Likitan ilimin dabbobi

Masanin ilimin kimiyya.

Masanin ilimin kimiyya.

Likitan ilimin dabbobi shi ne littafi na biyu da marubucin ɗan ƙasar Brazil Paulo Coelho ya buga. Kodayake fitowar sa ta farko a shekarar 1988 ba ta sami nasarar kasuwanci ba, amma yau ya zama cikakke Mafi sayarwa duniya. Tasirin wannan taken da aka fassara zuwa harsuna 56 ba za a iya lissafa shi ba. Media kamar Jaridar Wasika ta Portugal la'akari Likitan ilimin dabbobi a matsayin littafi mafi kyawun sayar da Fotigal a kowane lokaci.

Rubutun ya ba da labarin tafiyar Santiago, wani saurayi makiyayi don neman dukiya a cikin dutsen dala na Masar. A cikin tafiyarsa a cikin hamada, ya koyi dabarun farko don wanzuwarsa saboda haduwa da yakeyi a jere da wasu haruffa masu rikitarwa. Daga cikin su, koyarwar masanin alchemist suna da mahimmanci, wanda - bayan ya bayyana dukkan ikonsa - zai sake canza rayuwar mai son har abada.

Game da marubucin, Paulo Coelho

Haihuwa da dangi

Ofan dangin masu wadata a cikin aji, an haifi Paulo Coelho a Brazil a 1947. Mahaifinsa, Pedro, injiniya ne; mahaifiyarsa, Lygia, matar gida ce. Tun yana ɗan shekara bakwai ya karɓi horo na Jesuit a Colegio San Ignacio a Rio de Janeiro. Koyaya, aikin addini na tilastawa ya haifar da ƙin yarda ga matasa. Amma ba duk abin da ba shi da kyau ba, saboda a cikin farfajiyar wannan ma'aikatar aikinsa na rubutu ya bayyana.

Lokacin tsare masu tabin hankali

Halin tawayen Paul ya bayyana a lokacin samartaka, lokacin da ya yi adawa da aniyar iyayen sa ta zama injiniya. Mahaifinsa ya ɗauki wannan halin a matsayin alamar rashin lafiya kuma ya yanke shawarar shigar da ɗansa (a lokuta biyu) zuwa cibiyar kula da lafiyar hankali. Daga baya, saurayi Coelho ya fara haɗuwa da rukunin wasan kwaikwayo da aiwatar da aikin jarida.

Bayan kwarewa ta uku a asibitin mahaukata - kuma bisa shawarar likitan dangi - Paulo ya yanke shawarar yin karatun doka domin dawo da rayuwarsa kan hanya. Marubucin ya kama yawancin abubuwan da suka faru a lokacin da baƙin ciki Veronika Ya Yanke Shawara Ya Mutu (1998).

Hippie motsi da kiɗa a tsakiyar mulkin kama karya

Coelho bai kammala karatun jami'a ba, a maimakon haka, sai ya nutsar da kansa cikakke a cikin hippie scene na sittin. Waɗannan lokutan lokuta ne na gwaji tare da abubuwan psychotropic da ƙirƙirar kiɗa tare da Raúl Seixas. Har zuwa 1976, Paulo ya tsara waƙoƙi fiye da sittin a kan faya-fayai daban-daban waɗanda suka haura kofi 600.000 da aka sayar baki ɗaya.

A cikin 1973, Coelho da Seixas sun haɗu da ƙungiyar masu adawa da ra'ayin jari-hujja, Sociedad Alternativa, waɗanda su ma masu aikata sihiri ne. Waɗannan al'adu zasu zama tushen tushe na Van Valkyries (1992). A wannan lokacin, an daure saurayin Paulo saboda kasancewarsa "shugaban tunani" na wasan kwaikwayo na 'yanci kring ha. Mulkin soja na kama-karya na lokacin yana dauke shi a matsayin babbar barazana.

Tara

Kwana biyu kacal bayan an sake shi, An sace Coelho a tsakiyar titi kuma aka kai shi cibiyar tsare sojoji. A can, an azabtar da shi na tsawon kwanaki. Wadanda suka kame shi sun kyale shi ne kawai saboda marubucin ya yi kamar mahaukaci ne. Shiga uku da ya yi a baya zuwa asibitocin tabin hankali ya zama hujja. Dangane da tarihin rayuwar 2004 (Ruiza, M., Fernández, T. da Tamaro, E.), bayan an sake su, wani matashi mai shekaru 26 da haihuwa "ya wadatar" kuma ya yanke shawarar "samun rayuwa ta yau da kullun".

Aure da wallafe-wallafe na farko

A kamfanin faifan Polygram - inda ya yi aiki tsawon shekara daya - ya hadu da matarsa ​​ta farko (Ya aure ta fiye da shekaru biyu). Farawa a cikin 1979, ya fara tafiya zuwa sassa daban-daban na Turai tare da tsohuwar abokiyarta, Christina Oiticica. Tare da shi wanda ya aura daga baya kuma ya kasance cikin rayuwar har yau.

Paulo Coelho

Paulo Coelho

Godiya ga gamuwa da hali a Amsterdam (wanda Coelho bai taɓa son bayyanawa ba), marubucin ɗan Brazil ya fara sasanta kansa da Katolika. A matsayin ɓangare na wannan sake haihuwar ruhaniya, Paulo ya yi tafiya cikin Camino de Santiago tare da Christina. Kwarewar ta sa shi ya saki littafinsa na farko a shekarar 1987, Mahajjacin Compostela (Littafin rubutun matsafi), tare da ƙananan lambobin tallace-tallace.

Likitan ilimin dabbobi (1988)

A cewar marubucin da kansa, ya kwashe kwanaki goma sha biyar kafin ya rubuta Likitan ilimin dabbobi. Kodayake bugu na farko an siyar da kwafi 900 ne kawai, amma nacewar marubucin ɗan ƙasar Brazil ya kawo sakamako… Tsakanin 1990 da 1998 aikin ya ƙara sake bugawa sama da 50, ya ninka kwafi miliyan goma da suka zo. Kamfanin dillancin labarai Sant Jordi ya bayyana a cikin tarihin Coelho yadda Likitan ilimin dabbobi ya wakilci canji a cikin aikinsa:

“A watan Mayu 1993, HarperCollins ya buga kwafi mai kwazo na 50.000 Masanin ilimin kimiyya, wanda ke wakiltar fitowar farko mafi girma ta littafin Brazil a Amurka. Babban mai wallafa John Loudon ya gabatar da littafin yana cewa: Hakan ya kasance kamar tashi daga wayewar gari da kallon rana yayin tashinta yayin da sauran kasashen duniya ke bacci. Jira kowa ya farka ya ga wannan shima".

Kasashe inda Likitan ilimin dabbobi saman mafi kyawun jerin masu kyauta da girmamawa

  • Ostiraliya, Satumba 1989.
  • Brazil, 1990. Ya zama littafi mafi sayarwa a duk tarihin ƙasar Rio de Janeiro.
  • Faransa, wacce aka ƙaddamar a cikin watan Afrilu na 1994, ta kai saman a cikin watan Disamba na waccan shekarar (ta zauna shekara biyar a jere). A cikin Maris 1998 mujallar karanta sanya masa suna fitaccen marubuci a duk duniya.
  • Spain, Mayu 1995. Kyautar Guild Editoci daga Editan Jarida (2001).
  • Fotigal, 1995. A 2002, Editan Editan Pergamino ya ayyana shi a matsayin marubuci mafi sayarwa a cikin yaren Fotigal. Jimawa bayan, Jaridar Haruffa ya ba shi bambanci iri ɗaya.
  • Italiya, 1995. Super Grinzane Cavour da Flaiano International Awards.
  • Jamus, 1996. A 2002, ya karya cikakkar rikodin dindindin a matsayin lamba 1 a kan jerin katako na Der Spiegel (Makonni 306).
  • Isra'ila, 1999.
  • Iran, 2000 (ba bisa doka ba saboda al'ummar musulmai ba su sanya hannu kan Yarjejeniyar Hakkin mallaka ta duniya). A waccan shekarar, ya zama marubuci wanda ba musulmi ba na farko da ya ziyarci kasar a hukumance tun 1979.

Jerin haruffa daga Likitan ilimin dabbobi

Babban halayen shine Santiago, mai kula da rayuwar Andalusiya mai neman hankali game da nasa labarin na musamman. Daga nan sai gypsy mai ban tsoro ta bayyana, amma sai ta zama mabuɗin fassara hangen nesan jarumar. Na gaba, Melquisedec (Sarkin Salem), dan kasuwa, Fatima (wanda Santiago ya ƙaunace shi) kuma mai iko da alchemist tare da horon farautar farauta.

Nazarin Masanin Alchemist

Hujja

Santiago, mai kiwon tumaki mai matukar jin daɗin rayuwarsa ta ƙauracewa makiyaya, ya fara tafiya zuwa ba a sani ba don nemo taska. Wanda kawai aka bayyana masa lokacin da ya bayyana asirin da zai iya daukaka jikinsa, hankalinsa da ruhunsa. Don gano waɗannan alamomin sihiri, dole ne jarumin ya bar duk girman kansa, ya haɓaka ruhunsa kuma ya bar duk wata alama ta wofi. Kawai sai ya iya sauraron sararin duniya.

Concepts

Hikima tana cikin sauki

Lokacin da Santiago ya nemi jaririn ya fassara masa mafarkin da ya yi akai game da wani yaro da ke nuna masa wata taska a cikin dutsen dala na Masar, ya yi baƙin ciki da bayanin. A saboda wannan dalili, gypsy yayi bayani: "abubuwa mafi sauki a rayuwa sune mafiya ban mamaki kuma masu hankali ne kawai ke iya ganin su."

Inarfin imanin da babu makawa

Mai gabatarwar ya gabatar da shawarar banza don mantawa da hangen nesan sa (da kiran makomar sa). Amma wani dattijo cikin sutturar Balaraba - Melchizedek - ya tuna masa da rashin kuskuren ƙaddara. Tsoho ya gaya masa: "a wani lokaci a rayuwarmu, mun rasa ikon abin da ke faruwa da mu kuma rayuwarmu ta kasance cikin bangaskiya."

Duniya da ruhinta

Santiago ya tsage tsakanin rayuwa da ya saba da ita da kuma kasada mai cike da rashin tabbas. Melchizedek ya bukace shi da ya ci gaba da bincike; Idan abubuwa basu daidaita ba, zaka iya komawa zama fasto. Tsoho ya zama Sarkin Salem. Da zarar ya bayyana ainihin ainihi, sai ya miƙawa Santiago ƙaramin dutsen baƙar fata da fari da niyyar taimaka masa da alamun. Kodayake ya nace kan mahimmancin "yanke shawara da kanku"

A cikin kowane tunani, yanke shawara

Sau ɗaya a Afirka, ɗan kasuwa ya yaudare Santiago, wanda ya saci kuɗin sa. Bayan haka, dole ne fitaccen jarumin ya zaɓi wane irin hali dole ne ya fuskanci yanayin. Wannan shine, idan kun ga kanku a matsayin wanda aka azabtar ko mayaudari. Koyaya, ya yanke shawara akan mafi kyawun zaɓi: don tunanin cewa shi mai haɗari ne don neman dukiya.

Mafarki bazai misaltu ba

Bayan shekara guda yana aiki a matsayin mai tsabtace taga don ɗan amshin shatan, Santiago ya tara kuɗi don komawa tsohuwar rayuwarsa ta makiyayi. Amma mai aikin ya san irin shawarar da saurayin zai yanke, saboda "an rubuta" (ta hannun Allah). Santiago ba zai sayi tumaki ba, zai ci gaba da neman mafarkinsa domin alamun duniya sun bayyana.

Koyarwar hamada

Santiago ya kamu da son Fatima, wata matashiya daga ayarin da ke ratsa Sahara. Jin hakan ya zama na sakewa ne, amma ta bukace shi da ya dage kan neman mafarkin sa kuma tayi alkawarin zata jira shi a wani yanayi. A cikin bakin ciki game da rabuwa na ƙarshe, Santiago ya sami hangen nesa na wasu mayaƙan da ke kai hare-hare a bakin ruwa. Godiya ga wannan wa'azin, Cacique da kabilarsa sun sami damar ceton kansu.

Neverauna ba ta katse hanyar zuwa labarin mutum

Kalmomin daga Paulo Coelho.

Kalmomin daga Paulo Coelho.

Santiago ya fahimci wannan ra'ayi bayan haɗuwa da halayyar da ke cike da ikon sihiri. Labari ne game da wani masanin harka wanda yake jiran sa kuma yayi bayanin nau'ikan nau'ikan alchemist din guda uku. Na farko yayi ƙoƙari ya haɓaka kuma ya haɓaka tare da mahalli don isa ga abin da ake kira dutsen masanin falsafa.

Nau'in masanin alchemista na biyu yana samun kyautarsa ​​kusan kwatsam, ta hanyar tuntuɓe, lokacin da rayukansu suka shirya ɗaukar wannan rawar. Nau'in masanin alchemist kawai yana nuna sha'awar zinariya, saboda haka, ba zai iya samun "sirrin" ba. Malami koyaushe yana magana akan abubuwa masu sauki, saboda "duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani kun koya a kan hanyarku."

Zama kamar hadari

Lokacin da wani kamfen soja ya sace Santiago da malamin tsibirin, wannan na biyun yana da'awar cewa shi jagora ne kawai kuma yana hango canjin yankinsa cikin hadari cikin kwanaki uku. A farkon misali, Santiago ya yi shakkar kansa; daga baya ya sami damar yin magana da abubuwa tare da sararin samaniya, yana roƙon ganawa tare da ƙaunataccensa. A ƙarshe, haɗin yashi, iska, sama da sararin samaniya ya juya Santiago zuwa hadari.

Taskar

Masanin alchemist yana koyar da Santiago don juya gubar zuwa zinare. Lokacin da saurayin ya iso dutsen dala na Masar, sai ya ga wani ɓarawo yana binne kansa a ciki

zuwa yashi kuma ya fassara shi a matsayin alama daga sararin duniya. Ya fara tono dukiya har sai da wasu gungun maza 'yan gudun hijirar suka buge shi. Sun karɓi zinare duka daga Santiago kuma suna dariya don ba da labarin mafarkinsa.

Amma shugaban ‘yan gudun hijirar ya fada masa wani buri nasa. A cikin hangen nesan shugaban akwai wata taska da aka ɓoye a ƙarƙashin tushen bishiyar ɓaure kusa da kango, tsattsarka ce ta makiyaya. A saboda wannan dalili, tsohon makiyayin ya koma inda duk ya faro (shekaru biyu da suka gabata) a Spain. Can sai ya samu kirji da tsabar kudi na zinare. A karshen, iska ta kawo masa sanannen turare… Santiago tuni ya doshi wajen masoyin sa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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