UFernando de Rojas: umbhali wemithetho

UFernando de Rojas

UFernando de Rojas (malunga nowe-1470-1541) waziwa ngokuba ngumbhali wencwadi. Celestine (1499), iklasikhi yehlabathi jikelele yoncwadi lweSpanish. Nangona kunjalo, ububhali bayo buye babuzwa kakhulu kwaye kungenzeka ukuba lo msebenzi ungathathwa njengongaziwayo uye waqwalaselwa. Nangona bekukho amathandabuzo amaninzi malunga nobomi balo mbhali kunye nokuba ngubani obhale malunga nothando lukaCalisto noMelibea, kuye kwacaca ukuba uRojas ngumdali wokwenyani. Celestine.

Nangona kunjalo, akukwazeki ukubalela kuye imisebenzi yoncwadi engaphaya koku. Ixabiso le Celestine iye yajika yaba ngaphezu kokwaneleyo ukuquka igqwetha uFernando de Rojas kuluhlu lwababhali ababalulekileyo boncwadi lweSpanish. Kwaye apha sikuxelela kancinci malunga nalo mbhali.

UFernando de Rojas: umxholo kunye nobomi

Ingxoxo ngemvelaphi yobuYuda yombhali

UFernando de Rojas ucingelwa ukuba unemvelaphi yobuYuda. Le ngcamango inikwe ubunyani obaneleyo, nangona ingeyiyo yodwa. Ngokufanayo, uRojas wayeza kuba kude nezalamane zakhe zokugqibela ezingamaYuda. Kwaye kukuba umbhali ufikelele kwiindawo eziphakamileyo zamandla kwinkonzo yoluntu engenakwenzeka kumntu ovela kwintsapho esanda kuguqulwa. Emva koko kuqikelelwa ukuba wayesisizukulwana sesine somYuda.

Ngowe-1492 iiMonarch zamaKatolika zayalela ukuba amaYuda agxothwe eSpeyin. Iintsapho ezininzi zanyanzelwa ukuba ziguqukele kukholo lobuKristu, kodwa nangona zenza njalo, abantu abambalwa batyholwa ngobuYuda, okanye ukuba ngama-crypto-Judaws, kwaye beqhuba inkolo yobuJuda ngaphakathi emakhayeni abo. Esi sikrokro sasinobunzima kwintsapho kaFernando de Rojas. Nangona kukho enye inguqulelo ethi uyise wayeyi-hidalgo egama linguGarcía González Ponce de Rojas.. Enyanisweni, kukho izicelo ezivela kusapho zokubonisa ubuhandiba babo.

Abanye abantu abaninzi batshutshiswa ngabemi abangamaKristu abathi, ngentelekelelo nje encinane, bagxalathelana ukuya kugxeka abamelwane babo. Kwakuyimeko yentsapho yezopolitiko yaseRojas. Ngokuba watshata noLeonor Álvarez de Montalbán, owayeyintombi yeguquka elalityholwa ngokuqhelisela unqulo lobuYuda, uÁlvaro de Montalbán. Le ndoda yazama ukufumana umkhwenyana wayo, igqwetha elaziwayo, ukuba amncede. Kodwa uFernando de Rojas wayenokwenza okuncinci kumkhwe wakhe.

Le yayiyimeko eyaphefumlelwa ngexesha lombhali kwaye, nangona njengoko sesibonile ukuba wayengengowasemzini nangayiphi na indlela kulo mongo wokunganyamezeli ngokwenkolo, UFernando de Rojas wakwazi ukuphila ubomi obutofotofo kunye nentsapho yakhe, ethatha inxaxheba kubomi boluntu.

Umfanekiso woBulungisa

ubomi bombhali

UFernando de Rojas wazalelwa eLa Puebla de Montalbán, eToledo, phakathi kowe-1465 nowe-1470.. Malunga nemvelaphi yayo kukho ingxoxo eninzi malunga nokuba yayiyintsapho yama-hidalgos okanye abaguqukileyo. Kuncinci kakhulu okwaziwayo malunga nobuntwana bakhe kunye nokufikisa.. Ukufunda ngakumbi malunga noqeqesho lwakhe, okanye ukuba ukubunjwa kokuphela komsebenzi oye wachazwa kuye nokuba ngowakhe, Celestine, kufuneka siye ekufundeni nasekufundeni amaxwebhu exesha.

Ngokomzekelo, wayenesidanga saseyunivesithi, ngokuqinisekileyo, kuba wayengummeli kwaye wayenezikhundla ezahlukeneyo zokubaluleka koluntu, njengoSodolophu waseTalavera de la Reina (eToledo). Kwakhona, kwisicatshulwa se Celestine kukho intetho ye-bachelor Fernando de Rojas, namhlanje eya kuba sisihloko somfundi ophumeleleyo okanye ophumeleleyo. Kuphinde kucingelwe ukuba izifundo zakhe wazigqiba kwangelo xesha linye waqamba lo msebenzi kuba wayesele ethweswe isidanga xa uphumayo. Celestine ngo 1499. Ngenxa yomxholo walo msebenzi mnye, kukholelwa ukuba wafunda kwiYunivesithi yaseSalamanca. Ngexesha elithile kamva wayeya eTalavera de la Reina.

Watshata ngo-1512 kunye noLeonor Álvarez de Montalban. kwaye ngaphambili wazinza eTalavera de la Reina apho waye wakwazi ukonwabela ukuqatshelwa. Apha kukho amaxwebhu amaninzi malunga nombhali owayesebenza njengegqwetha kunye nosodolophu kule dolophu, eqhuba imisebenzi yewonga elikhulu ekuhlaleni. Ekunye nomfazi wakhe wayenabantwana abasixhenxe bebonke.

Wayenethala leencwadi elikhulu, nomsebenzi wakhe usaqhubeka Celestine babonise uthando lwabo kwiileta noncwadi, ngaphaya komsebenzi wabo womthetho. Nangona kunjalo, ayidityaniswanga kwezinye izicatshulwa okanye ababhali, abashicileli okanye izangqa zoncwadi. Kuyathakazelisa ukuba isicatshulwa esinye siye sakwazi njani ukumphakamisa kwiincwadi zeSpanishi, ebhale umsebenzi wakhe omkhulu esemncinane.

UFernando de Rojas wafa ngowe-1541, egxininisa kwitestamente yakhe ukholo lobuKristu awayesithi.

Iincwadi ezindala

Ezinye izinto eziqwalaselwayo malunga neLa Celestina

Ukhankanya umntu wakhe njengombhali we Celestine zivela ngokukodwa kubantu ababangqongileyo. Kuyo nayiphi na imeko, akukho mntu wumbi owabanga ubunini bomsebenzi, kodwa alizange livele negama likaFernando de Rojas kuqweqwe lohlelo lokuqala lwale ncwadi.

Umsebenzi waphuma kwinguqulo yokuqala njengoko ICalisto kunye neMelibea comedy kwaye kwenye enesihloko esithi Intlekele yeCalisto kunye neMelibea, mhlawumbi njengesiphumo esithe ngqo somlingiswa womsebenzi, kwaye ngokungathanga ngqo ngenxa yomoya woluntu lwaseSpain. Ukongeza, isicatshulwa senziwa utshintsho kwisakhiwo kunye nomxholo ngenxa yokuba uye wanda ukusuka kwizenzo ezili-16 ukuya kuma-21. Zimbalwa kakhulu iintlelo zazo zonke ezigciniweyo kwaye iimbono kunye nezigwebo ziyahlukahluka malunga nazo, kuquka. Kusabuzwa ukuba ngaba nguFernando de Rojas owayephethe ngokwenene zonke ezi zilungiso; kuba kuthethwa ngobukho bababhali ababini.

Igama umatshisi, ebonakala kwisichazi-magama kunye nenkcazo elandelayo: "i-pimp (umfazi olungiselela ubudlelwane bothando)", ivela kulo msebenzi oye wehla kwimbali nangona zonke iimfihlakalo ezijikeleze umbhali wayo. Ngumdlalo okwindinyana ompumelelo yayo ibonakala kwasekuqaleni ngeenguqulelo zayo ezininzi kunye nokukhutshwa kwakhona. isiTaliyane, isiJamani, isiNgesi, isiFrentshi, isiDatshi nesiLatini.

Libali elinokwenyani kakhulu kwaye libukhali, kodwa lamkelwa, elabangela ukumangala ngelo xesha kwaye lakhuthaza ezinye iisequels.. Kwakhona kwaba nefuthe kwabanye ababhali kunye nemisebenzi. Celestine Ikwanazo nohlengahlengiso oluninzi kwiifomathi zobugcisa ezahlukeneyo kwaye iyasinda njengomsebenzi wendalo yonke ebomini nakwinkcubeko ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-500 emva kokupapashwa kwayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   Luciano kakhulu sitsho

    Ubutyhakala bendabuko baseSpain malunga nokuba ngaba-kwaye-kwaye-kwaye-kwaye, kunye nabalinganiswa bembali, njengombhali we-La Celestina, babengamaYuda ...

    1.    Belen Martin sitsho

      Ewe, kunjalo, Luciano. Ukuphindaphinda ibali elifanayo rhoqo. Enkosi ngezimvo!