Katunan Morocco

Haruffa na Maroko

Haruffa na Maroko

Cartas marruecas labari ne na marubuta wanda marubucin Spain kuma mutumin soja José Cadalso ya rubuta. An buga shi a cikin 1789, ɗayan ɗayan mahimman abubuwan tarihi ne na adabin Iberiya na ƙarni na XNUMX. Hakanan, wannan aikin an yarda dashi don ci gaban labarinsa na asali da tsoro, an bar salo da yawa na lokacinsa.

A gaskiya ma, malamai da yawa suna la'akari da layukansa, waɗanda aka ɗora da maganganun zamani, da kuma gaban zamaninsu. Hakanan yana faruwa tare da labarin, dangane da musayar haruffa (90 gaba ɗaya) tsakanin haruffa almara uku. Kodayake hujjar tana gabatar da bincike ba na haƙiƙa ba, ra'ayi ne mai inganci kan halin da ake ciki a Spain a wancan lokacin.

Marubucin, José Cadalso

Rayuwa wacce ta cancanci littafi da fim

José Cadalso y Vásquez de Andrade an haife shi a Cádiz, Andalusia, a ranar 8 ga Oktoba 1741. Abin baƙin ciki, mahaifiyarsa ta mutu yayin haihuwa kuma mahaifinsa ya sadu da shi yana ɗan shekara 13.. Wannan ɗan attajiri ne wanda yake da sha'awa a cikin Amurka, yana da aiki sosai don ƙetare Tekun Atlantika ya binne matarsa ​​ko kula da ɗansa.

Mahaifin Jesuit din Mateo Vásquez, kawunsa ta bangaren mahaifiyarsa, ya sanya shi a ƙarƙashin kulawarsa lokacin yarinta. Daga baya, ya koma Paris don ci gaba da karatu (a babban birnin Faransa daga ƙarshe ya haɗu da mahaifinsa). Daga baya, Ya zagaya Netherlands, Italiya da yankuna Jamusawa, har sai da ya zauna tare da mahaifinsa a Landan.

Mutum ne "na duniya"

Yawan tafiye-tafiye akai-akai ta yawancin biranen Turai masu ban sha'awa ya ba Cadalso hangen nesa na rayuwa. Bugu da kari, ya samu gogewa a cikin mutum na farko gwarzo na tunani mai wayewa. Sakamakon haka, saurayi Yusuf ya zama mutum mai hankali.

Wannan tunanin na "ci gaba" ya kawo masa babban rikici tare da mahaifinsa.. Saboda - kamar sauran mutanen Spain - mahaifinsa ya rungumi akidu na “archaic” masu ra'ayin mazan jiya. Wace kwarewa ce ta kwarewa akan ilimin da aka samu.

Tare da aikin Yesuit?

Rikicin farko tsakanin uba da ɗa ya kasance saboda umarnin na farkon ga zuriyarsa don yin karatu a Seminario de Nobles de Madrid. Wata cibiya ce wacce babban aikinta shine shirya matasa don gudanar da ayyukan mulki, nesa da duk wata fasaha da kere kere.

Don guje wa wannan "ukubar", Cadalso ya nuna kamar yana da sha'awar horo a matsayin malamin Jesuit. A zahiri, ya kasance wauta ce kawai; mahaifinsa ya yi watsi da wannan umarnin na addini kuma ya sake tura shi zuwa ga "wayewa." Don haka, ya rayu mataki na biyu wanda aka kafa a cikin "birni na ƙauna." Hakanan, ya yi balaguro zuwa Nahiyar don koyon yarukan rayuwa da Latin (yare da kusan ba a amfani da shi a waɗannan shekarun).

Karshen idyll

Joseph Gallows.

Joseph Gallows.

Mutuwar mahaifinsa a 1761, lokacin da wannan saurayi yana ɗan shekara 21, ya zama "kira zuwa Duniya". Ya koma Spain don samun labarai masu tayar da hankali: tsohuwar arzikin mahaifinsa ta bace ... Ba tare da gado ba, ya yanke shawarar shiga soja. Wannan shi ne tsohuwar sha'awar sa ta saurayi, wanda mahaifinsa ya nuna rashin amincewarsa da farko (bai yi magana da maza a hannu ba).

Tun daga wannan lokacin ya haɗu da soyayya mai ƙarfi tare da aikin adabinsa da kuma aikin soja. Saboda karshen, Cadalso ya mutu ba da jimawa ba a cikin 1782, wanda aka azabtar da gurneti wanda ya buge shi a cikin haikalin yayin yaƙi a mamayar Gibraltar.

Analysis of Haruffa na Maroko

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Haruffa na Maroko

Abubuwa

Cikin dare y Haruffa na Maroko wakiltar ba ƙari ba a cikin aikin adabi na José Cadalso. Dangane da yanayin da aka bayyana a sakin layi na baya, an buga ayyukan biyu bayan mutuwa da kuma kashi-kashi. Bakin Makafi de Madrid ita ce matsakaiciyar da ke kula da yin waɗannan fitattun ayyukan duniya.

Kanal din - ya samu wannan matsayin ne kwanaki kadan kafin rasuwarsa - ya gabatar da littafin nasa wanda ya yi fice tsakanin 1773 da 1774. Amma, Bai sami ikon shawo kan takunkumin mazan jiya na wancan lokacin ba, don haka, bashi da damar da zai more nasarar sa a rayuwa.

Kalaman tarwatsawa

Bayan girman zamanin Spanishasar Sifaniyanci, daga baya wallafe-wallafen yaren Sifaniyanci ya shiga cikin ramin da ake furtawa.. Bayan hazikan mawallafa irin su Lope de Vega, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Francisco de Quevedo, Tirso de Molina ko Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (a tsakanin wasu), ya kasance “dabi’a” ce cewa matakin na gaba ana ganin “tsayuwa ce” ”.

Duk da haka, Haruffa na Maroko yayi aiki azaman sabon tsari don sake sanya haruffa Mutanen Espanya. Godiya ga kyakkyawar haɗuwa tsarin al'ada karin bayani, tare da mafi dabara na karin magana cike da siffofin labari.

Yan wasa

Jarumar fim din ita ce Gazel, wani matashi dan asalin kasar Morocco daga dangin da suke da wadata wanda ya shigo Spain hutu.. Yana daraja duk yanayin da ya lura da shi da kyau kuma yana ƙoƙari kada ya rinjayi hukuncin da ya gabata. Wannan halayyar ta dace da babban malami, Ben Beley, wanda yake ba da labarin duk abubuwan da ya samu.

In ji José Cadalso.

In ji José Cadalso.

A saboda wannan dalili, Beley yana alfahari da kokarin mai kula da shi don shawo kan duk wani tunani na sama ko na baya-baya. A wannan bangaren, Nuño, wani ɗan ƙasar Sfaniya mai matsakaicin shekaru, ya kammala adadin masu aikawa da masu aikawa. Wannan halayyar tana wakiltar matsayin marubuci na ci gaba, mai tsananin son gaskiya, tare da ƙarancin imani ga countryan kasarsa, amma mai gajiyawa mai kare ƙasar.

Takunkumi

Marubucin Andalus bai iya ganin aikinsa da aka buga a rayuwarsa ba sakamakon sukar lamirin al'ummar Iberiya da aka nuna a wasu sassa na Haruffa na Maroko. Bayan rayuwarsa a biranen Paris da London, gami da ganin ido da kansa ci gaban tunanin ɗan adam a cikin al'ummomin Italiya da Jamusawa, komawarsa Sifen kusan rauni ne.

Haɗewar al'ummar Iberiya ga ra'ayoyin da suka gabata - kuma ya wuce kusan duk Turai - shine mafi banƙyama ga Cadalso. Ba abin mamaki bane, wannan matsayin ya haifar masa da faɗa tare da mahaifinsa (an watsa shi a tsakiyar "wasiƙun wasikunsa"). Hakanan, ra'ayi ne da yawancin masu ra'ayin mazan jiya da na gargajiya suka raina, kodayake lokaci ya ƙare don tabbatar da shi daidai.


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