Zamani na 98

Azorin

Tabbas kun tuna daga shekarunku a makaranta da / ko makarantar sakandare yayi karatun Zamani na '98 a cikin Harshe da Adabin karatu. Wataƙila yana yuwuwa cewa, yanzu kuna da yara, zaku sake yin karatun tare dasu domin su koya. Idan haka ne, to kun zo wurin da ya dace saboda zamu gaya muku game da shi.

Kuma idan ba haka ba, yana da kyau koyaushe mu tuna wani ɓangare na tarihin Spain, musamman ɓangaren adabi, tunda marubutan ne waɗanda suke cikin ofanni na 98 suna da mahimmanci a zamaninsu kuma suna da tasiri, ba wai a Spain ba kawai , amma a yawancin sassan duniya. Tsaya kuma san ƙarin game da su.

Ta yaya tsarawar '98 ta bayyana

Zamanin '98 hakika sunaye ne na ƙungiyar marubuta waɗanda suka haɗu lokaci ɗaya da nufin fuskantar yanayin da dukkan su ke ciki, wanda ke da halin ɗabi'a, zamantakewa, siyasa da tattalin arziki. A Spain, sakamakon asarar Cuba, Puerto Rico da Philippines.

Muna magana ne musamman na shekarar 1898, A lokacin da, saboda faduwar daular Spain da sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya da yawancin mulkin mallakar Spain da Amurka suka yi asara, al'umma ta shiga cikin wani yanayi na rashin kwanciyar hankali da fushi, wanda marubuta da yawa suka yi ta yada shi kuma suka fallasa shi a cikin ayyukansu .

Da farko, ƙungiyar ta kasance marubuta uku ne kawai: Pío Baroja, Azorín da Ramiro de Maeztu, da aka sani da suna "The Uku", laƙabi wanda suka sanya hannu kan labaran da aka buga a cikin kafofin watsa labarai na wancan lokacin. Amma da kaɗan kaɗan suka ƙaru da adadi, suna ƙara marubuta da yawa, har zuwa sama da mutane 20 daga adabin wancan lokacin: timengel Ganivet, Miguel de Unamuno, Enrique de Mesa, Antonio da Manuel Machado, Ricardo Baroja, Ramón María del Valle - Inclán, Gabriel y Galán, Manuel Gómez Moreno, Miguel Asín Palacios, Francisco Villaespesa, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Jacinto Benavente, Carlos Arniches, Joaquín da Serafín Álvarez Quintero.

Zamanin '98 Halaye

Waɗannan marubutan, waɗanda suka damu da abin da ya faru, sun fara “kamfen” na zanga-zangar zamantakewar da ke tattare da jerin yanayi da ke jan ragamar rubuce-rubucensu. Wadannan su ne:

Flaunt Spain

Kare mata kai yayi tare da nuna kaunarsa gareta. Saboda haka, a gare su "mahaifar" da kuma asalin kasar suna da mahimmanci. A gare su, buƙatar sakewa, ba wai kawai zamantakewa, siyasa ba, har ma da fasaha shine fifiko.

Sun ƙi yarda da burgesoisie

Ganin cewa wannan ajin zamantakewar daya ne mai kayarwa da kasa al'umma cewa ba ya amfani da komai na kowa (kuma ƙasa da ƙasa ga Spain).

Miguel de Unamuno

Suna da mahimmanci

Dangane da yanayin siyasa da ƙa'idodin zamantakewar da ke mulkin ƙasar, wasu lokuta suna adawa da su, musamman idan waɗannan ƙa'idodin sun ci karo da ƙimar kishin ƙasarsa ko ƙaunar Spain.

Sun kirkiro sabbin hanyoyin adabi

Bin bin kaɗan nasu, wanda adabi ke buƙatar "canji," a ciki sune majagaba wajen ba da sabon littattafai, kamar misali wauta, reshe na gidan wasan kwaikwayo; ko sabon labari.

Don ba ka misali, Azorín wataƙila yana ɗaya daga cikin marubutan farko a lokacin a Sifen waɗanda suka yanke shawarar cewa halayensa ya kamata su yi tafiya a baya, lokacin da hakan ba zai taɓa yiwuwa ba.

Hakanan, sun yanke shawarar kawo adabin da ke kusa da masu karatu, don fahimtar da shi, don haka suka fara amfani da kalmomi masu sauƙi, tare da kyakkyawar magana amma kowa ya fahimta. Kuma a takaice; tare da jimlar 'yan kalmomi sun sami damar isar da babban ra'ayoyi ko sa mutane suyi tunani game da abin da suka karanta yanzu.

Babban marubutan Zamani na '98

Kamar yadda muka gani a baya, Zamanin '98 ba batun marubuta bane kawai. Akwai da yawa kuma yana da kyau a ɗan faɗi tsokaci game da manyan marubutan, farawa da rukunin 'The Uku'.

Pio Baroja

Pio Baroja

Baroja, tare da marubutan nan biyu masu zuwa, suna daya daga cikin ginshikan Zamanin shekarar 98. A wancan lokacin, halayen wannan motsi sun yi tasiri a kan ayyukansa, inda rashin tsammani da rashin nutsuwa suka kasance a ayyukan adabinsa.

A wannan yanayin, Baroja ya yi amfani da dariyar sa da izgili don magana game da gaskiyar Spain, amma a lokaci guda yana kokarin sanya masu karatu su farka su ga cewa abu mafi kyau ga kasar shi ne ta sake sabonta kanta, a canza ta samu mafi kyau.

Dole ne a faɗi game da Pío Baroja cewa shi mutum ne mai rashin tsammani da baƙin ciki. Wataƙila mafi yawan "zafin rana" na ɗaukacin rukunin tunda ya kasance ba mai bin tsari ba kuma ɗaya daga cikin na farkon da za a iya ƙaddamar da "a lura da shi".

Azorin

Game da Azorín, ko ainihin sunansa, José Martínez Ruiz, ya samu samun damar buga littattafai saboda matsayinsa na dan jarida. A saboda wannan dalili, ta hanyar kasancewa a cikin "layin gaba" na bayanan, ya iya ganin matsalolin zamantakewar da tattalin arziki da asarar mulkin mallaka ya haifar wa Spain, da kuma yadda ya kamata a kawo canji a cikin ƙasar don haka zai sake rayuwa kuma ya sake fitowa.

A game da Azorín, shine cikakkiyar kishiyar Pio Baroja. A ma'anar cewa ya kasance mai nutsuwa da lura, yana da hankali sosai kuma yana iya yaba ko da detailsan bayanai kaɗan waɗanda aka gabatar a gabansa.

A saboda wannan dalili, sha'awar sa ga Spain, don shimfidar wurare, kwanciyar hankali da ƙarancin lokaci ya nuna duk ayyukan sa.

Ramiro de Maeztu a cikin ƙarni na '98

Ramiro de Maeztu a cikin ƙarni na '98

Maeztu, ban da kasancewa marubuci, ya kasance ɗan jarida. Godiya ga sana'arsa, yana da kafofin watsa labarai a hannu kuma ya sami damar buga labarai da yawa da suka danganci tsaron ƙasar (Spain) da ƙimar Hispanic, yana ƙoƙarin samun ƙarin mutane don gano ƙasarsa.

Duk da cewa da farko ya kasance mai saurin motsa rai da tsattsauran ra'ayi, tare da shudewar lokacin rubuce-rubucen sa sun kasance masu ra'ayin mazan jiya, koyaushe a cikin hanya ɗaya, amma tare da saƙo mafi daɗi.

Miguel de Unamuno

Unamuno ya shiga Zamani na 98 jim kaɗan bayan an kirkireshi tunda ya raba hanya ɗaya da tunanin sa tare da sauran mawallafa kuma ya nuna hakan a cikin ayyukan sa, inda ake ganin halaye masu kama da wannan rukuni.

Zuwa Miguel de Unamuno an san shi a matsayin nau'in "shugaban" ƙungiyar saboda wannan fada da ruhin tawaye wanda, har a lokacin tsufa, ya san yadda ake kiyaye shi. A gare shi, duk Spain da rayuwar ɗan adam su ne mahimman abubuwa a duniya, kuma ya yi ƙoƙari ya rinjayi duk wanda yake son ya saurare shi ko karanta shi.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Gustavo Woltmann ne adam wata m

    Dangane da Unamuno, a koyaushe yana nuna mini halin son sani, koyaushe ina tuna wannan abin da ya faru a babban zauren Jami'ar Salamanca lokacin da sojoji suka kutsa kai, kuma ya ayyana kansa babban firist na cibiyar da aka faɗa, mutum ne wanda ruhunsa yake ya wuce tsoro, ya kasance mutum ne da ya cancanci a yi koyi da shi.

    - Gustavo Woltman.