yeentsuku zam. Ndisebenza neencwadi kwaye ngexesha lam lasimahla, ndihlala ndiqhubeka nazo. Ndiyathandana kakhulu kwaye ndiyakuthanda ukuphuma nabahlobo ndiyokusela kwaye sincokole (akusoloko malunga neencwadi, irekhodi), kodwa kufuneka ndivume ukuba ndiyakonwabela ukuba ndedwa, ndinekofu etshisayo etafileni kwaye incwadi elungileyo phakathi. izandla.

Ufundele ubugqirha, uzinikezele kwintsebenziswano yamazwe aphesheya. Ukususela nini uncwadi?

Okufuneka ubenazo iminyaka elishumi elinesihlanu okanye elishumi elinesithandathu xa ndibhala amaphepha okuqala wento ebifanele ukuba yinoveli. Ewe, khange ndigqithe kwisahluko sokuqala. Kungekudala ngaphambi okanye kungekudala, andikhumbuli, ndabhala ingoma umxholo wawo, umfazi ongonwabanga ngenxa yendoda ezithandayo, eyindoda engakhathaliyo, yayifana naleyo yenoveli.

Kwingoma kukho umfana othandana nela bhinqa. Ndiyibhalele kwikhasethi. UMarilú yabizwa. Ingoma, ndithetha, ayinguye umfazi endaphefumlelweyo xa ndiyibhala. Ezinjani zona iinkumbulo! Ukusukela ngoko andikayeki ukubhala. Iingoma, amabali, iinoveli kunye namanqaku. Into etshintshe kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo kukuba ndiye ndaqala ukuchitha ixesha elininzi ndibhala kwaye ndiyenzile ngenjongo yokupapasha.

Makhe siye ebuntwaneni bakho okomzuzwana. Ngaba uvela ekufundeni iingcambu? Usebenzise ntoni ukufunda? Ububuze ntoni kwizazi ezithathu?

Ku usapho lwabasebenzi Ngotata okhanyisa inyanga ukusuka ngoMvulo ukuya ngoMgqibelo kunye nomama onabantwana abathathu ukuba abakhulise, akukho lula kubazali bakho ukufumana ixesha lokufunda, nangona usekhaya kwakusoloko kukho iincwadi ezininzi. Ngaphandle kokuba ndineencwadi ezindingqongileyo, bendingenguye umfundi onobuchule kwaye, ewe, andikhumbuli ndakhe ndacela incwadi yooKumkani abathathu.

Nangona kunjalo, kukho ukufundwa komntwana okwandiphawula kakhulu. Khange ndikwazi ukuyichaza into yokufunda kwakhe endibangele kona ndisengumntwana, kodwa INkosana encincinguAntoine de Saint-ExupéryYenye yeencwadi ezishiye elona phawu libalaseleyo kwiingcinga zam. Nanini na xa ubomi bam buzaliswe ngamanani kunye nokukhathazeka kwabantu abadala, ndiyifunda kwakhona.

Kwabo bangekayifundi okwangoku, ucinga njani Ibhokisi yesinemfu? Inoveli yembali enecebo lomcuphi okanye inoveli yomcuphi enemvelaphi engembali?

ICreo inezinto ze Zombini ezi ntlobo zoncwadiNangona, ngokombono wam, ilingana ngakumbi nesikimu senoveli yomcuphi kunaleyo yembali. Xa ndiyibhalayo, ndaye ndazithatha ngokukhululekileyo iindibano zohlobo lwe-noir ndaza ndahlawula ngokubaluleka okukhulu kubume bembali, kodwa i-axis yenoveli sisisombululo solwaphulo-mthetho kunye nommeli ophambili, umphandi.

Ndisebenze nokuseta ixesha kunye nemeko yezopolitiko ngokuqatha njengecebo kunye namaxwebhu yezenzo zamapolisa, ke, iilebheli ecaleni, ndingathanda ukucinga ukuba nokuba ngabafundi beenoveli zembali okanye abalandeli benoveli abaza kubona ulindelo lwabo bedanile xa beyifunda. Ndiyathemba ukuba uninzi lwabafundi luyavumelana nam.

Kwaye ucinga ukuba banantoni esinokuyithanda kakhulu iinoveli apho umhloli onobuhle kufuneka atyhile ulwaphulo-mthetho?

Lonke uncwadi, hayi amapolisa kuphela okanye uncwadi oluyimfihlo, londla umnqweno wethu wokwazi. Singabantu abanomdla abanqwenela ukwazi, njengalo mtyholi waseVélez de Guevara, kwenzeka ntoni phantsi kophahla lwezindlu zabamelwane bethu. Uncwadi lusixelela ngokusondelelana kwabalinganiswa esinokuthi sibachonge okanye singabacekisa, kodwa abathi ngesizathu esithile bavuse umdla wethu.

Inoveli yomcuphi ikwasivumela ukuba sidlale ngokuqikelela olo lwalamano ngaxeshanye nomphengululi. Kwaye loo mlinganiswa kufuneka akholise. Lowo ngomnye wemiceli mngeni emikhulu yombhali wenoveli yanamhlanje: ukwenza abafundi bakho bazive ngathi bahamba neyakho kuphando lwabo emva kwamakhulu abaphandi ababalaseleyo kwimbali yohlobo olumnyama.

Kwinoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho i-charisma ye-protagonist, ubuncinci, ibalulekile njengecebo. Iintsuku zokuba sifunda inoveli sichitha iiyure ezininzi ecaleni kwakhe. Sinento yokwenza nepolisa, umcuphi, ijaji okanye igqwetha ukuze sinikele ngexesha lethu kuye.

UBenítez lelo polisa lilungileyo kwaye lithobekile elilwa nobubi, indoda enexabiso. Ngaba isekwe kumlinganiswa wembali owakukhuthazayo? Kwaye uzama ukusixelela ntoni naye?

Benítez ayiphefumlelwanga ngumntu onembali Ngokukodwa, kodwa indlela yakhe yokusebenza iyafana naleyo amanye amapolisa avela eMadrid ukususela ngo-1861, unyaka apho inoveli iphuhliswa khona. Kwaye ngaphandle kweziphene zakhe ezininzi, unesidima sokuba yile nto ndingayigxininisa kakhulu malunga nomlinganiswa: ingqibelelo.

Ndiyabancoma abantu abangayibeki bucala imigaqo yabo yokuziphatha njengoko iimeko zingenakulunga, umzekelo, xa umsebenzi wakho usengozini. Ndicinga ukuba yile nto bendifuna ukuba nayo ngalo mlinganiswa, ukuba kukho abantu abalwela injongo elungileyo nokuba babeka iwonga labo kunye nokhuseleko lwabo buqu emngciphekweni.

Ngaba kunokubakho isahlulo sesibini okanye isaga kunye noMhloli uBenítez?

Uninzi lwabafundi bam luyandibuza kwaye kucetyisiwe ngumhleli wam, ke, nangona ndineeprojekthi ezininzi zoncwadi engqondweni, ndicinga ukuba kuya kufuneka ndizibeke ecaleni okomzuzwana kwaye ukubeka phambili inoveli elandelayo yoMhloli uBenítez.

Kwaye ngabaphi ababhali okanye iincwadi ziphakathi kwezintandokazi zakho okanye ucinga ukuba babenakho ukuphembelela ikhondo lakho lomsebenzi?

Baninzi ababhali babo bamakisha inqanaba lobomi bakho ngomlilo. Yiza engqondweni Stendhal, Dostoevski, Baroja, Carmen Laforet, Vázquez Montalbán, Kundera, Philip Roth. Kuya kuba nzima kakhulu kum ukukhetha umbhali. Khetha incwadi enye, engenakwenzeka.

Ucinga ntoni malunga nophuhliso lwenoveli yomcuphi eSpain nakwihlabathi liphela? Ngoobani ababhali bakho obathandayo belo hlobo?

Ndicinga ukuba impumelelo yangoku yenoveli yomcuphi kunye nenoveli yezembali inenkcazo elula: abantu bayathanda ukuzonwabisa ngokufunda kwaye ezi ntlobo zimbini zinento yokudlala ekhawulezileyo. Ukuzonwabisa akuphikisani nenoveli ekumgangatho ophezulu woncwadi. Kuza engqondweni UEduardo Mendoza, ibhaso lokugqibela leCervantes, nangona kukho imizekelo emininzi.

Ukuthetha ngababhali obathandayo kunzima kakhulu. Andikwazi ukuthetha ngababhali ababalaseleyo beenoveli zangoku zolwaphulo-mthetho kuba, nokuba ndikhankanye kangakanani, ingandishiya ngaphezulu kwesiqingatha sabo ndibathandayo. Ewe ndingathanda ukukhankanya, kuba ngabo endikhe ndafunda kwakhona kule minyaka idlulileyo, ababhali abathathu abasele beswelekile: UHammett, uSimenon y UVazquez Montalban.

Ngempumelelo yale noveli yokuqala, ulijonga njani ikamva lakho njengombhali?

Uncwadi lwehlabathi, ubuncinci eSpain, lunolwandle oluninzi ngaphezu komhlaba oqinileyo. Kungcono ungazibekeli izinto ozilindeleyo. Nantoni na ezakuvakala. Okwangoku, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kum kukuba ityala lesibini loMhloli uBenítez lamkelwe njengalo. Ndithathe inxaxheba kwiiklabhu zokufunda zamazwe aphesheya kwaye kuye kwamangalisa kakhulu ukubona ukuba abantu abavela kwamanye amazwe banxibelelene nenoveli ethi, ubuncinci ngokwendawo ebekwe kuyo, yeyasekhaya, yiyo le nto iMadrilenian.

Okokugqibela, sUkuba kuye kwafuneka uhlale kunye nenye yezinto ozithandayo, ingayintoni?

Igama. Ungandiceli ukuba ndibeke i-corset kuye, nceda.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
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