Niebla, na Miguel de Unamuno

Miguel de Unamuno.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Fogi (1914), daga marubucin Bilbao Miguel de Unamuno, wani yanki ne mai mahimmanci cikin nassoshi na littafin wanzuwa na zamani. Tabbas, yayin nazarin yanayin yanayin wannan aikin, ya zama dole a gano fasalin sabon salo wanda aka ƙaddamar, daidai, ta Unamuno tare da Fogi.

Yana da «nívola», labari ne wanda aka gina shi ta hanyar maganganun da ba za a iya tsammani ba daga jaruman. Daga cikin waɗannan maganganun na ciki, an yi cikakken bayani daga tunanin kare zuwa sadarwar babban jigon tare da mahaliccinsa. Bugu da ari, da gwanintar sarrafa tatsuniyoyi da kayan masarufi, yi Fogi gaskiya adabi mai daraja.

Sobre el autor

Miguel de Unamuno ya ga haske a karo na farko a Bilbao, Spain, a ranar 29 ga Satumba, 1864. A lokacin yarinta ya ga tsananin kaifin yakin Carlist. A cikin 1880s ya kammala digiri a Falsafa da Haruffa a Jami'ar Madrid. Ayyukansa na farko sun kasance a matsayin malamin makarantar sakandare (ya koyar da Latin da ilimin halayyar ɗan adam), amma babban dalilinsa shi ne ya sami kujerar shugaban jami'a.

Bayan ƙoƙari da yawa ba tare da nasara ba, a cikin 1891 an nada shi Farfesa na Girkanci a Jami'ar Salamanca. (A wancan garin ya rayu mafi yawan rayuwarsa). A cikin 1901, ya zama shugaban gidan karatun (na farkon dogon zango uku). Tsayawa mafi tsawo a cikin aikin jami'a ya faru ne a lokacin mulkin kama karya na Primo Rivera (1924 - 1930), lokacin da ya yi gudun hijira zuwa Faransa.

Hali

Bayyanannun rikice-rikicen Unamuno sun bayyana yayin lura da canje-canje a cikin alaƙar siyasa, a cikin rikice-rikicen ruhaniya, da ayyukan nasa. A zahiri, Ya kasance mutum ne mai son kai da son kai, cikin tashin hankali har ma da kansa. Saboda haka, ba abin mamaki ba ne irin dambarwar da yake yi a cikin PSOE ko kuma tausayinsa ga akidun gurguzu yayin samartakarsa.

Daga baya, ya karkata zuwa ga wasu halaye masu ra'ayin mazan jiya, yana zuwa don tausaya wa gwamnatin Franco duk da cewa an zabe shi a matsayin mataimakin a lokacin Jamhuriyar. Kodayake zuwa karshen rayuwarsa ya janye daga wannan matsayin. Saboda haka, Ya mutu a tsare a gidansa a ranar 31 ga Disamba, 1936. Makonni kaɗan kafin mutuwarsa, ya faɗi ɗayan shahararrun kalmominsa a gaban taron jama'a:

"Za ku ci nasara amma ba za ku shawo ba."

Halayen aikinsa

Legacy

Girma da mahimmancin aikin fasaha na Unamuno ya dace da sauran ƙattai na adabin Mutanen Espanya na ƙarni na XNUMX. Haka kuma, Ya kasance marubuci mai nasara a kowane fanni: karin magana, wakoki, rubuce-rubuce, wasan kwaikwayo ... A gefe guda kuma, wannan marubucin ɗan asalin Sifen yana da tarihi a cikin thearnin 98.

Jigogi

In ji Miguel de Unamuno.

In ji Miguel de Unamuno.

Miguel de Unamuno koyaushe mutum ne mai damuwa da tarihi, adabi, munanan halaye, yanzu da kuma makomar Spain. Hakazalika, ya kasance mai matukar son sabunta ruhaniya ta al'adar gargajiya mai karkata ga halaye na tunani. A cikin juyin halittarsa ​​na ilimi ya canza da'awarsa zuwa "Turawan Turai" ta "Spanishize Turai".

Wani bangare mai matukar tasiri a cikin aikin nasa shine kulawarsa ga kunci da matsalolin dan adam. Saboda haka, marubucin Bilbao yayi bayani dalla dalla game da matsaloli masu zurfin wanzuwar game da madawwamiyar mawuyacin halin da mutum ke ciki. Kazalika dangantakarsa da Allah da rashin mutuwa ta ruhu ko ra'ayoyi.

Estilo

Tsarin kere-kere na Unamuno da sakonnin da aka watsa cikin bangarorinsa da aminci suna nuna halayensa. Ayyukansa cikakke ne na mafi tsananin nutsuwa tare da rayayyiyar rayuwa da aka bayyana ta hanyar sabunta magana., nesa da hanyoyin zamani. Kari akan haka, marubucin Basque ya zo ne da kirkirar sabbin kalmomi don kara karfin tunani da kuma tsananin motsin rai.

Tattaunawa da takaitaccen bayani game da Fogi

Kaza

Kaza

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Fogi

Kusanci

Littafin ya sake ba da labarin halin Augusto Pérez, wani ƙwararren masanin shari'a wanda bai daɗe da rasa mahaifiyarsa ba. Kasancewarsa ɗa ne tilo, jarumin jarumin ya ji matukar damuwa game da rayuwarsa. Amsar sa ga kowane yanayi shine - da zato - ga falsafa, amma, don faɗi gaskiya, yanke shawararsa ta kasance ta zama mai saurin tunani, ba ƙaramin la'akari ba.

Duk da cewa yana da kyawawan halaye, yana da halin rashin hankali. Sakamakon haka, Augusto "ya bar kansa da rai" maimakon ɗaukar nauyin rayuwarsa. Saboda wannan, sun kasa ganowa da / ko tunkarar yadda suke ji idan sun tashi, musamman, bayan da kyakkyawa mai kaɗa fiyano ta ƙi shi, Eugenia Domingo del Arco.

Ƙaddamarwa

A karon farko, budurwar da ake son ayi mata fada tana da saurayi, Mauricio. Koyaya, lokacin da Augusto ya fara soyayya tare da Rosario —Daya daga cikin kuyanginta— tana (tuhuma) ta zaɓi rabuwa da abokiyar zamanta. Bayan haka, Rosario ya yarda ya kasance tare da Augusto kuma an sanya ranar da za a yi bikin a nan gaba.

Crisis

Duk da haka, jim kadan kafin auren, Eugenia ta sanar da shi ta wasika zuwa ga Augusto cewa ba za ta zama matarsa ​​ba. Madadin haka, sai ta yanke shawarar komawa tare da Mauricio tare da shi zuwa lardin. Hakanan, a cikin wasikar yarinyar ta bayyana shirinta na tallafa wa kanta a kan aikin da lauyan ya samo wa Mauricio (wanda yake malalaci) da kuma a gidan da Augusto ya biya jinginar sa.

Ta wannan hanyar, tunanin wata kyakkyawar mace mai gwagwarmaya da Augustus (da mai karatu) ya ɓace lokacin da halinta na rashin gaskiya ya bayyana. Saboda haka, Halin Eugenia a matsayin maƙaryaci, mai rarrafe, mai amfani da riba da cin riba ya bayyana. Fuskanci wannan cin amanar, fitowar babban halayyar shine kashe kansa.

Saukar

A matsayin aiki na karshe kafin kashe kansa, jarumar ta yanke shawarar zuwa Salamanca don ziyarci Unamuno. Tare da marubucin, yana cikin tattaunawa mai ma'ana, inda Don Miguel ya zama cikin Allah kuma Augusto ya wakilci halittar. A wannan lokacin, wahayi mara kyau ya bayyana a ɓangaren Unamuno - Mahalicci: Augusto Pérez ba da gaske bane. Lauyan halayya ce ta kirkirarren labari tare da kyakkyawan makoma, banda mutuwa ta hanyar kashe kansa.

A ƙarshe, Augusto ya sabawa Unamuno kuma yayi iƙirarin cewa akwai shi. Menene ƙari, Yana tunatar da shi halin mutuƙar da ba za a iya guje wa ba ga dukkan mutane (gami da Don Miguel, masu karatu, da shi kansa). Wannan bayanin ya bar marubucin ya ɗan damu, wanda ya yi ritaya ya huta a gida… Yayin da yake bacci, Allah ya daina yin mafarkin Augustus, sakamakon haka, jarumin “ya faɗi”, ma’ana, ya mutu.


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