Impikiswano yamaSatanic Verses kaSalman Rushdie

Amavesi kaSathane.

Amavesi kaSathane.

Amavesi kaSathane iyinoveli eyindumasi yeqiniso lemilingo ebhalwe ngumlobi waseNdiya owenziwe waba yisizwe waseBrithani, uSalman Rushdie. Ekushicilelweni kwayo ngo-1988, yaba enye yezincwadi ezinempikiswano enkulu emlandweni wakamuva ngenxa yokusebenzisa kwayo ubuSulumane ngendlela exakile. Empeleni, umbhali wazama ukufaka ukuhumusha kweQur'an kuvezwe kumlando womprofethi uMuhammad ochazwe nguHunayn Ibn Isḥāq (809 - 873).

Mayelana nomlobi, uSalman Rushdie

U-Ahmed Salman Rushdie wazalelwa emndenini ocebile waseKashmiri eBombay, eNdiya, ngoJuni 19, 1947. Ngemuva kokuhlanganisa iminyaka engu-13 wathunyelwa e-UK ukuyofunda esikoleni esihlonishwayo sokubhoda seRugby School. Ngo-1968 wathola iziqu zemasters (ezifundela izifundo ezingamaSulumane) emlandweni eKing's College, eCambridge University.

Ngaphambi kokuphendukela ekubhaleni, uRushdie wayesebenza kwezokukhangisa. Inoveli yakhe yokuqala, I-Grimus (1975), kuphawule ukuqala komsebenzi okukhazimulayo njengoba bekuphikisana. Inoveli yakhe yesibili, Izingane zobusuku (1980) wamngenela empumelelweni yezemibhalo futhi wamzuzela imiklomelo evelele. Kuze kube manje, uRushdie ushicilele amanoveli ayishumi nanye, izincwadi zezingane ezimbili, a indaba nemibhalo emine engeyona eqanjiwe.

Umthombo Amavesi kaSathane

UMiguel Vila Dios (2016) uyachaza ku Amavesi kaSathane kanye nendaba yonkulunkulukazi abathathu okukhulunywe ngabo kwiQur'ān, umsuka wesiqu. "Leli gama laqanjwa nguWilliam Muir phakathi nekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye leminyaka ukuqoka amavesi amabili okuthiwa afakwa nguMuhammad i-sura 53 noma of Ukuthunyelwa… Kodwa, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kwafakwa uMprofethi ngaphambi kokukhuzwa nguGabriyeli, iNgelosi yeSambulo ”.

Lesi sigameko saziwa ngokwesiko lamaSulumane ngokuthi qiṣṣat al-garānīq, okuhumusha kwakhe okwamukelwa kakhulu "yindaba yama-cranes". UVila uyichaza kabusha "njengendaba yama-siren", ngoba izinyoni zinamakhanda abesifazane. Izazi-mlando eziningi zikhomba u-Ibn Hišām (owashona ngo-799) no-Al-Tabarī (839 - 923) njengemithombo eyinhloko ka-Ibn Isḥāq ekulandiseni kwakhe ngaphakathi komlando womprofethi uMuhammad.

Impikiswano yabadicileli besigameko

Umlando womProfethi uMuhammad ka-Ibn Isḥāq wadluliselwa ngomlomo kuphela, ngoba awukho umbhalo wesandla owalondolozwa. Ngakho-ke, isimo somlomo sokudlula kwayo sisuka kwesinye isizukulwane siye kwesinye sandisa ubunzima kubacwaningi ukulandelela ukunemba kwe-akhawunti. Kungakanani okushintshiwe kusuka ekulandiseni kwasekuqaleni? Cishe akunakwenzeka ukunquma.

Lesi sigameko senqatshwa cishe yizo zonke izifundiswa ezingamaSulumane phakathi kwekhulu lesi-XNUMX nele-XNUMX; isikhundla esiphethwe kuze kube namuhla. Ukuphikisana okuvame kakhulu kwabahlambalazi yisimiso samaSulumane se-Orthodox sokungaphumeleli kwezithombe zeBhayibheli ekudlulisweni kweSambulo Saphezulu. Ngenxa yalokho, lesi sigameko sasicishe sanyamalala ngokuphelele kwaze kwaba yilapho uRushdie evuselela le nkinga ngeveli yakhe.

Impikiswano ye- Amavesi kaSathane

UPatricia Bauer, uCarola Campbell noGabrielle Mander, bachaza endatshaneni yabo (Britannica, 2015) ukulandelana kwezigameko kudalulwe ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwenoveli. Ngoba ukulandisa okuhlekisayo okudalulwe nguRushdie kwacasula izigidi zamaSulumane emhlabeni wonke, ezazibiza lo msebenzi ngokuhlambalaza. Ngezinga lokuthi u-Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini wase-Iran anxuse abalandeli bakhe ukuthi babulale umbhali kanye nabahleli bakhe bokuhlela.

Ukuhlaselwa kwamaphekula nokuqedwa kobudlelwano bokuxhumana

Imibhikisho enodlame yenzeke emazweni afana nePakistan. Amakhophi ale noveli ashisiwe emazweni amaningi amaSulumane - kubandakanya i-United Kingdom - futhi umsebenzi wawuvinjelwe emazweni amaningi. Kwaze kwahlaselwa ngisho amaphekula ezitolo ezidayisa izincwadi, abashicileli kanye nabahumushi emazweni anjengeJapan, iNgilandi, i-United States, i-Italy, iTurkey neNorway.

Ngenxa yalokho, amanxusa e-European Economic Community ahoxisa amanxusa awo e-Iran (nangokubuyela emuva). Ukungezwani kwehle kuphela ngo-1998 ngemuva kokuthi i-Iran imise isikhashana i- fatwa maphakathi nenqubo yokujwayela ubudlelwano bokuxhumana kanye ne-United Kingdom. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, kuze kube manje uRushdie ukugweme ukuya emazweni lapho incwadi yakhe ibivinjelwe futhi isimo sakhe asikaze sijwayeleke ngokuphelele.

USalman Rushdie.

USalman Rushdie.

Isikhundla sikaSalman Rushdie phakathi kwesiphepho

Engxoxweni ne New York Times (eshicilelwe ngoDisemba 28, 1990), umbhali waseNdiya wathi:

“Eminyakeni emibili edlule bengizama ukuchaza ukuthi indima ye Amavesi kaSathane kwakungakaze kuthukwe. Indaba kaGabriel ifana nokuthi umuntu angabhujiswa kanjani ngokulahlekelwa ukholo.

URushdie uyanezela,

"... amaphupho lapho i-vociferous < > ziyenzeka, ziyizithombe zokushabalala kwazo. Kukhulunywa ngabo ngokusobala kule noveli njengezijeziso nemivuzo. Futhi ukuthi izibalo zamaphupho ahlukumeza umlingiswa ophambili ngokuhlasela kwawo izinkolo zimele inqubo yakhe yokuqalisa. Akuzona izethulo zombono wombhali ”.

Ingxoxo eyenziwe yi- Amavesi kaSathane, Ingabe kufanelekile?

Kunzima kakhulu ukuthola izimangalo ezihlose ngokuphelele ocwaningweni ngesizinda senkolo. Esihlokweni sakho Yini ecasula amaSulumane ngamaThe Satanic Verses, UWaqas Khwaja (2004) uchaza ukungaqondakali nokuba yinkimbinkimbi kwesihloko. NgokukaKhwaja, “… kubalulekile ukubuza ukuthi kungani amaSulumane amaningi engakwazi ukubona Amavesi kaSathane kuphela njengomsebenzi wenganekwane yesayensi ”.

Cishe akunakwenzeka ukuthi amaSulumane abone umugqa phakathi kokulandisa kukaRushdie nokuhlukumeza. Kunoma ikuphi, kuphakama imibuzo izimpendulo zayo ziyahlukahluka ngokwendlela umfundi afundiswa ngayo kanye / noma ngokomoya. Incwadi ngeyabani? Ngabe umehluko wamasiko uyimbangela yombono wamahlaya nowokuhlekisa eqenjini elilodwa labafundi, kanti kwabanye kuyabheda futhi kuyimbuka?

Izimpendulo ezahlukahlukene emphakathini onamasiko amaningi

Isigaba Kufundwa ukwamukelwa okuxubekile: icala lamaThe Satanic Verses ngu-Alan Durant noLaura Izarra (2001) baveza amaphuzu abalulekile kuleli cala. Izazi zithi: “… izingxabano zomphakathi ngenxa yencazelo evelayo ngenxa yezimpendulo ezahlukahlukene ezenziwa ngamaqembu amasiko ahlukahlukene emphakathini onamasiko amaningi. Noma ngezindlela ezehlukene zokufunda esimweni semithombo yezindaba eya ngokuya yanda emhlabeni ”.

Amasu wokumaketha encwadi nawo kungenzeka ukuthi asizile ukubhebhethekisa ingxabano Amavesi kaSathane. Ukuze izindlu zokushicilela zilwele ukubeka imikhiqizo yazo emhlabeni jikelele njengengxenye yokusakazwa komhlaba jikelele kwezimpahla zamasiko. Kodwa-ke, inganekwane yesayensi izohlala inezincazelo ezihlukile zabafundi ngokuya ngezimo zabo zenhlalo, kanye nokuhlelwa okulandelayo namanani.

Ukufingqwa nokuhlaziywa kwe- Amavesi kaSathane

Lesi sakhiwo esiyinkimbinkimbi futhi esigqinsiwe sigxile kubalingisi ababili abangamaSulumane baseNdiya abahlala eLondon, iGibreel Farishta noSaladin Chamcha. UGibrieel ungumlingisi ophumelelayo wamafilimu osanda kuhlaselwa yisifo sengqondo futhi uthandana no-Alleluia Cone, umgibeli wamaNgisi. USaladin ungumlingisi womsakazo owaziwa ngokuthi "indoda enamazwi ayinkulungwane", enobudlelwano obuyinkinga nobaba wakhe.

UFarishta noChamcha bahlangana ngesikhathi sezindiza iBombay - London. Kodwa indiza idutshulwe phansi ngokuhlaselwa ngabashokobezi baseSikh. Kamuva, kutholakala ukuthi amaphekula aqhumise ngengozi ibhomu elenza indiza yaqhuma. Ekuqaleni kwencwadi, uGibreel noSaladin babonakala njengabasindile kuphela bokuphahlazeka kwendiza maphakathi ne-English Channel.

Izindlela ezimbili ezihlukene

UGibreel noSaladin bafinyelela ogwini lwesiNgisi. Bese behlukana lapho owesibili egcinwe esitokisini (noma ethi uyisakhamuzi saseNgilandi futhi usindile endizeni), osolwa ngokuba yisifiki ngokungemthetho. U-Chamcha ompofu wakhulisa amaqhubu amabi ebunzini lakhe futhi uyisihloko sokuphoqwa yizikhulu. Kubonwa njengokuvela kobubi futhi kuphathwe njengesikhunta.

Ngokuphambene nalokho, iGibreel - embozwe nge-aura eyingelosi - ayikaze ibuzwe imibuzo. USaladin akakhohlwa ukuthi uGibreel akazange amlamulele, bese ethatha ithuba lokubaleka ngenkathi elaliswe esibhedlela. Ngeshwa, ishwa libukeka limhlupha, njengoba exoshwa emsebenzini. Konke kubonakala kungahambi kahle kuze kube kungenelela kukaGibreel kubuyisa ngokuphelele isimo sakhe somuntu.

Amaphupho kaGibreel

Njengoba uGibreel ehla, uguqulwa abe yingelosi uGabriyeli futhi unochungechunge lwamaphupho. Owokuqala umlando wokubuyekezwa wokusungulwa kwe-Islam; yimininingwane yalesi sigaba engamukeleki kakhulu kumaSulumane amaningi. Enye yezindinyana ezinemibono emikhulu yemibono isitshela ngohambo lweqembu labakhulekeli abangamaSulumane lisuka eNdiya laya eMecca.

UGabriel kwakufanele ahlukanise amanzi ukuze abazinikele ku-Allah baqhubeke nendlela yabo, esikhundleni salokho, bonke bacwila. Kwelinye iphupho, umlingiswa ogama lakhe linguMahound - osuselwe kuMuhammad - uzama ukuthola inkolo yokukholelwa kuNkulunkulu munye phakathi kwedolobha elinonkulunkulu abaningi, iJahilia.

Inganekwane ye-Apocrypha kaMahound

UMahound unombono lapho evunyelwe khona ukukhonza onkulunkulukazi abathathu. Kepha, ngemuva kokuqinisekisa (ngemuva kwengxabano neNgelosi Eyinhloko uGabriyeli) ukuthi lesi sambulo sithunyelwe ngusathane, uyaphika. Ngemuva kwekota lekhulu leminyaka, omunye wabafundi uyeka ukukholelwa enkolweni yaseMahound.

Ukucaphuna kukaSalman Rushdie.

Ukucaphuna kukaSalman Rushdie.

Yize, manje, abantu baseJahilia (empeleni, kungukufaniswa kweMecca) beguqulwe ngokuphelele. Ngokwengeziwe, abaqwayizi endaweni yezifebe bathatha amagama amakhosikazi kaMahound ngaphambi kokuvalwa. Kamuva, lapho uMahound egula futhi efa umbono wakhe wokugcina ungomunye wonkulunkulukazi abathathu. Ngokusobala, lesi esinye isigaba esinyanyeka kakhulu kumaSulumane.

Ukuxabana nokubuyisana

Ekugcineni, uGibreel uphinde ahlangane no-Alleluia. Kodwa-ke, ingelosi imyalela ukuthi ashiye othandekayo wakhe ayoshumayela izwi likaNkulunkulu eLondon. Lapho-ke, lapho uFarishta esezoqala umsebenzi wakhe, ushayiswa yimoto yomdidiyeli wamafilimu waseNdiya, ofisa ukumqasha ukuze adlale indima yokulingisa njengengelosi enkulu. Kamuva, uGibreel noSaladin baphinde bahlangane emcimbini bese beqala ukuhlela ngamacebo omunye nomunye.

Izingxabano ekugcineni zixazululwa lapho, enethuba lokumvumela afe, uGibreel unquma ukuhlenga uSaladin esakhiweni esivuthayo. Phambilini uSaladin ubesewasebenzisile amathuba ahlukahlukene okubulala uFarishta. Ngemuva kwengxabano, uChamcha ubuyela eBombay ukuyobuyisana noyise oshonayo.

IKarma?

Ubaba kaSaladin umnika isizumbulu semali. Ngakho-ke, uChamcha unquma ukuthola intombi yakhe endala ukuze abuyisane nayo. Ngale ndlela, ushintshanisa umjikelezo wakhe onenzondo ngombuthano wentethelelo nothando. Ngokufana, UGibreel no-Alleluia nabo baya eBombay. Lapho, lapho enesikhwele, uyambulala futhi ekugcineni uzibulale.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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