Jane Austen: mabhuku

Jane Austen

Jane Austen

Jane Austen aive mukurumbira wenhau wezana ramakore rechiXNUMX, mabasa ake anoonekwa seakakurumbira ezvinyorwa zveChirungu. Nhoroondo yake yakatanhamara yaive Kuzvikudza uye kufungira zvisizvo, yerudo nyaya yakaiswa panguva iyoyo, yakaburitswa isingazivikanwe muna 1813. Kwemazana emakore, iyi rondedzero yakashanda sekurudziro yevamwe vanyori, pamwe nekuchinjirwa pachiratidziro kakawanda.

Austen akabata yakasarudzika uye ine simba masitayera, akatakurwa nehupenyu hwezuva nezuva, hunhu uye nerondedzero chaiyo yetsika dzenzanga yenguva iyoyo. Magweta mazhinji anomutora semunyori anochengetedza, kunyangwe nhasi vatsoropodzi vechikadzi vachitaura kuti aive mudziviriri akatendeka wevakadzi. Muna 2007, hupenyu hwemunyori hwakaendeswa kubhaisikopo, pamwe nefirimu: Kuva Jane.

Biography

Jane Austen akazvarwa musi waZvita 16, 1775 mutaundi diki reChirungu reSteventon kuchamhembe kweHampshire. Vabereki vake vaive Anglican Reverend George Austen naCassandra Leigh. Aive wekupedzisira mwana wevana vasere vemuchato, pamusoro pekuva musikana wechipiri weboka. Sezvo aive mudiki, Jane aive padyo kwazvo nemukoma wake mukuru, Cassandra.

Mhuri, dzidzo uye tsika yenguva yacho

Mukati meruzhinji, iyo Austen vaive ve "gentry", rimwe remapoka ane chinzvimbo chidiki mukati mevakuru. Vakanga vasina hupfumi hwakawanda uye mari yavo yaingovhara chete zvekushandisa, saka vakoma vaJane vaifanira kushanda kubva vachiri vadiki. Nekudaro, akasimbisa kuburikidza netsamba kuti vainakidzwa nehuhwana hunofadza umo baba vavo vakavakurudzira mune zvehungwaru.

Panguva iyoyo vakadzi vaiwana dzidzo yepamba kumba, kunyangwe dai mhuri yaive nemikana, vaigona kuendesa vanasikana vavo kuchikoro. Mu 1783, Cassandra aifanirwa kuenda kunodzidza kunze, asi Jane akaramba kumurega achienda kure naye. Nekuti izvi, mupristi akafunga kuvaendesa pamwe chete kuchikoro chebhodhingi muOxford, asi zvaingova zvenguva pfupi, nekuti vese vaifanira kudzoka mushure mekurwara ne typhus.

Muna 1785, Jane naCassandra vakapinda chikoro cheAbbey chebhodhingi mutaundi reKuverenga; asi, nekuti vaisakwanisa kubhadhara chikoro, vaitofanira kudzoka. Kubva ipapo, vakaenderera mberi nedzidzo yavo kumba, imomo baba vavo vaivatsigira kwazvo.. Mufundisi vaive raibhurari yakakura uye inogara ichikurudzirwa tsika ye leer muboka remhuri, saka Jane aive anofarira kuverenga kubvira achiri mudiki.

Kutanga mukunyora

Inofungidzirwa izvozvo Austen akatanga kunyora achiri mudiki, Uchapupu hweizvi ndiwo mabhuku ekunyorera akaitwa pakati pe1787 na1793, inosanganisira nyaya pfupi dzinoverengeka. Idzi nyaya diki dzakaburitswa pakutanga kwezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri, semabasa evechidiki akaunganidzwa mumavhoriyamu matatu. Dzimwe dzenyaya dzakabatanidzwa ndeidzi: "Lesley's Castle", "Vanin'ina Vatatu" uye "Catherine".

Novelas

Kutanga muna 1795, Austen akatanga kunyora zvinyorwa zvake zvekutanga, izvo - mushure mekutamira kuChawton muna 1809 - akadzokorodza zvisati zvaburitswa. Yekutanga inogamuchirwa nemupepeti yaive: Kunzwisisa uye Kunzwisisa (1811). Iyi rondedzero yakatumirwa isingazivikanwe, chete nesiginecha "NaMukadzi". Basa rakanakidzwa nekugamuchirwa kwakanaka kune ivo vatsoropodzi venguva.

Kutevera kubudirira kweiri bhuku, akaburitsa Kuzvikudza uye kufungira zvisizvo (1813), novel iro rakatanga kuzivikanwa nemunyori. Kwapera gore zvakazobuda pachena Mansfield Park (1814), ane makopi akatengesa nekukurumidza. Pakupera kwegore 1815, munyori akaburitsa rake rekupedzisira basa muhupenyu, Emma. Muna 1818 mabasa ake akazivikanwa Northanger Abbey y Kunyengetedza.

Rufu

Jane Austen akafa muna Chikunguru 18, 1817 muguta reWinchester, aine makore makumi mana chete ekuberekwa. Parizvino, zvinofungidzirwa kuti kufa kwake kwaikonzerwa nekutambura nechirwere cheAddison. Zvakasara zvemunyori zororo muWinchester Cathedral.

Jane Austen zvinyorwa

  • Kunzwisisa uye Kunzwisisa (1811)
  • Kuzvikudza uye kufungira zvisizvo (1813)
  • Mansfield Park (1814)
  • Emma (1815)
  • Northanger Abbey (1818) basa rekufa
  • Kunyengetedza (1818) basa rekufa

Jane Austen bhuku rinotsanangura

Kunzwisisa uye Kunzwisisa (1811)

Upenyu hwa Elinor, Marianne naMargaret Dashwood anochinja zvakanyanya mushure mekufa kwababa vake. Murume uyu akasiya zvinhu zvake zvese kumwana mukomana iye waakange aine mubatanidzwa wake wekare, John. Kunyangwe mugari wenhaka achipika kuti ave nechokwadi chekuchengetedzeka uye kugarika kwevakadzi vasina rubatsiro, Fanny - mukadzi wake - anoomesesa zvese. Mamiriro acho anotungamira ku vasikana inofanira kufamba naamai vake kuimba diki uye yakaderera.

Iyo yakazara rangano iri pana Elinor naMarianne, saMargaret angori mwana. Kubva pane yavo nyowani yezvehupfumi uye yemagariro, hupenyu hunoita chinhu chayo, uye vakadzi vadiki vanotanga kusangana neshamwari nyowani uye vapfuure nekukwira nekudzika kwerudo.

Mumwe nemumwe anotora hupenyu zvakasiyana; Elinor, ndiani mukuru pane vese, ari kunyanya vakura uye vakatarisa. Marianne, kana ari iye, musikana ane shungu uye ane shungu kwazvol. Zvisinei, mukuvandudzwa kwechirongwa, kuchinjaniswa muhunhu hwevanonyanya kutaurwa kunogona kukosheswa.

Nyaya inoitika mukati kutsvaga kwerudo zvinoenderana nemaonero emumwe nemumwe wechidiki. Nepo zvinowanzoitika kusangana kwechirongwa kuchiitika, hanzvadzi dzeDashwood dzakabvaruka pakati pekunzwisisa uye kugona mukati medzidziso dzevanoremekedzwa uye mabourgeoisie eXNUMXth century England.

Kutengesa Kunzwisisa uye Kunzwisisa ...

Kuzvikudza uye kufungira zvisizvo (1813)

Pakupera kwe XNUMXth century, mune imwe nzvimbo yekumaruwa yeEngland kunogara mhuri yeBennet, vaviri vacho nevanasikana vavo vashanu: Jane, Elizabeth, Mary, Catherine naLydia. Nekuda kwemamiriro ayo ehupfumi uye tsika dzakadzika midzi yenguva, amai vakanangana nekuvawanira michato yakanaka. Kunyangwe, ari kunetsekana nezvaElizabeth - Lizzie - uye hunhu hwake hwakaoma, uyo anoti haana chishuwo chekuroora.

Pakarepo, kusvika kudhorobha kwevechidiki vaviri vakakosha - Mr. Bingley naVa Darcy-- kumutsa kutarisisa kwaMai Bennet, uyo anoona mavari ramangwana rakanakira vanasikana vake vakuru, Jane naLizzie. Kubva ipapo, hukama hwese hunopfuura nemamiriro akasiyana. Rinoenda protagonists rakabvaruka pakati pekusarura, kuzvitutumadza, zvakavanzika, zvishuwo uye manzwiro mazhinji akasangana.

Kutengesa Kudada nekusarura ...
Kudada nekusarura ...
Hapana wongororo

Mansfield Park (1814)

Little Fanny Mutengo wakatorwa na babamunini vake vakapfuma: hanzvadzi yaamai vake, Lady Bertram; nemurume wake, Sir Thomas. Mhuri inogara kuimba yeMansfield Park pamwe nevana vavo vana: Tom, Edmund, Maria naJulia. Nekuda kwekutanga kwayo kwakaderera, mukadzi wechidiki inogara ichizvidzwa kubva kuhama dzake, kunze kwaEdmund, uyo anomubata nemutsa uye nekuremekedza

Iyi mamiriro inoramba iri makore Fanny anokura nekumwe kurapwa, kunyangwe kuonga kwake kuna Edmund kuchichinja kuita rudo rwepachivande. Rimwe zuva, Sir Thomas vanoita rwendo rwakakosha, rwunowirirana nekusvika paMansfield Park yehama dzeCrawford: Henry naMary.

Kushanya kwevechidiki ava kuchadhonza mhuri iyi kupinda mukubatwa kwakasiyana uye kunyengera. Pakati pekuda, kupokana uye zvido, chete Fanny - Kubva mumaonero ake- ngaazivise kutyisidzira uku kwakavanzika.

Kutengesa Mansfield Park (chinyorwa ...

Emma (1815)

Emma huni imba mukadzi tsvarakadenga akangwara, uyo yakatora sechibvumirano kuronga michato kune avo vese vepedyo naye. Kwaari, hupenyu hwake hwerudo hachisi chinhu chekutanga, iye ane hanya zvakanyanya nezveiyo yechitatu mapato.

Zvese zvaifamba zvakanaka muhupenyu hwaEmma, ​​kusvika Taylor - iye anoenda uye shamwari - ari kuroora. Mushure mechiitiko ichi, mamiriro ari pakati pezvakachinja zvinoshamisa, saka mukadzi wechidiki Woodhouse yakanyura mune kusurukirwa kwakadzika. Nekudaro, mukadzi wechidiki anotsvaga kurarama neshungu kuburikidza nekudana kwake semutambi.

Emma anokurumidza kuwana shamwari nyowani, Harriet Smith, musikana anozvininipisa. Kunyangwe hazvo musikana asina zvido zvakakwirira, mushamwarikadzi anoomerera pakumuwanira murume akapfuma. Zvisinei, Harriet anoramba kushandiswa, izvo zvinokanganisa zvirongwa zvaWoodhouse. Chokwadi ndechekuti pakati peakasiyana-siyana zano rinokanganisa pamwe nekuonekwa kwevatsva uye vakagadzirwa zvakanaka mavara, iyo "casadora" inopedzisira yave mumamiriro ezvinhu iyo yaisina kumbofunga nezvayo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

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