Tunawa da Herman Melville. 20 manyan kalmomin aikinsa

Herman Melville hadu yau 199 shekaru. Kuma bikin da zaiyi shekara shekara mai zuwa yayi alkawarin zama babban biki. Wannan marubucin Ba'amurke, wanda aka ɗauka ɗayan manyan marubutan adabin duniya ne, babu shakka asali tunani na kasada labari, musamman waɗanda aka haɓaka a cikin mar, tare da karfi mai karfi kuma mai karfin hankali.

Yau na kawo Bayanin 20 zaba daga cikin shahararrun ayyukansa. Ga wadanda muke son littattafan salo da duk wani abu mai wari teku, jiragen ruwa da kuma manyan almara, marubucin farin whale Moby Dick dole ne ya kasance.

Wanene Herman Melville

Tare da rayuwa mai tsanani kamar litattafansa, Melville haifaffen New York ne kuma shi ne na uku cikin yara takwas. Lokacin da mahaifinsa, Allan Melville, ya mutu, iyalin suna cikin mawuyacin halin rashin kuɗi. Don haka, a 1837 ya ketare tekun zuwa Liverpool inda yake aiki. Bayan dawowarsa yayi aiki kamar Farfesa kuma a cikin 1841, yana da shekaru 22, ya yi tafiya zuwa ga Tekun Kudu a kan a Wahala.

Bayan shekara guda da rabi na hayewa, ya watsar da jirgi a cikin Tsibiran Marquesas kuma ya zauna tsawon wata guda a cikin mutane masu cin naman mutane, wanda ya tsere daga cikin wani jirgin kasuwancin Australiya don sauka Tahiti, inda ya ɗan jima a kurkuku. Ya kuma yi aiki a matsayin manomi, ya yi tafiya zuwa Honolulu kuma daga can, ya gama shiga soja a cikin jirgin ruwan Sojan ruwan Amurka.

a 1844 daina bincike kuma ya dukufa ga rubuta litattafai cikakken lokaci kuma galibi akansa yake abubuwan da suka faru a teku. Sunan sarauta ne kamar Typee, Mardi ko Redburn, da sauransu. Ko kamar yadda Billy Budd, mai jirgin ruwa, aiki na karshe da aka buga lokacin da Melville ya kusan faɗuwa. Sauran taken sun kasance Pierre, babban rashin nasara, kuma Tatsuniyoyi daga ra'ayi, wanda ke dauke da asusun Bartleby magatakarda.

Shahararren littafinsa shine Moby Dick, wanda aka buga a 1850, amma aka ƙi shi da farko. Sannan ya zama ɗayan manyan ayyukan adabin duniya, don hoto da kwatancin duniya da yanayin ɗan adam a cikin jirgin ruwa, da karami, kyaftin daga ɗayan manyan haruffa waɗanda aka taɓa halitta, Kyaftin ahab. Ya sadaukar da shi ga Nathaniel Hawthorne ne adam wata, marubucin wanda shima yayi masa tasiri sosai kuma wanda yayi abota dashi a 1850.

Yankuna 20 na ayyukansa

Rubuta (1846)

  1. Jirgin mara kyau! Kamanninku na nuna sha'awar ku; A cikin mummunan halin da yake ciki!
  2. Duwatsu da abubuwan da ke ciki kawai kebabbu ne da wuraren da babu surutu don kallo, ba tare da hayaniyar dabbobin ganima ba kuma 'yan tsirarun samari ne ke motsa su.
  3. Jirginmu ya mika wuya ga kowane irin nishaɗi da lalata. Ba 'yar karamar shamaki da aka katse tsakanin lalata da sha'awar ma'aikata da kuma jin daɗinsu.
  4. Amma waɗannan tunannin ba su cika cika tunanina ba; Na watsar da kaina yayin da awanni suka wuce, kuma idan duk wani tunani mara dadi ya same ni, to da sauri na kore su. Lokacin da na ke sha'awar koren fili wanda aka sa ni a kurkuku, sai na yi tunanin cewa ina cikin "kwarin mafarki" kuma bayan duniyar tsaunuka akwai duniyar damuwa da damuwa.
  5. A cikin neman kifi whale mun kasance muna tafiya ta cikin Equator kimanin digiri ashirin yamma da Galapagos; kuma duk aikinmu, bayan mun tantance hanyarmu, shine mu gyara farfajiyoyin mu tsaya a iska: jirgi mai kyau da iska mai ci gaba zasu yi sauran.

Moby Dick (1851)

  1. Kuna iya kirana Ismael.
  2. Haukan ɗan adam wani lokaci abu ne na wayo da ɗanɗano. Lokacin da ake tunanin cewa ta gudu, watakila kawai ta canza kama ne ta wata hanyar shiru da ta dabara.
  3. Ta hanyar wasu halaye masu ban sha'awa, kamar yadda galibi ake lura da su a cikin finafinan birni waɗanda koyaushe suke yada zango a farfajiyar kotu, daidai, mazan, masu zunubi sukan yawaita a cikin wurare masu tsarki.
  4. Babu shi a kan kowace taswira. Hakikanin wurare ba su taɓa kasancewa ba.
  5. Hanyar dabba ta gaba a cikin duhu kusan kamar yadda aka kafa don hankali ga mafarauta mai hankali kamar bakin teku ga matuƙin jirgin sama. Don haka wannan kwarewar mafarauta ce, karin magana game da wani abu da aka rubuta a cikin ruwa, farkawa, amintacce ne, ga duk dalilan da ake so, kamar busasshiyar ƙasa.

Bartleby, magatakarda (1853)

  1. Dole ne in faɗi cewa bisa ga al'adar 'yan doka da yawa da ke da ofisoshi a cikin gine-gine masu yawan jama'a, ƙofar tana da makullai da yawa.
  2. Ah, farin ciki yana neman haske, shi ya sa muke hukunci cewa duniya tana da farin ciki; amma ciwo yana ɓoye cikin kadaici, shi ya sa muke yin hukunci cewa babu raɗaɗin.
  3. Amma ya zama kamar shi kaɗai, cikakken shi kaɗai a cikin sararin samaniya. Wani abu kamar ganima a tsakiyar Tekun Atlantika.
  4. Zan iya ba da sadaka ga jikinsa; amma jikinsa bai yi rauni ba; ransa ba shi da lafiya, kuma ban iya isa ga ransa ba.
  5. Baƙon abu ba ne ga mutumin da ake musanta shi ta wata hanyar da ba ta dace ba kuma ta rashin hankali don ya ƙi yarda da hukuncin da ya yanke na farko. Ya fara hango kadan cewa, ban mamaki kamar yadda ake iya gani, duk adalci da kowane dalili suna gefe guda; idan akwai shaidu marasa son kai, ana juya musu zuwa wata hanya don ƙarfafa shi.

Billy Budd, mai jirgin ruwa (1924)

  1. Gaskiya ba tare da yarda ba za ta kasance tana da tsayayyun bangarorinta.
  2. A zahiri, ya kasance ɗayan waɗancan kyarketai na teku waɗanda wahala da haɗarin rayuwa na ruwa a cikinsu, a waɗancan lokutan na yaƙe-yaƙe masu tsayi, bai taɓa ɓata ɗabi'a ba don jin daɗin ji.
  3. Wannan kyaftin din yana ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan mutane masu daraja da aka samo a cikin kowane irin sana'a, har ma da kaskantar da kai; irin mutumin da kowa ya yarda ya kira "mutum mai mutunci."
  4. Lokacin da aka ayyana yaƙi, shin, mu, mayaƙan da ke kula da shi, an shawarce mu ne a baya? Muna yin yaƙi ta bin umarni. Idan hukuncinmu ya yarda da yaƙin, to daidaituwa ce kawai.
  5. Wanene a cikin bakan gizo zai iya zana layin da shunayya mai ƙare kuma lemu ya fara? A fili muna ganin bambancin launuka, amma a ina, daidai, na farkon ya rikice da na biyun? Haka lamarin yake dangane da lafiyar kwakwalwa da hauka.

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