Abdulrazak Gurnah

Zanzibar seascape

Zanzibar seascape

Abdulrazak Gurnah munyori wekuTanzania akahwina mubairo weNobel muLiterature muna 2021. The Swedish Academy yakati munyori akasarudzwa nekuda kwe "tsanangudzo inofamba yemhedzisiro yekolonialism uye magumo emupoteri mumukana uripo pakati petsika nemakondinendi ... " . Akanga ave makore gumi nemasere kubvira Africa yekupedzisira - John Maxwell Coetzee muna 18 - kuhwina mubairo wakakosha uyu.

Gurnah anomiririra kutsanangura nenzira yakaoma uye isina kuchena kufamba kweavo vakasiiwa nenzara nehondo kubva kumahombekombe eAfrica kuenda kuEurope, uye kuti kusvika sei "kunyika yechipikirwa" vachiri kufanira kukunda gungwa rekusarura, zvipingamupinyi nemiteyo. . Nhasi aburitsa zvinyorwa gumi uye nhamba yakati wandei yengano uye nyaya pfupi, dzese dzakanyorwa neChirungu. —Kunyange zvazvo chiSwahili chiri rurimi rwake. Kubva 2006 anga ari nhengo yeRoyal Literature Society, sangano muGreat Britain rakazvipira kudzidza nekuparadzira mabhuku.

Biographical data yemunyori, Abdulrazak Gurnah

Udiki uye zvidzidzo

Abdulrazak Gurnah akaberekwa muna Zvita 20, 1948 pachitsuwa cheZanzibar (zvitsuwa zveTanzania). Pazera remakore gumi nemasere aifanira kutiza kubva kunyika yake kuenda kuUnited Kingdom nekuda kwekutambudzwa kwaiitwa maMuslim. Ndatova muvhu reChirungu, akaita zvidzidzo zvepamusoro kuChrist Church College uye muna 1982 akapedza degree rekudzidza paUniversity yeKent.

Koreji purofesa

Kwemakumi emakore, Gurnah akatsaurira hupenyu hwake kudzidzisa kuyunivhesiti munzvimbo yeChirungu Zvidzidzo.. Kwemakore matatu akatevedzana (1980-1983) akadzidzisa kuNigeria, paBayero University Kano (BUK). Akanga ari purofesa weChirungu uye postcolonial mabhuku, uyewo kuva mutungamiriri wedhipatimendi reChirungu paYunivhesiti yeKent, mabasa aakaita kusvikira aenda pamudyandigere.

Abdulrazak Gurnah

Abdulrazak Gurnah

Mabasa ake ekuongorora anotarisa pane postcolonialism, uyewo muukoloniyasi yakanangidzirwa kuAfrica, Caribbean neIndia. Parizvino, mayunivhesiti anokosha anoshandisa mabasa ake sechidzidzo chekudzidzisa. Zvidzidzo zvinodzidziswa nevadzidzisi vane ruzivo zvinobuda pachena, senge: Patricia Bastida (UIB), Maurice O'Connor (UCA), Antonio Ballesteros (UNED) naJuan Ignacio de la Oliva (ULL), kungodoma vashoma.

Chiitiko chemunyori

Mubasa rake semunyori akagadzira nyaya pfupi uye zvinyorwa, zvisinei, zvinyorwa zvake ndizvo zvakaita kuti anyanyozivikanwa. Kubva muna1987 kusvika parizvino, akaburitsa gumi nhoroondo inoshanda mune iyi genre. Mabasa ake matatu ekutanga -Memory yeKuenda (1987), MaPilgrim Nzira (1988) uye Dottie (1990) - vane madingindira akafanana: anoratidza zvakasiyana-siyana zvezviitiko zvevakabva kune dzimwe nyika muGreat Britain.

Muna 1994 akaburitsa rimwe remabhuku ake anozivikanwa, Paradise, uyo aive wekupedzisira kumukurumbira weBritish Booker Prize muna 2001. Iri basa ndiye akatanga kuunzwa mumutauro wechiSpanish -Chii Paradhiso-, rakabudiswa muBarcelona muna 1997 uye rakashandurwa naSofía Carlota Noguera. Mamwe mazita maviri eGurnah akaunzwa mumutauro weCervantes ndeaya: Kunyarara kwakanyanyisa (1998) uye Kumahombekombe (2007).

Gurnah - akafunga "izwi revakadzingwa" - akamirirawo mamwe mabhuku, akadai se: Pedyo neGungwa (2001), Kusiya (2005) uye Gravel Moyo (2017). Mu 2020 iye akauya naye yekupedzisira rondedzero basa: Mushure mehupenyu, inoonekwa nevatsoropodzi veBritish se: "Kuedza kupa izwi kune vakakanganwa."

Manyorero emunyori

Mabasa emunyori akanyorwa muprose pasina kurasika; mavari kufarira kwavo nyaya dzakadai sekudzingwa, kuzivikanwa uye midzi zvinoonekwa. Mabhuku ake anoratidza mhedzisiro yekoloni yeEast Africa uye izvo vagari vayo vanotambura. Izvi zvinoonekwa sechiratidziro chehupenyu hwake semutorwa, chinhu chakakosha chinomusiyanisa nevamwe vanyori vemu Africa ve diaspora vanogara munharaunda yeBritish.

Saizvozvo, Anders Olsson - Sachigaro weNobel Committee - anoona kuti mavara akagadzirwa naGurnah akavakwa zvakanaka. Panyaya iyi, anoti: "Pakati pehupenyu hwavakasiya neupenyu huchauya, vanosangana nerusaruro nekusarura, asi vanozvishingisawo kunyararidza chokwadi kana kudzoreredza nhoroondo dzeupenyu hwavo kuti vadzivise kupokana nezvazviri."

A Nobel akashamisa nyika

Mubayiro weNobel muMabhuku

Mubayiro weNobel muMabhuku

Kunyangwe mukati menyika yekunyora, vazhinji vanobvunza "Ndiani Abdulrazak Gurnah?" kana kuti "Sei munyori asingazivikanwi akahwina mubairo?" Icho chokwadi ndechekuti pane zvikonzero zvakati wandei zvakaita kuti Gurnah ave 2021 muAfrica wechishanu kuhwina iyo Mubairo weNobel muMabhuku. Nekudaro, zvese zvinoratidza kuti vatongi vakaita sarudzo zvichienderana nedingindira rakataurwa nemunyori.

Masimba eGurnah

Icho chokwadi chekuti vazhinji havazive mafambiro emunyori weTanzania hachibvisi matarenda ake semunyori. Kuraira kwake kwakapfuma kwemutauro, pamwe chete nekunzwa kwaanokwanisa kutora mumutsara wega wega, kumuita munyori ari pedyo nemuverengi.. Mumabasa ake kuzvipira kwake kune chokwadi chenyika yaakaberekerwa uye vekwake kunoratidzwa, izvo zvinosimudzira hunhu hwechinyoreso chake uye kubatana pakati pezvakaitika kwaari nebasa rake rekunyora. Nyaya yega yega inoratidza mamiriro akaratidzirwa nehondo dzakatambura mukondinendi.

Asi nei Gurnah akasiyana? Zvakanaka, munyori anoramba kudzokorora nyaya dzisina basa pamusoro pezvakaitika pakati peEngland neAfrica. Nemabhuku ake aratidza kuvandudzwa chiono chekondinendi yeAfrica nevanhu vayo, ine dense nuances iyo vashoma vakafunga, iyo yakaputsa stereotypes uye yakasimbisa chimiro chevakadzingwa mumaziso evanoverenga. Abdulrazak anomutsa chokwadi chekolonialism uye nemigumisiro yaro nhasi - kutama ndeimwe yavo, asi yenyama neropa.

Mubairo unotongwa nedzimwe nyika

Hazvishamisi kuti kubva pakasikwa Mubairo weNobel weLiterature muna 1901, ruzhinji rwevakundi vanga vari vekuEurope kana North America. France inotungamira nevanyori gumi nevashanu vanohwina mibairo, yakasanoteverwa neUnited States ine 13 uye Great Britain ine 12. Uye, sezvadudzwa pachine nguva mberi, vashanu bedzi vomuAfrica kusvikira zvino vakakudzwa neichi rukudzo runozivikanwa.

Makore gumi nemasere akanga apfuura kubva eThe last African se akasimudzwa nemubairo wakakosha uyu: John Maxwell Coetzee. Pamberi pemuSouth Africa, akagamuchirwa muna 1986 neNigerian Wole Soyinka, muna 1988 naEgypt Naguib Mahfouz uye mukadzi wekutanga weAfrica, Nadine Gordimer, muna 1991.

Zvino, Nei paine kusaenzana kwakawanda?; pasina kupokana, ndizvo chimwe chinhu chakaoma kupindura. Zvisinei, zvinotarisirwa kuti makore aya ari kuuya achaona kuchinja muSweden Academy, nekuda, kunyanya, kune zvinonyadzisa pamusoro pekusaenzana uye kushungurudzwa kwakaitika muna 2018. Nokudaro, gore rakatevera komiti itsva yakagadzirwa nechinangwa chekuchinja. chiono uye dzivisa zviitiko zvinozvidza. Panyaya iyi, Anders Olsson akataura:

“Takavhura maziso kune vanyori vanogona kunzi postcolonial. Kutarisa kwedu kunowedzera nekufamba kwenguva. UYE Chinangwa cheChikoro ndechekusimbisa chiono chedu chezvinyorwa pakadzika. Semuenzaniso, zvinyorwa munyika yepashure mekoloni ".

Aya mirairo mitsva yakapa mukana wemuAfrica kuti uonekwe pamberi pemazita makuru. Mabasa ake akasiyana —Nezvidzidzo zvakaoma asi chaizvo chaizvo—akabvumira Komiti yeNobel kuti iite seizvi "mumwe wevanyori vakatanhamara vepostcolonial munyika… ”.

Makwikwi akasimba

Gore rino paive nemazita evanyori vane mukurumbira munharaunda. Vanyori vakaita sa: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, Haruki Murakami, Javier Marias, Scholastique Mukasonga, Mia Couto, Margaret Atwood, Annie Ernaux, pakati pevamwe. Hazvina maturo kwaive kushamisika kwekukunda kwaGurnah, iyo, kunyange zvazvo yakanyatsokodzera, inomuka musango gobvu revanhu vakatsaurwa.

Javier Marías.

Javier Marías.

Maonero emunyori mushure mekukunda Nobel

Mushure mekugamuchira mubairo, munyori weTanzania haana chinangwa chekusiya dingindira raakaita Mubayiro weNobel. Nekuzivikanwa unonzwa kukurudzirwa kutaura maonero ako pamisoro yakasiyana-siyana uye maonero ako enyika nenzira yakasununguka.

Mubvunzurudzo muLondon, akati: “Ndinonyora nezvemamiriro aya nekuti ndinoda kunyora nezvekudyidzana kwevanhu uye izvo vanhu vanopinda mazviri pavanenge vachivakazve hupenyu hwavo ”.

Press maonesheni

Kudomwa kwaAbdulrazak Gurnah semubairo weNobel kwakashamisa nharaunda yeSweden nenyika yese. Munyori akanga asiri pakati pevaigona kukunda, sezvo mabasa ake haana kuziviswa nenyanzvi mumabhuku. Chiratidziro cheizvi aive mazwi akabuda mumapepanhau mushure mekugadzwa, pakati peizvi tinogona kuratidza:

  • "Sarudzo isinganzwisisike yeSweden Academy". The express (Expressen)
  • "Kuvhunduka uye kuvhiringidzika apo zita remukundi weNobel Prize muLiterature rakapihwa." Manheru Diary (Aftonbladet)
  • "Makorokoto Abdulrazak Gurnah! Mubairo weNobel we2021 muLiterature wakanyatsokodzera ”. National EN (Jorge Iván Garduño)
  • "Inguva yekuziva kuti vanhu vasiri vachena vanogona kunyora." Sweden pepanhau (Svenska Dagbladet)
  • "Abdulrazak Gurnah, nyeredzi isina munhu anobhejera peni pairi" Lelatria Magazine (Javier Claure Covarrubias)
  • "Nhau dzeNobel yeGurnah dzakapembererwa nevanyori uye nyanzvi dzakagara dzichipokana kuti basa rake rinofanirwa nekuverenga kwakakura." The New York Times

Paraíso, Gurnah ibasa rakanakisisa

Muna 1994 Gurnah akapa Paraíso, bhuku rake rechina uye rekutanga rine zvinyorwa zvakashandurirwa muchiSpanish. Nerungano urwu, munyori weAfrica akawana chiremera chikuru mundima yezvinyorwa, kuva kusvika zvino chisikwa chayo chinomiririra zvikuru. Nyaya inotaurwa nezwi rinoziva zvose; musanganiswa wengano nendangariro dzehudiki hwaGurnah munyika yake yekuzvarwa.

Pakati pemitsara, Gurnah anoshora zvakajeka maitiro euranda anotyisa anonangidzirwa kuvana, izvo zvave zvichiitika kwemakore munharaunda yeAfrica. Zvese zvakapindirana pamwe nekunaka kwechisikigo, fauna uye ngano idzo dziri chikamu chetsika yedunhu.

Nekuzadzikiswa kwayo, munyori akatamira kuTanzania, kunyangwe achiri ikoko akati: "Handina kufamba kunotora data, asi kuti ndidzosere guruva mumhino dzangu."”. Izvi zvinoratidza kusaramba mavambo ayo; kune chiyeuchidzo uye kuzivikanwa kweAfrica yakaisvonaka, zvisinei, pasi pechokwadi chizere nemakakatanwa akakomba.

Dzimwe nyanzvi dzakabvumirana kuti chirongwa chinoratidza «lkuyaruka nekukura kwemwana wemuAfrica, inosiririsa nyaya yerudo uyezve nyaya yehuori hwetsika dzeAfrica nekuda kweEuropean colonialism ”.

Zvinyorwa

Zano inoratidza Yusuf, mukomana ane makore gumi nemaviri ekuberekwa mukutanga kwema12 muKawa (guta rekunyepedzera), Tanzania. Baba vake Ndiye maneja wehotera uye ane chikwereti kumutengesi anonzi Aziz, uyo ari tycoon yechiArab ine simba. Nekusakwanisa kutarisana nekuzvipira uku, anomanikidzwa kubata mwana wake sechikamu chekubhadhara.

Mushure mekufamba rwendo, mukomana anoenda kumhenderekedzo yegungwa na "sekuru Aziz" vake. Ikoko kunotanga hupenyu hwake sa rehani (asina kubhadharwa muranda wenguva pfupi), mune shamwari yake Khalil nevamwe vashandi. Basa rake guru nderekushanda uye kutarisira chitoro cheAziz, uko zvigadzirwa zvinotengeswa munzvimbo inotengeswa nemutengesi zvinobva.

Pamusoro pemabasa aya, Yusuf anofanira kutarisira bindu ratenzi wake rakakomberedzwa nemadziro, nzvimbo inoyevedza yaanonzwa zvizere. Usiku, anotizira kunzvimbo yeEdheni uko kuburikidza nezviroto anotsvaka kuwana midzi yake, iyo yehupenyu ihwohwo hwakabviswa kubva kwaari. Yusuf anokura kuva jaya rakanaka uye anoshuva rudo rusina tariro, asi achidiwa nevamwe.

Pazera remakore gumi nemanomwe, Yusuf anotanga rwendo rwake rwechipiri nekaravhani yemutengesi kuCentral Africa uye Congo Basin. Pakushanya panoitwa zvipingaidzo zvakatevedzana apo munyori anotapa chikamu chetsika dzemuAfrica. Mhuka dzesango, kunaka kwechisikigo uye madzinza emuno zvimwe zvezvimwe zvechizvarwa zvirimo muchirongwa.

Pakudzokera kuEast Africa, Hondo Yenyika Yekutanga yatanga uye mukuru wake Aziz anosangana nemauto eGerman. Pasinei nesimba remutengesi akapfuma, iye nevamwe veAfrica vanotorwa kuti vashumire mauto eGermany. Panguva ino, Yusuf achaita sarudzo inonyanya kukosha yehupenyu hwake.

Mhedziso yemamwe mabhuku eGurnah

Memory yeKuenda (1987)

Ndiyo bhuku rekutanga remunyori, rinoiswa mukati la nzvimbo yemahombekombe eEast Africa. Iye protagonist murume mudiki uyo, mushure mekutarisana nehurongwa hwesimba munyika yake, anotumirwa kuKenya nababamunini vake vane hunyanzvi. Munhoroondo yese rwendo rwake rwunozoratidzwa uye nekukura kwarwo kuita kuve nekuzvarwa patsva pamweya.

Pedyo neGungwa (2001)

Iri ibhuku rechitanhatu nemunyori, vhezheni yaro yechiSpanish yakabudiswa muBarcelona muna 2003 (neshanduro yaCarmen Aguilar).  Murungano urwu mune nyaya mbiri dzinopindirana apo vatauri vanosangana kumahombekombe egungwa reBritish. Ava ndiSaleh Omar, akasiya zvose muZanzibar kuti aende kuEngland, uye Latif Mahmud, mukomana akakwanisa kutiza kare uye akagara muLondon kwemakore.

Kusiya (2005)

Iyo inoverengeka inoitika mumatanho maviri, yekutanga muna 1899 uyezve makore makumi mashanu gare gare. Muna 1899, murungu Martin Pearce anonunurwa naHassanali, mushure mekuyambuka gwenga uye asvika muguta reEast Africa.. Mutengesi anokumbira hanzvadzi yake Rehana kuti aporese maronda aMartin nekumuchengeta kusvikira apora. Nenguva isipi, kukwezva kukuru kunoberekwa pakati pevaviri uye vane hukama hunofadza muchivande.

Mhedzisiro yerudo rwakarambidzwa inozoonekwa makumi mashanu emakore gare gare, apo mukoma waMartin anodanana nemuzukuru waRehana. Iyo nyaya inosanganisa kufamba kwenguva, mhedzisiro yekolonialism muhukama uye matambudziko anoratidzwa nerudo.

Nezve chinyorwa ichi, mutsoropodzi Mike Phillips akanyorera bepanhau reChirungu Guardian: 

"Yakawanda yeKusiya yakanyorwa zvakanaka uye inonakidza sechero chinhu chawakaverenga nguva pfupi yadarika, chiyeuchidzo chinotapira chehudiki hwehudiki uye tsika yechiMuslim yakanyangarika, inotsanangurwa nekuratidzira kwayo uye tsika, yakafukidzwa nekarenda yayo yemitambo nemhemberero dzechitendero.

Mabasa akazara Abdulrazak Gurnah

Novelas

  • Ndangariro Yekuenda (1987)
  • MaPilgrim Nzira (1988)
  • Dottie (1990)
  • Paradise (1994) - Paraíso (1997).
  • Admiring Kunyarara (1996) - Kunyarara kwakanyanyisa (1998)
  • Pedyo neGungwa (2001) - Kumahombekombe (2003)
  • Kusiya (2005)
  • Chipo chekupedzisira (2011)
  • Gravel Moyo (2017)
  • Mushure mekurarama (2020)

Essays, nyaya pfupi nemamwe mabasa

  • Vakuru (1985)
  • Cage (1992)
  • Essays on African Writing 1: Ongororo Patsva (1993)
  • Mazano Anoshandura Mungano yaNgũgĩ wa Thiong'o (1993)
  • Iyo Fiction yeWole Soyinka ”muWole Soyinka: Kuongorora (1994)
  • Hasha uye Sarudzo yezvematongerwo enyika muNigeria: Kufunga kweSoyinka's Madmen uye Nyanzvi, Murume Akafa, uye Mwaka weAnomy. (1994, musangano wakabudiswa)
  • Zvinyorwa zvekunyora kweAfrica 2: Contemporary Literature (1995)
  • The mid-point of the scream ': The Writing of Dambudzo Marechera (1995)
  • Kutama uye Shanduko muEnigma yekusvika (1995)
  • Escort (1996)
  • Kubva kuPilgrim's Way (1988)
  • Kufungidzira iyo Postcolonial Munyori (2000)
  • Idea of ​​the Kare (2002)
  • Iyo Yakaunganidzwa Nhau dzaAbdulrazak Gurnah (2004)
  • Amai Vangu Vaigara Papurazi muAfrica (2006)
  • Iyo Cambridge Shamwari kuna Salman Rushdie (2007, sumo yebhuku)
  • Madingindira uye Zvimiro muVana vepakati pehusiku (2007)
  • Tsanga Yezviyo na Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (2012)
  • Ngano yeIye Anosvika: Sezvakaudzwa kuna Abdulrazak Gurnah (2016)
  • Kukurudzira Kwisipo: Wicomb uye Cosmopolitanism (2020)

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako