Mabhuku akanakisa eutikitivha

Arthur Conan Doyle akatorwa.

Arthur Conan Doyle akatorwa.

Kana mushandisi weInternet uyo anofarira kuverenga achitsvaga "emhando yepamusoro mabhuku eutikitivha", mhedzisiro inodzosera zana muzana yenhau dzevatikitivha. Icho chikonzero chiri pachena pachena: hazvina kunaka kubata nhumbu nyaya isina mutikitivha kana pasina munhu anoita saizvozvo. Huye, ndiani achange achitarisira kugadzirisa mhosva?

Zvino, zvinyorwa zvetikitivha hazvigare zvichitaurwa kubva pakuona kwemutambudzi. Mupfungwa iyi tine vanonzi "reverse mapurisa" -Tarenda VaRipley (1955), ndeimwe yeanonyanya kuzivikanwa - ivo vanotsanangura maonero emurume anoita zvakaipa. Saizvozvo, Rudzi urwu rwakakura kwazvo uye rwakadzika, zvekuti zvinyorwa zvematsotsi zvapfuura nekutarisa pane zvinotyisa zvepfungwa dzematsotsi uye / kana mumapurisa ane tsika dzinopokana.

Matikitivha anozivikanwa kwazvo epasi rese mabhuku

Auguste Dupin

"Kutanga waive Mugovera kupfuura Svondo," chinodaro chirevo chekare. Nechikonzero ichocho Izvo hazvigoneke kuongorora iyo yemutikitivha genre pasina kutanga naDupin, wekutanga wekunyepedzera mutikitivha mumabhuku. Uye hongu, ndiye aive wekutanga mukurumbira mukati menyaya dzeutikitivha, uye kunyora kwake kunoenderana nemunyori mukuru weAmerica Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

Muchokwadi, munhaurwa Dupin akaonekwa se Knight, saka, yaive yeiyo Legion d'honneur ChiFrench. Zviitiko zvakapoterera uyu protagonist —Munhu anofarira kugadzirisa zvirahwe nezvakavanzika- inotaurwa neshamwari isingazivikanwe yaakasangana nayo muraibhurari yeParis. Zviitiko zvebhuku rake rekutanga zvinoitika mune iro guta guru.

Mhosva dzemochari Street (1941)

Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe.

Zano iri rinotenderera kuuraya kusinga nzwisisike kwevakadzi vaviri, Madame naMadeimoselle L'Espanaye (amai nemwanasikana), kwakaitwa nemunhu akatiza. Saka knight Auguste Dupin anopinda munzvimbo yekudzivirira kutongwa kwemurume asina mhosva anopomerwa mhosva iyi.

Kuti usvike pakatangira zviitiko, Dupin anokwanisa kubatanidza zvine mutsindo pfungwa yake isingafadzi nekubata kwekufungidzira kwehunyanzvi. Chii chimwe, Mukubvunza kwake, anoratidza kuve nyanzvi pakuverenga mutauro wevaya vakabvunzwa. Nenzira iyi, anogona kutarisira manzwiro angangoita ekutsamwa, kusashivirira, kushamisika kana kusahadzika uye nekugadzirisa zvirahwe zvese.

Chakavanzika chaMarie Rogêt (1842) uye Tsamba yakabiwa (1844)

Chikamu chechipiri nechechitatu chine nyeredzi C.Auguste Dupin anoratidza kugona kwemunyori wezviitiko izvi. Kana iri Mhosva dzemochari Street chiitiko ichi chinoitika kuburikidza nekushanya kweParis, mumabhuku anotevera mamiriro acho ari munzvimbo yakavhurika uye mukati meimba yepachivande, zvichiteerana.

Saizvozvowo, Chakavanzika chaMarie Rogêt Yakafuridzirwa nenyaya chaiyo (iya yaMary Rogers, ane chitunha chakawanikwa chakayangarara muRwizi Hudson, New York muna 1941). Kusiyana nebasa rekutanga raDupin muParis, kurudziro ye Knight imari chose (kukumbira mubairo). Pakupedzisira, Tsamba yakabiwa yakatsanangurwa naPoe pachake se "pamwe nyaya yangu yekufunga yakanakisa."

Sherlock Holmes

Mutikitivha akagadzirwa na Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859 - 1930) anosiyaniswa nehungwaru hwake hunoshamisa, kugona kucherekedza chidiki diki uye kufunga kwekubvisa. Pakazara, nyaya "dzepamutemo" dzaHolmes dzinosanganisira 4 enganonyorwa pamwe nemakumi mashanu nenhatu nyaya dzehurefu hwakasiyana dzakatorwa mumavhoriyamu akati wandei.

Arthur Conan Doyle.

Arthur Conan Doyle.

Pazasi pane runyorwa rwezvinyorwa zvinoenderana neinonzi "Holmesian canon" (zvese zvinofanirwa-kuona mukati meye mutikitivha genre):

  • Chidzidzo chakatsvuka (1887). Novel.
  • Chiratidzo chemana (1890). Novel.
  • Iyo Adventures yaSherlock Holmes (1892). Muunganidzwa wenyaya.
  • Ndangariro dzaSherlock Holmes (1894). Kuunganidzwa kwenyaya.
  • Hound yeBaskersville (1901-1902). Novel.
  • Kudzoka kwaSherlock Holmes (1903). Kuunganidzwa kwenyaya.
  • Mupata wekutyisa (1914-1916). Novel.
  • Uta hwake hwekupedzisira (1917). Kuunganidzwa kwenyaya.
  • Iyo Sherlock Holmes Archive (1927). Kuunganidzwa kwenyaya.

Hercule Poirot

Christie Agatha.

Christie Agatha.

Hunhu hweakasikwa na Agatha Christie 1890 - 1975 Ndiye anogona kunge ari mutarisiri anotaridzika kwazvo ane hunhu hwakatsetseka mumabhuku epasirese. Poirot anorondedzerwa semurume mupfupi, anodada nemadevu ake uye anokwezva nekutsvaga kwakamiririra chinetso chechokwadi chehungwaru

Uye zvakare, mutarisiri akarega basa anoda "odha uye nzira", anotariswa nekuenzanisa, kunyaradzwa, kuchena uye mitsara yakatwasuka. Yese, Christie akanyora 41 nyaya dzine nyeredzi Poirot (zvese ihwo chaihwo hupfumi hwenhoroondo), Pakati pevakakurumbira pane anotevera:

  • Nyaya isinganzwisisike yeMastaera (1920).
  • Kuuraya kwaRoger Ackroyd (1926).
  • Chakavanzika chechitima chebhuruu (1928).
  • Kuuraya paMabvazuva Express (1934).
  • Rufu paNire (1937).
  • Ropa mudziva (1946).
  • Curtain: yekupedzisira kesi yaHercule Poirot (1975).

Sam Spade, mutikitivha "prototype" wenyaya yematsotsi

Munguva yepakati yezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri, Sam Spade akaputsa chimiro che "wezvematongerwo enyika akarongeka" muongorori. Chaizvoizvo, maficha emutikitivha uyu anomiririra kupokana kwevanhu vakatendeka (Dupin kana Poirot, semuenzaniso). Yakagadzirwa nemunyori weAmerica Dashiell Hammlett (1894 - 1961), Spade inonyaradza pasi pevhu

Saizvozvowo, mutauro wake unoshamisa uye kunyorera kune sirogani "magumo anoruramisa nzira", gonesa maitiro ake asina musoro uye asina hanya nemaonero evamwe ... Kugadziriswa kwemhosva chete ndiko kunokosha, chero zvodii. Hunhu uhwu hunowedzera chinonhuwira kumabhuku ake anonakidza akazara nemamiriro ekunze akasuwa: Iyo Maltese Falcon (1930) uye Iko kiyi yekristaro (1931).

Tarenda VaRipley (kana "reverse mupurisa")

Tarenda yaVaRipley.

Tarenda yaVaRipley.

Iri basa naAmerican munyori wenhau Patricia Highsmith (1921 - 1995) yakatumidzwa neyakavanzika Vanyori Sangano reAmerica seimwe yepamusoro zana mabhuku akavanzika munhoroondo. Rakaburitswa muna 1955, zvizhinji zvekukosha kwetirimbo iyi zvinogara mune yekutaurisa nyaya yakasungirirwa munzvimbo yekuona kweye malefactor.

Panguva ino, Tom Ripley (protagonist) inyanzvi uye mhondi inoda kuita zvinonyadzisa kuitira kuchengetedza chimiro chake. Naizvozvo, anoedza kuzvikomberedza nevapfumi manhamba uye kuvanyengera nekuda kwetarenda rake rinoshamisa: kunyengera. Pamusoro pezvo, Highsmith akanyora mazita anotevera achitarisa murume wake:

  • Ripley pasi pevhu (1970).
  • Mutambo waRipley (1974).
  • Mune tsoka dzaRipley (1980)
  • Ripley ari munjodzi (1991).

Mamwe mabhuku makuru nezvevatikitivha

Nhasi, ese mabhuku eutikitivha ane simba risingarambike remumwe weanotevera mavara: Dupin, Poirot, Spade, kana Ripley. Pane rimwe divi, chinyorwa chakaparadzaniswa chinodiwa kunyora akanakisa matikitivha emazita enhambo imwe neimwe.

Kunyange zvakadaro, heano mamwe anofanira-kuona matikitivha mabhuku:

  • Kuvimbika kwaBaba Brown (1911), naGilbert Keith Chesterton.
  • Kurota kusingaperi (1939), naRaymond Chandler.
  • Dhiragoni Tsvuku (1981), naThomas Harris.
  • Ndinoziva zvauri kufunga (2010), naJohn Verdon.
  • Quirke's Shadows (2015), naJohn Banville.
  • Kune zvakaipa zvikuru (2017), naCésar Pérez Gelilla.

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Victor akadaro

    Ivo vakatsanangura Sam Spade se "prototype" yerudzi rwevatikitivha.
    Izwi rakakodzera "archetype" sezvo prototypes achireva michina.

  2.   Matiyasi akadaro

    Phillip Marlowe, protagonist weThe Eternal Dream, rakanyorwa naRaymond Chandler uye bhuku iri rakaburitswa muna 1939. Chinyorwa chakanaka kwazvo, kwaziso.

  3.   Gustavo Woltman akadaro

    Runyorwa rwakanakisa rwemabasa, kunyanya ayo ane chekuita naDoyle naSherlock Holmes wake mukuru.
    -Gustavo Woltmann.

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