Jose Marti

Mutsara naJosé Martí.

Mutsara naJosé Martí.

José Martí aive mumwe wevakakurumbira vadzidzi vekuAmerica kusunungurwa. Akazvarwa muHavana muna Ndira 28, 1853, akazove mumwe weakakosha ehurumende yeCuba. Vazhinji vanyori vezvakaitika kare vanomutora semugari wenhaka yeanopokana-neve impiriistist anomiririrwa panguva iyoyo naSimón Bolívar.

Asi pamusoro pehupenyu hwake hwezvematongerwo enyika - chimwe chinhu chinowanzoita kutarisisa kuzita rake - aive munyori ane mukurumbira. Kunyanya, Martí akabuda pachena mukunyorwa kwenyaya nhetembo. Izvo zvaimutendera kuti adzamise pfungwa yake yezvematongerwo enyika pasina kuregera kuongorora kwenzvimbo dzekunaka kwevanhu.

Biography

Makore ekutanga

Kunyangwe akaberekwa pasi pezuva reCaribbean, Akagara pahudiki hwake muValencia, Spain, iro guta kwaibvira baba vake, Mariano Martí. Pazera remakore gumi nematatu akadzokera kuCuba, kwaaizopedzisa zvidzidzo zvake zvepamusoro. Ikoko aizove nemaitiro ake ekutanga eunyanzvi, paakanyoresa muChikoro Chehunyanzvi chePainting neMifananidzo muHavana.

Panguva iyi akaona kusangana kwake kwekutanga nevakuru vanotonga pachitsuwa ichi. Kunyanya, Akapomerwa mhosva yekupandukira mushure mekuwanikwa kwetsamba yakanyorwa naiye uyo aive nezvakanyorwa kuti vamwe vadzidzi vaviri "vapanduki" yekunyora muchiuto chinorwisa rusununguko. Nokuda kweizvi, akatongerwa makore matanhatu mujeri. Asi nekuda kwekuedza kwevabereki vake, akadzoserwa kuSpain.

Kuvaka iyo ngano

KuSpain akapinda zvidzidzo zveyunivhesiti kuMadrid neZaragoza. Mune alma mater yeguta reAragonese akawana madhigirii muCivil Law, Philosophy uye Tsamba. Panguva iyoyo wechidiki José akapinda munyika yeutapi venhau semubatsiri muDiario de Avisos de Zaragoza.

Svikiro iri raive bhuku rine chinzvimbo cheRepublican, yaive nzira yayo yekutanga kurongeka kune uyu mutsara wepfungwa dzezvematongerwo enyika. Kubva ipapo akazove "munhu wepanyika" ... Akafamba kubva kuParis kuenda kuNew YorkAkagara kekutanga nguva muMexico uye akapedza mwedzi mishoma kuGuatemala.

Kushuva, chikonzero chehupenyu

Nerumwe rwendo, Martí akawedzera maonero ake pane zvimwe zvinhu chaizvo. Saizvozvo, akararama zvakanyanya rudo nyaya, zvimwe zvacho zvinoratidzwa mune rake rekunyora basa. Kunyange zvakadaro, iyo pfungwa yekusunungura nyika yake kubva kuSpanish joko yakanga yatogadzirwa mupfungwa dzake.

Kudzingwa zvakare

Uye 1878, Akatoroora uye aine mwanakomana, José Martí akadzokera kuCuba aine chinangwa chakasimba chekumanikidza rusununguko rwenyika. Nechinangwa ichi, akatanga Cuban Central Revolutionary Club uye gore rakatevera rakazonzi "hondo diki". Iyi pfupi pfuti yekumukira yaive yechipiri rusununguko kuyedza kurwisa iyo Spanish korona.

Kumukira kwacho kwakakurumidza kudzorwa. Martí akabatwa uye akatumirwazve kuutapwa (kuNew York). Asi pakanga pasina kudzokera shure. Kunyangwe chokwadi chekusangana nemukadzi wake nemwanakomana muguta reAmerican chakamutadzisa kubva pachinangwa chake chakamirirwa kwenguva refu: rusununguko rweCuba. Chinangwa chakazopedzisira chamutorera hupenyu hwake uye, nekudaro, haana kumbozviona zvichizadzikiswa.

Munhu ane mukurumbira

Munguva ye1880s, José Martí akawana mukurumbira wakakura munzvimbo zhinji dzeLatin America. Mamiriro ezvinhu anobva mukukura kwake semunyori wenyaya. Ehe, zvinyorwa zvake mumapepanhau ane mbiri nemagazini e Latin America vaive vaine huremu hwakakura. Kunze, hongu, kubva mukutora chikamu kwake mune pro-rusununguko zviitiko mune yekupedzisira yeSpain makoloni mhiri kwemakungwa.

Mahara mavhesi.

Mahara mavhesi.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Hapana zvigadzirwa zvakawanikwa.

Kwenguva pfupi aive muCaracas, Venezuela. Zano rake raive rekubatanidza kubva kumaodzanyemba kweCaribbean Gungwa, dzakateedzana rangano dzekupidigura vemakoloni vakaramba vakasimba muCuba. Nekudaro, akamanikidzwa kudzokera kuBig Apple mushure mekunge Mutungamiri Antonio Guzmán Blanco vamudzinga kubva munyika nechinyorwa chewake chakaburitswa mu Magazini yeVenezuela.

Iri basa rekunyora raJosé Martí

Kunyangwe hazvo mhirizhonga yezvematongerwo enyika yakaratidza hupenyu hwake, José Martí aigara achiwana nguva yekunyora. Pamusoro pezvinyorwa, basa rake rinosanganisira nhetembo, nyaya pfupi, theatre uye kunyangwe novel. Iwo ekutanga ndiwo anozivikanwa kwazvo, nekuti mazhinji acho akakonzera maisms echokwadi paakatsikiswa nekuda kwemaitiro echinyorwa chakanyorwa.

Yedu America

Chimwe chezvinyorwa zvine mukurumbira chaJosé Martí ndeche Yedu America. Iri zita rakaburitswa munaNdira 1891 mu Magazini yeNew York Illustrated and in the Pepanhau reRiberal Party yeMexico. Chinyorwa ichi chinomiririra modhi yezviri "rondedzero yazvino".

Mune mamwe mazwi, manyorerwo e Yedu America ndiko kusangana kwakazara kweakadzama aripo anoratidza ("Zvepanyika", asi kwete zvemweya, mu "classical" pfungwa yezwi iri). Mukubatana neprose seyakanakisa sezvazvinotsanangurwa, izvo, kure ne "kutapira" zvirimo, zvinopa simba rinotyisa.

Nhaka inocheka kaviri

Yedu America kune chikamu chakakura chinopfupisa muviri we "Martinian" maonero (zvakajeka anti-imperialist). Naizvozvo, anovhunza maAmerican nekutora chete kodzero yekuzvidaidza kuti "maAmerican." Zvakaenzana, inotsigira mubatanidzwa wenyika dzese dzeLatin America senzira chete yekubata nezvayinofunga kuti ndiyo tyisidziro nyowani (iyo US) yedunhu.

Naizvozvo Martí akaratidza kuva nechiratidzo chakanyatsojeka, anokwanisa kutarisira zvizhinji zvezviitiko zvinotevera. kamwe apo Spanish colonialism yakakundwa. Zvine musoro, dzidziso iyi "inopesana neYankee" yaka "batwa" nevatungamiriri vazhinji veLatin American vakasiyira kutsigira kugara kwavo musimba kusvika nhasi.

Nhetembo dzaJosé Martí

Ndanga ndichifunga nezvako, nezvebvudzi rako

Ndanga ndichifunga nezvako, nezvebvudzi rako
kuti nyika yemumvuri iite shanje,
uye ndakaisa poindi yehupenyu hwangu mavari
uye ndaida kurota kuti wanga uri wangu.

Ndinofamba pasi nemaziso angu
ndakasimudza - o, kuda kwangu kukuru - - kwakakwirira kudaro
kuti mukuzvikudza kwehasha kana kusuwa kusiririsa
munhu akavhenekera.

Rarama: -Ziva mafiro; ndozvinoita kunditambudza
kutsvaga kusingafadzi, uku kunaka kunotyisa,
uye Hupenyu hwese mumweya wangu hunoratidzwa,
uye nekutsvaga ndisina rutendo, ndinofa.

Ita ruva jena

Ita ruva jena
muna Chikumi saJanuary
Kune shamwari yakatendeka
uyo anondipa ruoko rwake rwechokwadi.

Uye kune hutsinye hunondibvisa
moyo wandinogara nawo,
Rukato kana rukato kurima;
Ini ndinokura chena ruva.

Precursor yeMazuva Ano

Minimal anthology.

Minimal anthology.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Hapana zvigadzirwa zvakawanikwa.

Paaive achive weCuba "mupostori werusununguko", Martí haana kungozvipa nzvimbo yake kunyora. Akaongorora zvakare ainyanyo shandiswa stylistic uye aesthetic mafomu enguva yake, kunyanya mudetembo. Muchokwadi - semhando yedimikira yekufunga kwake kwezvematongerwo enyika - aidzivirira rusununguko rwekusika pamusoro penzira dzechinyakare.

Kusaruramisira uye kusingadzivisiki kwepfungwa yekufungidzira

Pamwe, zvinzvimbo zvake zve "anti-imperialist" zvanga zvichinyaradza avo "vadzidzi" vanotsvaga kubvisa kukosha kwayo mukati mechizvino-zvino. uye zvinyorwa zvakajairika. Asi chero zvodii, ivo vanogara vachingozviisa pasi uye, kune imwe nhanho, zvisina tsarukano zvirevo. Nekuti José Martí akaita zvegamba maererano nezvinodiwa munhoroondo yeNyika yake.

Anogona sei kudzora avo vakashandisa kufunga kwake kuzvibatsira? Ivo vezvematongerwo enyika vanonyanya kuzivisa pfungwa dze "Martinian" vanonyatsoshanda mukubatana? Pfungwa dzekufunga padivi, nzvimbo yayo isinganetsi munhoroondo yezvazvino zvinyorwa zveLatin America haigone kubviswa pairi..


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako