Kuyini Ukukhanyiselwa

Mboza ukuthi yini i-Illustration

Ukukhanya kwakuyinhlangano yamasiko eyazala ukucabanga. Ngokuvamile yaziwa ngokuthi iNkathi Yokukhanyiselwa, i-XNUMX. Bekuyinhlangano engagcinanga ngokushintsha Izincwadi, iphinde ihlanganise ezobuciko, iSayensi, iFilosofi kanye nezepolitiki, futhi ikhuthaza ukunyakaza kwezenhlalo, njengeNguquko YaseFrance.

Phakathi nengxenye yesibili yekhulu le-XNUMX nasekuqaleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX, ukuKhanya kwasakazeka emahholo ezazi nezazi futhi kwasiza ukuthuthukisa umhlaba. Nokho, mhlawumbe nalelo kwakuyiphutha lakhe. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, yayikhuthaza ukudilizwa kwemigoqo, kodwa kwasungulwa nemisha. Ngamafuphi, kwakuyinhlangano yonxiwankulu.

Umsuka nomongo Wokukhanyiselwa

Yaqanjwa ngokuthi iNkathi Yokukhanyiselwa ngoba yavela ngenhloso yokunikeza ukukhanya ezisekelweni ze-obscurantist impilo yezombangazwe neyomphakathi yayisasekelwe, inkolo ijabulela indawo ekhetheke kakhulu. Lo mphakathi wasendulo wawubonakala ngokungazi nokukholelwa ezeni. Izinkolelo ezindala, ukungakwazi ukufunda nokubhala kanye nokuhlelwa kwezempi okuhlelekile kwaqhubeka kwanda kuze kube yileso sikhathi.. Kusukela phezulu kuya phansi. Amandla obukhosi nawo ayengabuzwa, ngoba amakhosi ayebusa futhi ayekwenza ngoba ekhethwe uNkulunkulu.

Futhi nakuba ukuKhanya kwakhuthaza izinguquko eziningi eziguquguqukayo, baphuthuma ekuqhubekeni okwaqhubeka nokuhlukanisa abenzi bezinqumo kubantu. Ngakho-ke, amandla acatshangelwa ngokuqondile futhi. Babefuna ukwenza indlela yokuthuthukisa wonke umuntu, kodwa ngaphandle kokubala kuzo zonke izingqimba zomphakathi. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, ngokuqinisekile izosebenza ngaleso sikhathi ukuze kuzuzwe uguquko lwakamuva lwamasiko nezenhlalo. Ngakho-ke, ikhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye lalizoletha izinguquko ezintsha emigwaqeni ehlukahlukene yezenhlalo ehlukahlukene.

Isaluni kaMadame Geoffrin

I-Salon kaMadame Geoffrin (1812), umdwebo kaCharles Gabriel Lemonnier.

Izici

  • I-Despotism Ekhanyayo: amandla awela ohlotsheni lobubaba nabantu. Babefuna ukufundisa abantu ngeziyalezo zoKukhanyiselwa ngokuqiniseka kokwenza okuhle esakhamuzini, kodwa ngaphandle kokubabandakanya. Futhi amandla ahlala ephelele enkosini.
  • I-Anthropocentrism: UNkulunkulu ususwa ngumuntu.
  • Ukucabanga: isizathu sinqoba ukholo.
  • I-Pragmatism kanye nomugqa wefilosofi olandelayo we-Utilitarian. Okuhlobene eduze ne-pedagogy kanye nokubaluleka kokufunda kuphela izifundo ezingase zisetshenziswe.
  • Ukulingisa: imizamo yokubuyela kubabhali bakudala (neoclassicism).
  • Imibono: ngokwenza sengathi baziqhelelanisa neqiniso kanye nokuhlambalaza nokufuna ubuhle, futhi bayaziqhelelanisa nabantu nezidingo zabo zangempela. Kuwukwenqatshwa kokudumile.
  • I-Universalism: ibuyela kumsuka wakudala wezincwadi nefilosofi. Yini emhlabeni wonke esikweni laseNtshonalanga, kodwa futhi ayikhulumi ngesimo sangempela sabantu.

Ukukhanyiselwa eYurophu

Ukukhuluma ngoKukhanyiselwa ukukhuluma nge I-Encyclopedia (Encyclopédie) UDenis Diderot noJean le Rond d'Alembert, ababephethe ukudidiyela. Futhi ubizwa Isichazamazwi esinezizathu zesayensi, ezobuciko nezobuciko Umbhalo obanzi ozama ukuhlanganisa ulwazi lwezinhlamvu kanye nomkhakha wesayensi ngokombono we-pragmatic.. Abalingiswa abakhulu abafana noVoltaire noma uRousseau babambisane kulo mbhalo. Yanyatheliswa ngo-1751 eFrance futhi ngokuqinisekile iwumsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu wekhulu le-XNUMX.

Ulimi lwesiFulentshi kwakuyilona thuluzi lokudlulisa imibono ngalesi sikhathi.. Kucatshangelwe kahle kakhulu, imisebenzi emikhulu yabhalwa ngalolu limi. Nokho, ngaphezu kweFrance, ukuKhanya kwakunokubaluleka okukhethekile eNgilandi naseJalimane. IsiNgisi, isiJalimane, noma iSpanishi zigcwele i-Gallicisms.

Ku-Literature, izinhlobo ezivame kakhulu kwakungezakudala: inhlekelele namahlaya etiyetha kanye nezinganekwane eziningi nokubhuqa ezazikhuthaza ukufunda ngezimfundiso zokuziphatha. Nokho, imisebenzi eminingi yokujula okukhulu yakhuluma nge-Economy and Philosophy; phakathi kwababhali bayo abavelele kukhona u-Adam Smith (Umcebo Wezizwe), u-Immanuel Kant, uDavid Hume, uMontesquieu, noVoltaire noRousseau, kunjalo. URené Descartes noma uJohn Locke bebewumthombo wogqozi kubo bonke.

Ukulandisa okunezithombe kwaseYurophu

Kufanelekile futhi ukusho amagama abanye ababhali ababhala izinganekwane futhi abathi ngemisebenzi yabo nabo baba nesandla ekhulwini leshumi nesishiyagalombili nakamuva. Ngoba kwakuyibo uthuthukise inoveli yesimanje:

  • UDaniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe (1719). Indaba eyaziwa kakhulu yendoda echitha iminyaka ecishe ibe ngu-30 esiqhingini esiwugwadule ngemva kokuba umkhumbi eyayihamba ngawo uphahlazekile.
  • UJonathan Swift: Ukuhamba kukaGulliver (1726). Inoveli ye-adventure, izwe laseLilliput, lapho isenzo senzeka khona futhi izakhamuzi zakhona, amaLilliputians, nazo zidume kakhulu.
  • Laurence Sterne: Vida kanye nemibono yomnumzane u-Tristram Shandy (1759) iwuhlobo lwakudala olugqamayo kuhlelo lokulandisa olulusebenzisayo nenkulumo eyodwa yangaphakathi kanye nemibuzo eyindida.
  • UPierre Choderlos de LaclosUbungane obuyingozi (1782) iyinoveli yezincwadi.
  • U-Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, owaziwa kakhulu ngelika Marquis de Sade: ungomunye wababhali abake baphikisana kakhulu. Igama lakhe lisebenze ukwengeza igama elisha kusichazamazwi, usizi (isichasiso: okudabukisayo), ngenxa yemininingwane enonya yemibhalo yakhe, kanye nezimpikiswano zakhe ezigcwele ukuhlanekezelwa. Kodwa izincwadi zakhe, nakuba zinempikiswano, ngokubhuqa noma ngaphandle kwazo, nazo zizama ngendlela yazo ukufundisa umfundi. Bagqama: Justine noma amashwa ubuhle (1791), Ifilosofi etafuleni lokugqoka (1795) noma Izinsuku eziyi-120 zaseSodoma noma isikole sokuziphatha okubi eyabhalwa ngo-1785, kodwa yanyatheliswa eminyakeni eminingi kamuva.
I-Royal Spanish Academy

Indlunkulu eMadrid yeRoyal Spanish Academy.

Ukukhanyiselwa eSpain

Isimo sezombangazwe eSpain phakathi nengxenye yesibili yekhulu le-1759 sasimi kanje: ukubusa kweBourbon kukaCarlos III (1788-1788) noCarlos IV (1808-XNUMX). Amakhosi angama-Absolutist lapho imibono ekhanyisiwe neqhubekayo yeYurophu ethuthuke kakhulu ayizange ingene ngamandla anele. Hhayi njengaseFrance, okungenani. ESpain, izimfundiso zamasiko nenkolo yamaKatolika zazigxile kakhulu ekucabangeni nasemasikweni abantu baseSpain., ongazange akhuthaze ushintsho.

Kuzodingeka silinde kuze kube ikhulu le-XNUMX ukuze kuthunjwe uCarlos IV kwangempela, futhi kube nobukhosi obuqhubekayo eSpain ngokuthinta isiFulentshi, ukuze abaseSpain abacwengisiswe kakhulu babe isiFulentshi futhi yonke into igcine ekugcineni. impi yokuzimela kanye nokubuya kwe-absolutism yensimbi kakhulu ngesandla "seSifiso", uFernando VII.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, Emkhakheni wamasiko, ukusungulwa kweRoyal Spanish Academy (1713) kuyagqama, kusukela ngaleso sikhathi bekuphethe "ukuhlanza, ukulungisa nokunikeza ubukhazikhazi" olimini lwethu., kanye neRoyal Academy of Fine Arts yaseSan Fernando (1752), i-Academy of History (1738) noma lokho namuhla okuyiNational Museum of Natural Sciences, phakathi kwezinye izikhungo ezibaluleke kakhulu nodumo. Ngokunjalo, i-Economic Society of Friends of the Country yayiyiqembu elicokeme nezihlakaniphi elakhiwa izicukuthwane ezithile zangaleso sikhathi futhi eladlula ezigabeni ezihlukene, kodwa alizange lilahle ubuntu balo bobukhosi.

Jovellanos by Goya

Umdwebo we-GM de Jovellanos (1798), nguGoya.

Ababhali baseSpain bekhulu le-XNUMX

  • UFray Benito Jeronimo Feijoo (1676-1764). Indela yamaBenedictine, wayengumuntu obalulekile wemisebenzi ye-eseyi kanye nokucabanga okujulile. Imisebenzi yakhe ebaluleke kakhulu yile I-Universal Critical Theatre (1726) futhi Izincwadi Zesikole Nezinelukuluku (1742).
  • Gregory Mayans (1699-1781). Njengesazi-mlando esikhanyiselwe, wayebaluleke kakhulu endabeni yomlando futhi imisebenzi yakhe igqama ngenxa yokuqina kwayo. Umsebenzi wakhe obaluleke kakhulu: Umsuka wolimi lwesiSpanishi (1737).
  • UGaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (1744-1811). Ngaphezu kokubhala izindatshana ezahlukahlukene ngezomnotho noma ezolimo (okubaluleke kakhulu umsebenzi wakhe Bika ngomthetho wezolimo), waba nesandla kumdlalo wamanje oboniswe ngeSpanishi ihlaya lakudala elibhalwe ngephrozi, Isigebengu esithembekile (1787), eyakhiwe ngaphakathi kwale thiyetha ecolisisiwe Yokukhanyiselwa.
  • Jose de Cadalso (1741-1782). Umlandi omkhulu waseSpain wekhulu le-XNUMX. Bagqamisa eyabo Amakhadi WaseMorocco (1789), incwadi enhle kakhulu ebhalwe nge-epistolary ngosokhaya waseSpain kanye nomuntu wangaphandle omuhle odabuka eMoroccan ozama ukufunda amasiko anelukuluku kanye namasiko eSpanishi. Ibalulekile futhi ubusuku obumnyama (1789-1790), ingoma emnandi futhi edabukisayo yasemakhazeni, nakuba iseduze neSpanishi yangaphambi kothando.
  • UJuan Melendez Valdes (1754-1814), ummeleli omkhulu wezinkondlo zaseSpain zekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalombili.
  • Thomas wase-Iriarte (1750-1791) kanye Felix Maria Samaniego (1745-1801) imelela inganekwane yokufundisa yezincwadi ezinemifanekiso zaseSpanishi.
  • ULeandro Fernández de Moratín (1760-1828) wayengumbhali wemidlalo ebaluleke kakhulu wekhulu le-XNUMX eSpain. Amahlaya akhe ayagqama Ikhehla nentombazane (1790), Yebo yamantombazane (1805), kanye amahlaya amasha (1792)

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-2, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UVladimir Portela kusho

    Kulinganiselwe ngokuphelele. Ngaleso sikhathi kwakungaziwa ukuthi i-intelligence (iq) yayivame ukusatshalaliswa. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, namuhla siyazi ukuthi kwakuyiqembu lezihlakaniphi zaseFrance ezazicabanga ukuthi ngezibalo ezinengqondo impilo engcono yayingenzeka. Masibungaze ukuthi namuhla esikwaziyo ukuthi akunjalo. Thina amaHispanics besingenazo izibani. Lokho bekungama-trinkets angenisiwe.
    Masingakholelwa eFrance. Ungalokothi.

    1.    Belen Martin kusho

      Sawubona Vladimir! Siyabonga ngokuphawula kwakho. Ngempela, ngizamile ukudlulisa umyalezo wokuthi ukuKhanya kwakungewona umnyakazo wawo wonke umuntu nokuthi, njengakho konke okunye, kwakungenziwa futhi kangcono. Futhi, Izibani eLatin America zazifiphele kakhulu! Kunjalo. Ngikufisela okuhle.