Rodrigo Costaya. Udliwano-ndlebe nombhali wencwadi ethi The Custodian of Books

Ukufota: Iwebhusayithi kaRodrigo Costoya.

URodrigo Costoya, umfundisi-ntsapho nombhali, uthi «ukubhala kuphonononga indalo esasingayazi nokuba yayiphila ngaphakathi kwethu. Waqala ngawo Porto Santo. I-nigma kaColumbus. Kwaye inoveli yakhe yamva nje Umgcini weencwadi, ngubani ophumelele IX City of Úbeda Ukhuphiswano lweNoveli yeMbali yeMbali ngo-2020. Ndiyabulela kakhulu ngexesha, ububele kunye nokuzinikela koku udliwano ndlebe apho asixelela ngaye nokunye okuninzi.

Rodrigo Costoya - Udliwano-ndlebe

  • UNCWADI LWANGOKU: Inoveli yakho yamva nje Umgcini Weencwadi uphumelele uKhuphiswano lweNoveli yeMbali ye-IX yase-Úbeda ngo-2020. Livela phi imbono yebali lakho kwaye lalithetha ntoni kuwe elo mbasa?

RODRIGO COSTOYA: Ingcinga, njengoko iqhele ukwenzeka kwiinoveli zam, yavela kwi incwadi endala malunga nembali yaseGalicia. Apho iziganeko endizibalisayo zikhankanyiwe, kwaye ndidibanise nezinye iinyani zembali zokubaluleka kwehlabathi kwaye, ngokuqinisekileyo, kunye nezicwangciso eziqingqiweyo ezigcina imbali yethu yonke. 

Eli bhaso lindenze ndakwazi ukufikelela kuluntu ngokubanzi, injongo enkulu yombhali omtsha. Into enzima kakhulu, kwaye iyakhathaza kangangokuba inokonakalisa ikhondo lomsebenzi ukuba ayiphunyezwa. U-Ebeda ngoko uya kuba sentliziyweni yam ngonaphakade.

  • AL: Ngaba uyazikhumbula naziphi na izifundo zakho zokuqala? Kwaye ibali lokuqala olibhalileyo?

RC: Ewe ndikhumbula intliziyo yam ibaleka ndifunda iinoveli ezimnandi zohambo: Salgari, Verne, London, Stevenson... kunye neenoveli zentelekelelo ezivela kuncwadi lwangoku: Ende, Tolkien, Rothfuss… Ndizibona ndingumntwana ongakwaziyo ukubeka incwadi phantsi, kude kube sebusuku (ngesiphumo sokukhalinyelwa ngabazali bam), ndikhala xa ndivala enye yezo noveli kuba iphelile. Ndicinga ukuba kulapho avela khona amabali endiwabhalayo namhlanje. Ndikhumbula ndiqale ndimncinci kakhulu kweminye imisebenzi emikhulu yoncwadi lwehlabathi: UDumas, uSuskind, uRulfo… Inoveli yembali, nangona kunjalo, ndiyifumene njengomntu omdala.

  • AL: Umbhali oyintloko? Unokukhetha ngaphezu kwesinye kwaye kuwo onke amaxesha. 

RC: Kuyenzeka kum njengoSamwise Gamyi xa ndibuyela eShire: mhlawumbi ndichitha iintsuku ezintathu ndiphendula lo mbuzo okanye andikwenzi. Ukushwankathela ukuya kumda, ndiya ku UGarcia Marquez ngokubalisa (nangona endikwenzayo kwahluke kakhulu); ukuya UManuel Antonio kwimibongo ngoku UBryson kuqheliselo.

  • AL: Nguwuphi umlinganiswa osencwadini onqwenela ukudibana naye kunye nokwenza? 

RC: Ndiyayithanda iipolyhedral, iimpawu eziphikisanayo, ezo zibonisa ubuthathaka esinabo sonke, abo babonakalisa ukukhanya nobumnyama esibuthweleyo sonke ngaphakathi. Mhlawumbi eyona exponent yi Scarlett O'Hara nguMargaret Mitchell, kodwa nam ndithabathekile yi Nguyen nguEmily Brontë, i UAhabhi yaseMelville okanye Humbert kaNabokov, umzekelo. Kwaye isoloko iboniswa ngezenzo zabo, indlela abazichaza ngayo, into abayenzayo, indlela abasabela ngayo kunye nendlela ababaphatha ngayo abanye.

  • AL: Ngaba unayo nayiphi na imikhwa okanye imikhwa xa kufikwa ekubhaleni nasekufundeni? 

RC: Akukho nto, ngokwenene. Kufuneka ukuthula, ukugxila kunye nexesha yomgangatho wokuzinikela emsebenzini. Andizenzi izinto ezingaqhelekanga. Kwaye kunjalo, ndothuswa kakhulu yile ngcamango "yempembelelo" abantu abakholelwa kuyo. Ayikho loo nto. Umsebenzi onzima ewe.

  • AL: Kwaye indawo oyikhethileyo kunye nexesha lokwenza oko? 

RC: Indawo egqibeleleyo kum, I-sofa okanye ibhedi, nelaptop ethangeni kunye nokunye okuncinci. Elona xesha lilungileyo, zinikezele intsasa yonke. Xa ndinxiba ndithanda ukuqala phakathi kwe ngentsimbi yesihlanu neyesithandathu kusasa, kwaye ukuba akukho nto ithintelayo ndifika kude kube semini enkulu. Kwaye usoloko udibanisa imidlalo ethile, ewe.

  • AL: Ngaba zikhona ezinye iintlobo ozithandayo? 

RC: I iinoveli zentshukumo, yeziganeko, bendisoloko ndizithanda kakhulu. Ezinye, ezifana nezo zikaMark Twain okanye zikaFenimore Cooper (phakathi kwezinye ezininzi), ziyadibana noko kunokuqondwa njengenoveli enembali. Ngapha koko, ndicinga ukuba i-subgenre yam ithande ukubhekisa kulo mxube. Ke, njengoko benditshilo, kukho ezo apho icandelo le umbono ufumana ukuvelela ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi (ukusuka eTolkien ukuya eVerne, umzekelo), ezikwaphakathi kwezinto endizithandayo. Ngayiphi na imeko, Ndingumsebenzi osemgangathweni kunololunye uhlobo okanye olunye. Ukuba inoveli, okanye ingqokelela yemibongo, okanye incwadi yalo naluphi na uhlobo, ilungile, ndiya kuyithanda. Oko kuqinisekileyo.

  • AL: Ufunda ntoni ngoku? Ukubhala?

RC: Eyona nto ndidla ngokuyifunda kakhulu amanqaku ahlukeneyo, uphando okanye ushicilelo ethetha ngezihloko zembali endinomdla kuzo. Ezi zifundo zemihla ngemihla kum, kwaye ndihlala ndizifumana kwi-Intanethi. 

Njengomsebenzi woncwadi ndiyawufunda Igama likaThixo, nguJose Zoilo. Inoveli yembali yowona mgangatho uphakamileyo owenziweyo ekuthinjweni kwePeninsula yase-Iberia ngamaSilamsi ngonyaka we-711, ebhalwe yinkosi yokwenyani. Ecaleni ULuis Zueco, izigebenga ezibini zenoveli yembali yangoku yeSpanish.

Ndingu ndibhala inoveli yam yesine, esekelwe ku-a ibali elibambekayo (kwaye liyinyani). kwenzeke ntoni ngo Santiago de Compostela phakathi kwe-1588 kunye ne-1589 (ngaxeshanye kunye neenkampani ezaziwa ngokulandelelana njenge-Invincible Army kunye ne-English Counter-Army). Ndonwabile kakhulu, kuba into eyenzekayo apha kule minyaka mibini iyamangalisa.

  • AL: Ucinga ukuba imeko yokupapasha injani kwaye uthathe isigqibo sokuba uzame ukupapasha?

RC: Umfanekiso ngu inzimawonke umntu uya kuthetha oku. Kodwa kufuneka nditsho ukuba ndiqale ukubhala kwiminyaka emihlanu eyadlulayo kwaye ngoku ndinenoveli ezimbini ezipapashwe kubapapashi abakhulu (nganye, kuguqulelo lwayo ngeSpanish nesiGalician), kwaye inoveli yam yesithathu iza kupapashwa ngoMeyi. Iplanethi yeGrupo. Kwaye ukuba eyesine isendleleni kwaye yonke into ibonisa ukuba ndiya kuba nako ukupapasha kunye nomshicileli omkhulu. Ndiyathetha, ngokusekelwe kumava am obuqu, umsebenzi uyavuzwa.

Eyona nto indenze ndagqiba kwelokuba ndizame ukupapasha kukufuna la mabali, endiwabona enika umdla, ukuba afikelele kubantu abaninzi kangangoko. Ndibathanda kakhulu, bayandichulumancisa kangangokuba ndiziva ndinefuthe lokubasa kwimimoya emine. Ndicinga ukuba le yeyona nto isishukumisayo sonke, akunjalo?

  • AL: Ngaba umzuzu wobunzima esijamelana nawo unzima kuwe okanye uya kuba nakho ukugcina into elungileyo kumabali exesha elizayo?

RC: Ixesha esiphila kulo lilo engaqhelekanga, pero Ngaphandle kwabo bantu baye bafumana ilahleko engenakulungiseka, akufuneki sibaxe nathi. Siyibonile inkululeko yethu incitshisiwe, kodwa asizange sibotshelelwe elunyaweni lwebhedi. Ukuvalelwa kwiminyaka emibini edlulileyo ... kuhle, kwakuyinyanga enesiqingatha ukuba siphila ngokuhlukileyo. Imaski, ixesha lokubuya... Ndathi, ngamanyathelo okwethutyana, into efika ngexesha kubomi bethu esifanele sifunde kuyo izinto ezininzi ezintle. Ukuxabisa inkululeko yokuhlala eNtshona, umzekelo. Ukuqonda abantu ababalekela imfazwe, kwingcinezelo, kwiinkqubo apho awukwazi ukuhlala, kakuhle, kwakhona. 

Ngoko ke ndikhetha ukuhlala ne-positive. Eyona nto ininzi, kunjalo.


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