UJavier Marias

UJavier Marías.

UJavier Marías.

UJavier Marías, “Usungule isitayela esingesona nje isici esisemthethweni kepha indlela yokubuka umhlaba. Ukubhala kwakhe kucatshangelwe ngezenzo, futhi thina bafundi siyamsiza ”. Le nkulumo ihambelana noWinston Manrique Sabogal (We bafowethu, 2012), ochaza umbhali "njengomunye wababhali bezincwadi zamanoveli baseYurophu". Akumangalisi ukuthi incwadi yakhe iye yanyatheliswa ngezilimi ezingaphezu kuka-40.

Ushicilele amanoveli ayishumi nesithupha kanye nokuhumusha okuningi, izinhlelo ezithile, nezinye izindaba ezimfishane. Ngokunjalo, usebenze ngama-eseyi nezindatshana ezahlukahlukene ngemithombo yezindaba ehlonishwayo kuzwelonke nakwamanye amazwe. Kusukela ngo-2008 uhlala esihlalweni weRoyal Spanish Academy. Izincwadi zakhe ziphakathi kweziphambili emlandweni wezincwadi waseSpain.

Iphrofayili ye-Bibliographic

Ukuzalwa nobuntwana

UJavier Marías Franco Wazalelwa eMadrid ngoSepthemba 20, 1951. Ungowesine ezinganeni ezinhlanu zomshado phakathi kwesazi sefilosofi - ilungu leRoyal Spanish Academy - uJulián Marías kanye nomlobi uDolores Franco Manera. Uyise, oyiRiphabhulikhi, wayevinjelwe ukufundela amanyuvesi aseFrancoist ngenxa yokwenqaba ukufunga i-Principles of the National Movement (1958).

Ngenxa yalokho, wonke umndeni wathuthela e-United States kusukela ngo-1951. Lapho, uJulián Marías wafundisa eYale University kwaze kwaba sekupheleni kweminyaka yama-50. Lapho nje ebuyela eSpain, uJavier osemncane wafundiswa eColegio Estudio ngaphansi kwemigomo yenkululeko eyazuzwa njenge-Institución Libre de Enseñanza.

Isimo somndeni sikulungele kakhulu ukubhala

Ngasikhathi sinye, i-Study College yagcina ukuxhumana okusondelene kakhulu neBoston International Institute, lapho uJulián Marías wayevame ukunikeza izinkulumo khona. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ikhaya labashadikazi baseMarías Franco laliyisikhungo semfundo uqobo. Ihlala igcwele izincwadi futhi kaningi inabafundi basekolishi abathatha izifundo eziyimfihlo.

Ngakho-ke, akumangazi ukuthi imisebenzi yokuqala eyenziwe nguJavier Marías isukela ebusheni bakhe. Kungaba kanjani yindawo evumayo yemisebenzi yobuhlakani uma umama ethweswa iziqu emkhakheni wezincwadi ngomklomelo ongaphezu kovamile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abafowabo babonwa njengesazi-mlando sezemfundo nobuciko (uFernando), udokotela kwezomnotho nomgxeki wamafilimu (uMiguel), nomculi (u-vlvaro). Umalume wakhe ngumenzi wamafilimu uJesús Franco.

Ifa likayise

UPablo Núñez Díaz (UNED, 2005), uhlanganisa kahle Ithonya likaJulián Marías endodaneni yakhe: “… ukuthi akazange avume ukuthathwa yiziqubulo noma izinhlangano zezombusazwe ezedlulayo kungenzeka kwaba nomthelela emfundweni kaJavier. Ngokusobala, ifa umlobi alithola kuyise kwakungelona nje elokuziphatha noma lezepolitiki kuphela - elalingeke libe lincane - kepha lalifaka nentshisekelo yemicabango yefilosofi, izincwadi nezilimi ”.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uCatalina Jiménez Correa (2017), wase-Autonomous University of the West (Colombia), uhlaziya ukhokho lukababa ezihlokweni zikaJavier Marías. Ngokuqondile, izwakalisa: “Isibalo sikayise, esishiwo izikhathi ezingama-348 ngezikhathi zamakholomu angu-238 afundwe (phakathi kuka-2009 no-2013). Ngaphandle kokungabaza, kuyinkomba yokuziphatha nobungcweti obunamandla bukaMarías ”.

Okusha sha

UJavier Marías uzichaze njengengxenye yalokho okubizwa ngokuthi isizukulwane sabangama-70, esisha sha. Ifaka phakathi iqembu lezifundiswa ezalwe ngemuva kweMpi Yombango yaseSpain, okuthi, yize yaqeqeshwa ngesikhathi sokubusa kukaFranco, yathola imfundo efanayo engahambisani nayo.

Ngokungafani nenkulumo yokuzinikela yamashumi eminyaka adlule, okusha kakhulu akusebenzisi izincwadi njengethuluzi loguquko kwezenhlalo. Ngokunjalo, amalungu aleli qembu awakhathali kangako ngemithombo yendabuko yobuchwepheshe bokubhala kwaseSpain. Ngokuphambene nalokho, bathambekele ekusebenziseni izinto ezingajwayelekile ezikhishwe kubalobi bezinye izilimi nokwakha izinhlamvu ezinobuqili, ezihlangene, zigcwele amaqhinga.

Ukuhlaziywa kwemisebenzi yakhe

Ngokungangabazeki, umsebenzi owaziwa kakhulu kaJavier Marías ngumsebenzi wakhe njengombhali wamanoveli. Kodwa-ke, inani elikhulu lokuhumusha, izinganekwane zezindaba ezimfushane kanye nezindatshana ezishicilelwe zabezindaba (kanye nemiklomelo etholakele) akunakunakwa. Kusukela ekuqaleni kweminyaka yakhe engaphezu kwengu-40 yomsebenzi wobuciko, uMarías ukhombisile ukuthi angalawulwa yimingcele yesiko lokulandisa laseSpain.

Kusasa empini, cabanga ngami njengoJavier Marías.

Kusasa empini, cabanga ngami njengoJavier Marías.

Ukuguqula umoya

Isibonakaliso sakhe sokuvuselela siyabonakala encwadini yakhe yokuqala, Esizindeni sempisi (1971). Kuyindaba enethonya elicacile le-cinematic, elibekwe phakathi kweminyaka yama-1920 kanye no-1930 kanye nabaphikisi baseMelika. Ngokushesha ngemuva kwalokho, le mfanelo entsha iqinisekisiwe ku- Ukuwela umkhathizwe (1972). Yize i-anachronism ewugqinsi ibonakala encwadini yakhe yesibili, kuseyindaba eqhubekayo futhi evulekile.

Kodwa-ke, uMarías akazange agcine aneliseke kakhulu nge "pasticho" yenoveli yakhe yesithathu, Inkosi yesikhathi (1978). Cishe yingakho ayiphinda wayikhipha ngo-2003. Ngo-1983 kwakhululwa inoveli yakhe yesine, Ikhulu leminyaka, ephawulwa impikiswano yayo yokuqhathanisa enikezwa ngababili bezahluko. Kwakungeyokuqala ezincwadini zakhe lapho ukulandisa kwakushintsha khona izindima phakathi komuntu wokuqala nowesithathu.

Isitayela sakho

Ngokusho kukaSandra Navarro Gil (Ijenali yePhilology, 2004), ku Indoda enomzwelo (1986) UMarías uthuthukisa abalingiswa nezindikimba ezivela ezihlokweni ezedlule ngokujula. Kusuka kulesi sihloko, umbhali owazalelwa eMadrid ufeza “… indlela entsha yokuqonda izincwadi: isifiso sokudlala samanoveli akhe okuqala sinikeza indlela yokusebenzisa inoveli ezwakala njengokungena lapho ukucabanga, hhayi okusungulwayo, kuba sengxoxweni eyinhloko impahla ”.

Indoda enomzwelo iba ukuhlanganiswa kwesitayela esivezwa umbalisi obonakalisayo kumuntu wokuqala, igcinwe ngesikhathi ngezinsizakusebenza ze-meta-fictional. Ukuvela kwamanoveli akhe amathathu okuqala aphethwe ngabalingiswa abanobuqili kanye / noma be-melodramatic, kancane kancane aguqukela emavesini asondelene kakhulu, anemininingwane futhi aqaphelayo.

Ukuhlanganiswa

cunt Yonke imiphefumulo (1989), umbhali waseSpain uthatha ithuba elihehayo elibhekise enganekwaneni elayishwe ngezimpawu zokuphila. Ngemuva kwalokho, ukwethulwa kwe- Inhliziyo imhlophe qwa (1992) futhi Kusasa empini cabanga ngami (1994) amele impumelelo enkulu yokuhlela kuze kube manje. Ngokunjalo, ama-XNUMXs ayisikhathi semiklomelo eminingi kaMarías, hhayi kuphela ngamanoveli akhe, kepha nangokuhumusha kwakhe, izindatshana nama-eseyi.

Isikhathi esimnyama esimnyama (1998) kwakuyindatshana yenoveli eyayilawulwa yimicabango yombhali ngokuhamba kwesikhathi okungenakulinganiswa. Lesi sihloko sandulele — mhlawumbe — umsebenzi wobuciko kaJavier Marías, Ubuso bakho kusasa. Kuyinoveli enamakhasi angaphezu kwe-1.500 alethwe ngamavolumu amathathu: Umkhuhlane nomkhonto (2002), Ukudansa nokuphupha (2004) futhi Ihlobo nomthunzi nokuvalelisa (2007).

Ukuvuselelwa njalo kanye nokuvumelana

Ngemuva kwempumelelo emangazayo ye- Ubuso bakho kusasa UMarías waphinde wenza okusha ngokwethulwa kombalisi wesifazane ku Ama-Crushes (2011). Yincwadi ethengiswa kakhulu kunazo zonke (amakhophi angaphezu kwayi-100.000 XNUMX) futhi idunyiswe kakhulu ngesakhiwo sayo sabaseshi phakathi kwezinkinga zokuziphatha nezokuziphatha. Kodwa-ke, umcimbi okhumbuleka kakhulu ohlotshaniswa nale noveli Umklomelo Kazwelonke Wokulandisa KweSpanishi, onqatshelwe ngumlobi.

Umusho kaJavier Marías.

Umusho kaJavier Marías.

Kulokho kwehla, uJavier Marías wathi (Okthoba 2012): “Ngihambisana nalokho ebengikusho njalo, ukuthi angisoze ngathola umklomelo wesikhungo. Ukube i-PSOE ibiphethe, ibizokwenza okufanayo ... nginqabe wonke umholo ovela esikhwameni somphakathi. Angishongo kaningi ukuthi uma benginikezwe mina, bengingeke ngikwazi ukwamukela noma yimuphi umklomelo ”.

Gcwalisa uhlu lwezincwadi zakhe

  • Esizindeni sempisi. Inoveli (Edhasa, 1971).
  • Ukuwela umkhathizwe. Inoveli (La Gaya Ciencia, 1973).
  • Inkosi yesikhathi. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 1978).
  • Ikhulu leminyaka. Inoveli (Seix Barral, 1983).
  • Indoda enomzwelo. Inoveli (Anagrama, 1986).
  • Yonke imiphefumulo. Inoveli (Anagrama, 1989).
  • Izinganekwane ezihlukile. Indatshana (Siruela, 1989).
  • Ngesikhathi besalele. Indaba emfushane (Anagrama, 1990).
  • Inhliziyo imhlophe qwa. Inoveli (Anagrama, 1992).
  • Izimpilo ezibhaliwe. Indatshana (Siruela, 1992).
  • Kusasa empini cabanga ngami. Inoveli (Anagrama, 1994).
  • Lapho ngangifa. Indaba (Alfaguara, 1996).
  • Indoda ebibukeka ingafuni lutho. Indatshana (Espasa, 1996).
  • Ababheki. Indatshana (Alfaguara, 1997).
  • Uma ngiphaphama futhi nguWilliam Fauklner. Indatshana (Alfaguara, 1997).
  • Emuva emuva kwesikhathi. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 1998).
  • Uhlamvu olubi. Indaba (iPlaza noJanés, 1998).
  • Njengoba ngikubonile ushona nguVladimir Nabokov. Indatshana (Alfaguara, 1999).
  • Umkhuhlane nomkhonto. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 2002).
  • Ukudansa nokuphupha. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 2004).
  • Ihlobo nomthunzi nokuvalelisa. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 2007).
  • Ubuso bakho kusasa. Ukuhlanganiswa kwamanoveli akhe amathathu edlule. (Alfaguara, 2009).
  • Ama-Crushes. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 2011).
  • Woza ungithole. Imibhalo yezingane (Alfaguara, 2011).
  • Uhlamvu olubi. Izinganekwane ezamukelekayo nezamukelekayo. Indaba (Alfaguara, 2012).
  • Lokhu kuqala kanjena okubi. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 2014).
  • UDon Quixote kaWellesley. Amanothi enkambo ngo-1984. Indatshana (Alfaguara, 2016).
  • UBerta Isla. Inoveli (Alfaguara, 2017).

Ukubambisana kobuntatheli

Izindaba eziningi ezikhulunywe ngemibhalo yezindaba njenge Lapho ngangifa (1996) noma Uhlamvu olubi (1998) babenemvelaphi yabo emaphephandabeni. Ngokufanayo, uJavier Marías ukhiqize izincwadi ezingaphezu kweshumi nambili zokuhlanganiswa nokuqukethwe kwakhe ekusebenzisaneni nobuntatheli. Nazi ezimbalwa:

  • Izinkanuko ezedlule (I-Anagrama, 1991).
  • Imibhalo nomoya (USiruela, 1993).
  • Impilo yesipoki (U-Aguilar, 1995).
  • Isendle futhi inemizwa. Izincwadi zebhola (U-Aguilar, 2000).
  • Lapho konke kwenzeke khona. Lapho ushiya i-cinema (IGutenberg Galaxy, 2005).
  • Izikhohlakali zesizwe. Izombusazwe nezincwadi zomphakathi (ILibros del Lince, 2010).
  • Isifundo esidala. Izinhlamvu zolimi (IGutenberg Galaxy, 2012).

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.