IMartian, ebhalwe nguAndy Weir

IMartian.

IMartian.

Kuyinoveli eqanjiwe yesayensi ebhalwe ngonjiniyela wesoftware kanye nomfundi wekhompyutha, u-Andy Weir. AmaMartian inikeza ukufundwa okushelelayo, naphezu kwemininingwane eminingi yesayensi ekhona emakhasini ayo amaningi angama-400. Isakhiwo sigxile kusazi sezitshalo nonjiniyela, uMark Watney, ongomunye wabantu abayisithupha bokuqala ukuhamba ebusweni beMars emlandweni womuntu. Ukufunda le ncwadi kukhumbula, cishe ngokushesha, uHG Wells owaziwayo.

Lapho ukulandisa kuqala, umlingiswa ophambili uqinisekile ukuthi uzoba ngumuntu wokuqala ukufela lapho, eMars.. Lokhu ngemuva kokushiywa ngabangane bakhe (abebekholelwa ukuthi ufile) ngenxa yesiphepho esinesihlabathi esinamandla. Kodwa-ke, umbono omnyama wehluleka ukwephula intando kaWatney. Ngenxa yesilinganiso sakhe esiphakeme sesibindi, ubuhlakani kanye namahlaya amahle, umlingisi ukwazile ukudala ithuba lokuphila. Lokhu ukufundwa okunconyelwe abantu abasha, kokubili ngesakhiwo salo nangezilungiselelo zalo ezinhle.

Sobre el autor

U-Andrew Taylor Weir wazalelwa eDavis, eCalifornia, e-USA, ngoJuni 16, 1942. Kusukela esemncane wakhombisa amakhono akhe njengohlelo lwekhompyutha. Ufunde isayensi yamakhompyutha e-University of California (San Diego) kwathi ebusheni bakhe wasebenzela izinkampani ezihlonishwayo njenge-AOL noma iBlizzard, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokufana, wahlakulela uthando lokubhala, njengoba kufakazelwa yizincwadi ezikwiwebhusayithi yakhe.

AmaMartian yincwadi yakhe yokuqala. Ekuqaleni kwakushicilelwa ngokwakho ngefomethi yokulethwa (isitayela sebhulogi) ngonyaka we-2011. Ngemuva kokulungiswa okuningana - cishe konke kususelwa kuziphakamiso zezohwebo - umbhali uthengise amalungelo kuCrown Publishing. Le nkampani ibinomthwalo wokuphinda ikhiphe futhi isabalalise ngempumelelo (ngesiNgisi) kusukela ngonyaka we-2014. Ngawo lowo nyaka inguqulo yaseSpain yasungulwa ngaphansi kwelebula le-Ediciones B-Nova.

Iningi lezibuyekezo eziseduze AmaMartian bebelokhu beqinisile impela. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthandwa kwesihloko kukhuphuke kakhulu ngenxa yokuzivumelanisa nesikrini esikhulu, esiqondiswe nguRidley Scott, kusuka kuskripthi sikaDrew Goddard nabalingisi abalingisa emhlabeni abanjengoMat Damon endimeni kaMark Watney maqondana noJessica Chastain. emele uMlawuli uLewis, phakathi kwabanye.

U-Andy Weir

U-Andy Weir

Amazwibela kaMartian, ka-Andy Weir

Isiqalo esibuhlungu nesibuhlungu

Konke kuqala nge-protagonist esengozini yokufa futhi ishiywe ngaphandle obala.. Lapho izinzwa ezigqoke isudi kaMark Watney zikhombisa ukulahleka okusheshayo komoya-mpilo phakathi nesiphepho esinamandla, abangane bakhe emkhankasweni we-Ares 3 (owokuqala owenziwa uMars emlandweni) abakwazi ukumsiza futhi baphoqeleka ukumshiya, njengoba bakholelwa ukuthi ufile ... Ngeshwa, kuyiphutha elingenakuzibandakanya: UWatney usaphila.

Ukusetshenziswa kwalokho okufundiwe

Ngaphandle kwemizuzwana yokuchitha, i-protagonist idinga ukuthola ngokushesha ukuthi ingayifaka kanjani i-suit yayo, eyahlatshwa yi-antenna efanayo eyayihudulela kude neqembu. Nqoba isithiyo, faka i- neDizahabi, isiteshi sikulungele ukuhlala kwesikhashana kwabantu endaweni yaseMartian. Kepha, izizathu zokuba nethemba ziyahlekisa: lokho bekungokokuqala nje komugqa omkhulu wezinkinga ukubhekana nazo.

UMark kumele asebenzise lonke ulwazi lwakhe lobunjiniyela ukuze asinde. kanye nokuqedela ukulungiswa okuningi okubalulekile elabhoratri lapho aphoqeleka ukuba ahlale khona isikhathi esingaphezu konyaka nesigamu. Ngokwengeziwe, ukuqeqeshwa kukaWatney njengesazi sezitshalo - umsebenzi wakhe oyinhloko - kusesikhathini kakhulu ekwakheni izimo zesiko lomfokazi elisebenzayo.

Ukuvuselelwa kwe-nexus nomhlaba

Okulandelayo, uMark kumele acacise indlela ephumelelayo yokuxhumana noMhlaba.. Esikhathini esingaphezu kwenyanga ngemuva kwengozi, abasebenzi be-NASA bathola ukuthi uWatney ukwazile ukusinda, kepha iqiniso lakhe libucayi kakhulu (ikakhulukazi ngenxa yenkinga yokudla, ingasaphathwa eyokuthi ukutakula ngesikhathi kungaba nzima kangakanani).

Ukumenyezelwa kwabezindaba nakumphakathi kuholela enxushunxushwini yabezindaba ezohambisana nayo yonke inhloso kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuqhubeke.. Empeleni, abanye abahlali be- Hermes —Umkhumbi ophethe ukuthuthwa phakathi kwamaplanethi — abaziswa ngokusinda futhi, ngenxa yalokho, isimo esingesihle somngane wabo abamshiya bethi ufile.

Ukutakulwa

Ushintsho lwenzeka lapho uMkhuzi Lewis namanye amalungu amane emishini (Vogel, Beck, Johanssen noMartínez) bezwa ngalesi simo. Bese - ngesenzo esingahunyushwa njengokuzinikela kanye "nokuhlengwa" - abasebenzi bavota ngazwilinye ukwenza insindiso eyinkimbinkimbi ye "comrade esele ngemuva". Bakwenza lokhu kungakhathalekile ukuthi isinqumo sabo sisho ukwelula uhambo okungenani unyaka owodwa.

Amafreyimu afanayo, ingwegwe enkulu

Umvuthwandaba uqukethe "izindaba zangaphakathi" zawo uqobo. Isibonelo, umnikelo obalulekile wohlelo lwasemkhathini waseChina, onquma ukupaka uhlelo oluyimfihlo ukuze basebenzisane ngaphandle kokucela okuthile. Kepha isikhathi sifushane: Ukutholakala kokudla okuphephile kukaWatney kucekelwa phansi ngenxa yengozi eyenzeke e- neDizahabi.

Ukuhlaziywa nokuqhathanisa nokulungiswa kwefilimu

Ukuphathwa okuncane kwemininingwane yezinkanyezi

Amazwi ambalwa abucayi ngomsebenzi kaWeir asuselwa kunqubo encane yesayensi kusuka endaweni yokubuka izinkanyezi. Eminye imibono ize ifaneleke njenge "ukudumaza" lesi sici sencwadi futhi, ikakhulukazi, kwifilimu. Injalo-ke impikiswano yemibono evezwe yisazi sezinkanyezi uBeatriz García ekuhlaziyweni kwakhe IMartian: mayelana nesinema nesayensi (Inethiwekhi Yezemfundo Yesikole Sezinkanyezi, 2015).

Kodwa-ke, kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuthi - mhlawumbe— sengingene shi ekuchazweni kwezinkinga zomzimba nezezibalo, ukufundwa kwe- AmaMartian kungahle kungajabulisi kangako okwenzelwe umphakathi jikelele ... Mhlawumbe akusona isizathu esizwakalayo uma siqhathaniswa nemibono ebonakalayo yefilimu yesici I-Interstellar (2016), othole ukwamukelwa okuhle kakhulu phakathi kwezilaleli, abagxeki nososayensi.

Ukulandisa okuhehayo

Kunoma ikuphi, kukhona into engenakuphikwa yokuxoxa izindaba ngaphakathi kwendaba kaMark Watney: wit. Kuphela ngokusebenzisa ukusetshenziswa okunembile kwendlela yesayensi lapho umlingiswa oyinhloko ephumelela kwiplanethi ebomvu. Ngaphandle kwalokho, ukusinda izinsuku ezingaphezu kwamakhulu amahlanu ngaphandle kokudla okwanele namanzi akunakwenzeka. Ngaphandle kwalokho, umlingiswa oyinhloko uqala indaba ngokulimala okukhulu okhalweni lwakhe, into engakhuthazi neze.

I-protagonist yamukela umfundi ngenkulumo eheha i-hook esheshayo: "Ngiyaxinwa." Ngenxa yalokho, ukufaneleka kombhali ukugcina intshisekelo yokwazi amaqiniso wekhasi elilandelayo, lokhu kusekelwe kumuntu onamandla: isifiso sokusiza omunye umuntu osenkingeni. Kwakha umuzwa wobumbano (ngisho naphakathi kwama-ejensi esikhala esiphikisanayo) kuchazwe ngokusobala nangokungaguquguquki kuyo yonke incwadi.

Isilinganiso sika-Andy Weir.

Isilinganiso sika-Andy Weir.

Umlingiswa osebenze kahle kakhulu

Ngaphezu kwalokho, Ukwethembeka kukaWatney, ukubhuqa, ukuba nesibindi nokuqonda okuhlekisayo kwenza izenzo zakhe zibe yingxubevange ephikisanayo, acishe ukuzibulala. Esiqeshini esifanayo kungenzeka uzizwe unethemba, ukuzimisela nokuzethemba kwe-protagonist kanye nemishwana efana nokuthi "uma ngingaqhuma, ngeke ngithole." Zonke lezi zinto zakha - ngaphandle kozwelo - ukufundwa okuluthayo.

Vele, phakathi kwesithombe esiphazamisayo esingokwengqondo esidalwe ukuthi kungenzeka kube nokufa okuseduze okuzungezwe isizungu ngokuphelele sogwadule olunesiqhwa olunobutha, kunesikhala sokucindezeleka. Ngalezo zikhathi, umlingiswa oyinhloko udonsa impikiswano eyengeziwe nokuhlekisa ngaye ukuze azikhuthaze ukuthi ahlale ekhuthele empini yokusinda.

Ukuphela ngaphandle kwemfucuza

Ukuvalwa kwendaba kuyindilinga ephelele. Kuhle kugcina ukulindela kufika phezulu, kanye nemicabango ehlekisayo likaWatney ngenkathi enza izindlela ezimbi kakhulu ukusindisa impilo yakhe, naphezu kwazo zonke izingqinamba. Ngenxa yezizathu ezibalulwe ngenhla, AmaMartian Kuyincwadi enezici eziningi ezidingekayo ezinconywe kakhulu.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.