Inoveli yomcuphi

UChristie Agatha.

UChristie Agatha.

Inoveli yomcuphi yenye yezona ntlobo zaziwayo zoncwadi kunye nenani elikhulu labalandeli namhlanje. Kodwa bekungasoloko kunje. Ukuzalwa ngokusesikweni ngekhulu leshumi elinethoba- phantse ngokuhambelana kwinoveli yesayensi kunye nothando - uluntu lwexesha lalo aluzange lububone kakuhle. Nangona, le ngxelo ingentla ingaphezulu "komphezulu wangoku" kunenyani ephathekayo.

Ngapha koko, abo baluchasayo olu hlobo loncwadi babengamalungu (abantu ababhala ngokwabo ababhaliweyo) "uluntu olukhulu." Kulungile ukusukela ekusekweni kwayo inoveli yomcuphi yatyiwa ngehlombe ngabafundi abaninzi. Isihlwele samadoda nabasetyhini sasivaleleke ngaphakathi kumabali okulutha alayishwe ngamayelenqe kunye nemfihlakalo.

Imvelaphi yohlobo olunombhalo ongathandekiyo

Ye "izifundiswa" -Kunye nayo yonke intlawulo yobundlobongela ebandakanyiweyo ngokuzithoba kwesi sichazi- ibingu "kuncwadi oluncinci". Iimveliso ezingenamdla, zenzelwe kuphela ukonwabisa abantu. Akukho nto iluncedo ekuphuculeni umoya womntu. Xa kuthelekiswa, uphononongo lwezi "ngcali" luye lwancoma uncwadi lweentsomi kwaye, ngaphezu kwako konke, iindumasi zobuqhawe zothando.

Ulwaphulo-mthetho njengomntu ophambili ophikisayo

Izenzo zolwaphulo-mthetho, ekubeni ngabalinganiswa abaphambili bamabali, kuthintela ngokuzenzekelayo naziphi na izinto zokuzenzisa ezingaphaya kwengqondo. Ngokuqinisekileyo, umphefumlo (wabafundi) awuzange ukhule, awuzange uguquke ngendlela elungileyo. Kwakukho ukufikelela kuphela kulonwabo lwexeshana olungenabungozi. Olu hlobo lokugxekwa luqhubeke kakhulu de kwaba yiMfazwe yesibini yeHlabathi.

Ngapha koko-ngethamsanqa ngababhali bohlobo olo - Ubutshaba bokugxekwa kuncwadi okwangoku abunakuze nangayiphi na indlela bube nempumelelo enkulu. Nokuba uninzi lwababhali aluqondwa nje namhlanje njengeengqondi eziyinyani. Ebomini umsebenzi wakhe wawubhiyozelwa ngokubanzi.

Ngaphambi nasemva kuka-Auguste Dupin

Umlobi kaEdgar Allan.

Umlobi kaEdgar Allan.

Edgar Allan Poe Ungomnye wababhali "bendlela". Mhlawumbi inkcazo ilukrwada kakhulu. Kodwa iseligama elifanelekileyo lokuchaza ububanzi bomsebenzi weli Melika laziwayo. Njengokuba imibhalo yakhe iyinxalenye yelifa lezithandani zaseMelika, uzukiswa ngokuzalwa ngokusesikweni kweenoveli zolwaphulo-mthetho.

UAuguste Dupin wayengumlingiswa wokuqala "franchise" (kunye nengcaciso yorhwebo esetyenziswayo ngoku) yoncwadi. Ukongeza, lo mcuphi wabeka iziseko eliza kwakhiwa kuzo elona gama lidumileyo kuncwadi lwehlabathi: uSherlock Holmes. Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, isimilo sikaSir Arthur Conan Doyle ngu ayidibanisi ne-ultra ngokubhekisele kubaphandi nakwabaxeli bezimfihlakalo.

Ukusuka eGrisi

Nangona amabali namapolisa "omoya" ebesoloko ekhona, Sophocles kunye ne-Oedipus Rex yakhe inokuthathelwa ingqalelo njengowandulela mdala wolu hlobo lwesakhiwo. Kule ntlekele, umlinganiswa ophambili kufuneka enze uphando ukusombulula i-enigma kunye nokufumana umgwebi.

Ayizukuya phezulu Izenzo zolwaphulo-mthetho zesitalato sasemakhazeni (1841) xa olu hlobo luye lwaphumelela ukumiselwa kunye neempawu "ezimiselweyo kwangaphambili". Ewe, amabali omcuphi aguqukile ukusukela ngoko. Kodwa ekugqibeleni bonke abacuphi babuyela kuPoe.

Iimpawu ngokubanzi

Inoveli yomcuphi ihlala ihlala kumda wemida, intelekelelo kunye noloyiko. Inqaku eliphambili lolu hlobo kukuba emva kwesenzo ngasinye (solwaphulo-mthetho) inye kuphela homo sapiens. Ngaphandle koncedo okanye ukunyanzelwa ziidemon okanye izidalwa zikaThixo. Kwangelo xesha, ibali liyenzeka kuseto olwaziwa ngokugqibeleleyo kubafundi.

Umlinganiswa ophambili ngumntu owahlukileyo kubukrelekrele bakhe, kunye namandla akhe amangalisayo okujonga kunye nokuhlalutya ukusombulula i-enigmas. Bonke abalinganiswa - ngaphandle komphandi kunye nomncedisi wakhe, ukuba unayo - bayarhanelwa. Ngenxa yoko ukufundwa kuba luhlanga oluxhalabileyo kwicala labafundi ngenjongo yokusombulula ulwaphulo-mthetho phambi komcuphi.

Ukunyaniseka, okokuqala nokuphambili

Inoveli elungileyo yolwaphulo-mthetho kufuneka igcine umtyholwa efihliwe kude kube sekupheleni. Kodwa ngaphandle kweenkcazo ezininzi ezicacisiweyo okanye iinkcazo ezingenakwenzeka ngexesha lokusombulula. Ukuba uSherlock Holmes ngokwakhe "wazinqanda" ukuba aqashele, nabani na ofunda iihambo zakhe ubeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa ezama ukuprofeta ngesiphelo.

Izithambeka zenoveli yomcuphi kunye neempawu ezithile

Rhoqo, uncwadi lomcuphi lwahlulwe lwangamaqela amabini amakhulu. Ngelixa ayisiyiyo kuphela, basebenza njengezona zikhanyiso ziphambili zikhokela bonke ababhali abanomdla wokuphakamisa iimfihlakalo zabo. Kwelinye icala, Ngokungafaniyo nento eyenzekileyo ngenoveli yothando, ukuwela kwamanzi eAtlantic kwaqala eMelika ukuya eYurophu.

Isikolo sesiNgesi

UArthur Conan Doyle.

UArthur Conan Doyle.

Ngokukhawuleza xa u-Auguste Dupin no-Edgar Allan Poe befika eLondon, i-sub-movement okanye i-sub-genre eyaziwa njenge-English School yasekwa. Ngaphandle kukaSir Arthur Conan Doyle noSherlock Holmes, Esinye isiqwenga esisisiseko ngaphakathi kolu lwakhiwo simele u-Agatha Christie kunye nophawu lwakhe uHercule Poirot.

Olu luhlobo lwebali lemathematika; Isizathu kunye nefuthe. Iinyani zichazwe ngokulandelelana kwazo, Ngelixa (phantse lonke ixesha) i-protagonist engenakuphikiswa isebenza ngokudibanisa kunye nokukhupha ukuze ufike kwisiphumo. Isigqibo esithi-ukucaphula uHolmes- "sisiseko." Kucacile kuphela emehlweni omphandi; ayinakucingelwa abanye abalinganiswa kunye nomfundi.

Isikolo saseMntla Melika

E-United States, kwada kwayinkulungwane yamashumi amabini, eyona "subgenre" ibaluleke kakhulu yazalwa kuncwadi lwamapolisa.. Kunokuthiwa kuphela kwento eyamkelweyo njengenxalenye yale ndlela yokubalisa: inoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho. Njengowesibini omkhulu ngoku kubonakala ngathi uyaphikisana nesitayile esiphambili kude kube zii-1920s.

Thelekisa phakathi kwezikolo zombini zenoveli yomcuphi

Amabali esiNgesi ayenziwe isitayile. Amaxesha amaninzi iyelenqe lenzeke kwizangqa zoohlohlesakhe. Useto lwaluziinqaba ezinkulu kwaye zinobunewunewu, apho ukubala, iinkosi kunye namabonakude avela njengamaxhoba nabenzi bobubi. Izenzo zolwaphulo-mthetho ibingumba "woluntu oluphakamileyo."

Kwangokunjalo, ngaphandle kokuba mbini-mbini (uSherlock Holmes ekugqibeleni utyhila ezinye zeempawu zobuntu bakhe), abalinganiswa beSikolo sesiNgesi ba-archetypal ngokupheleleyo. Umcuphi ulungile, unyanisekile, awonakali; abantu ababi "babi kakhulu", Machiavellian. Kukulwa phakathi kokulungileyo nokungalunganga, inyaniso ngokuchasene nobuxoki, ngeendlela ezimbalwa kakhulu.

Ilizwe lokwenene?

Inoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho yathatha ingxelo yamapolisa yaya "kwelabafileyo", kwizitrato zezona ndawo zihluthwe kakhulu, kwiindawo ezilusizi, ezimnyama. Ngokuhambelana, ababhali banomdla wokuzama ukukhuthaza izaphuli-mthetho kwaye baphule nengcamango yabangakholwayo (abecuphi).

Ngale ndlela, "amaqhawe" oncwadi avele. Abalinganiswa abanomzabalazo onzima kakhulu, kuba-ngaphandle kokujongana nolwaphulo-mthetho-bajongana noluntu kunye nenkqubo ebolileyo. Ngenxa yoko, phantse bahlala besebenza bebodwa, bengakhathali kangako malunga nokuziphatha kweendlela zabo. Kubo isiphelo siyazigwebela iindlela.

Inoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho kunye nothando-lwenzondo kunye nokuthandana

Kwincwadi yenoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho, ulwaphulo-mthetho luyekile ukuba yinto "ethandekayo", ukuba luboniswe ngaphandle kweliso nje lokuthandana. Ukwengeza, isikolo saseMelika samphikisa isimo semeko, ngoku (ngokungathandabuzekiyo) uncwadi lwamaProtestanti. Eyathi yanikwa umxholo wayo wembali, iminyaka engaphambi nasemva koxinzelelo olukhulu- ukuthandana, eneneni.

Ababhali abalulekileyo

Akunakwenzeka ukuqonda inoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho ngaphandle kokujonga igalelo likaEdgar Allan Poe, uArthur Conan Doyle noAgatha Christie. Ufundo ekufuneka luqale lwenziwe ngokuchanekileyo (ngokungangoko kunokwenzeka). Okanye ubuncinci uzama ukunganyanzeli ukuthanda kwakho ngexesha lohlalutyo. Oku, nokuba iimvakalelo ezikhutshelwe kufundo zilungile okanye azilunganga.

Umlingane, naye kubalulekile

Incwadana yolwaphulo-mthetho enye inxalenye ebalulekileyo kwimbali yeencwadi. Ngokudibanisa ukubhalisa imvelaphi ephikisanayo ngokuthelekisa iSikolo saseBritane (senoveli zabacuphi). Kwabaninzi ababhali baseMelika be-subgenre abapapashe amabali abo ngexesha lemfazwe, bavusa izimvo eziphikisanayo.

Isicatshulwa sikaEdgar Allan Poe.

Isicatshulwa sikaEdgar Allan Poe.

Abona bantu banomdla bagxininisa ukunamathela kwabo kwinyani. Endaweni yoko, abaninzi bayathandabuza ukungakhathali okunzulu kunye nokusilela kwesiphelo esonwabisayo. Isizathu sokwenjenjalo? Ngaphandle kokusonjululwa kolwaphulo-mthetho, umgwebi akasoloko efumana isohlwayo esifanelekileyo. Phakathi kwababhali ababalaseleyo kolu luhlu zezi:

  • UDashiell Hammlet, kunye nomlingisi wakhe ophambili uSam Spade (I-Falcon yaseMalta, 1930).
  • URaymond Chandler, kunye nomcuphi wakhe uPhilip Marlowe (Iphupha elingunaphakade, 1939).

Ipolisa "elijika"

Yintoni "eqhelekileyo" kukuba ibali lomcuphi lijongwa ngokwembono yokulungileyo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho "uguqulelo oluchaseneyo": abahlali abenza izicwangciso zabo zokuziphatha gwenxa kwaye bahlale bekhululekile. Umzekelo weklasikhi ukubonisa eli candelwana Umnumzana Ripley onesiphiwo NguPatricia Highsmith.

UTom Ripley, "umlingisi wefranchise" woluhlu lweencwadi, akangomcuphi. Ungumbulali kunye nendoda ezenza amaxhoba ayo. Ukuba "kwinguqulelo yakudala" yeenoveli zolwaphulo-mthetho injongo yokutyhila imfihlakalo, nantsi into "enomdla" kukujonga indlela ubuxoki obakhiwa ngayo. Oko kukuthi, inqaku kukubona ukuba isaphuli-mthetho "sibaleka njani."

Nuevo Millennium

UStieg Larsson mhlawumbi ungomnye wababhali abakhohlakeleyo ngalo lonke ixesha. Hayi ngenxa yemibhalo yakhe, kodwa ngobomi bakhe. Nangona kunjalo, ngaphaya kwamashwa kunye nokufa kwakhe kwangoko, le ntatheli yaseSweden yayinexesha lokuqalisa ilungelo lokuqala lokufumana inkululeko kumlobi wenkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Imalunga neSaga Millennium.

Uhlobo lokuqhuma

Amadoda angabathandi abafazi.

Amadoda angabathandi abafazi.

Ungayithenga le ncwadi apha: Akukho mveliso ifunyenweyo

Amadoda angabathandi abafazi, Intombazana enomdlalo kunye netoti yepetroli y Ukumkanikazi kwibhotwe loyiloZonke zapapashwa ngo-2005— Bamele bonke umsebenzi wakhe. Umxube "webhombu" (abo bazifundileyo ezi zicatshulwa bayasiqonda isizathu seli gama) phakathi kwesimbo saseBritani esingaqhelekanga kunye nenoveli yolwaphulo-mthetho yaseMelika.

Abacuphi ababini benza "i-axis yokulunga" kumabali e Larsson. Amagama abo: UMikael Blomkvist (intatheli) kunye noLisbeth Salander (hacker). Njengoko iimeko zifuna njalo, aba bantu banokuba nohlalutyo olukhulu kwaye baqiniseke, kunye nokuxhokonxa kakhulu nokuziphatha okubi.

Inoveli yamapolisa ngeSpanish (abanye ababhali)

Inoveli yomcuphi eSpain naseLatin America ifanelwe inqaku elahlukileyo ukuze libenako ukunika izimvo ngalo ngokwaneleyo. Ukusuka kuSingasiqithi weIberia, omnye wababhali abafuzisayo nguManuel Vázquez Montalbán. Umcuphi wakhe: uPepe Carvalho, umlinganiswa onengcinga entle njengoko yena ethandabuza; Ushiya ikomanisi yolutsha aye kwiarhente ye-CIA, aphele njengomphenyi wabucala.

Imizekelo evela eLatin America

EColombia, igama likaMario Mendoza livela, liphefumlelwe li-infernal kunye ne-Divine komhlaba UBogota. NguSathana (2002) ngowona msebenzi wakhe "ungundoqo". Okokugqibela, uNorberto José Olivar wabeka eMaracaibo, eVenezuela, ibali lomcuphi elinciphisa amasimi amahle.

IVampire eMaracaibo (2008), yapapashwa ngamaxesha okuthandwa kakhulu kweenoveli ezinolutsha olufikisayo. Umcuphi kweli bali-ipolisa elidla umhlala-phantsi-uhlala ezibuza malunga nobukho behlabathi elifihliweyo ngaphaya kokucacileyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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