Izincwadi zikaSherlock Holmes

Isilinganiso sika-Arthur Conan Doyle.

Isilinganiso sika-Arthur Conan Doyle.

Lapho umsebenzisi we-Intanethi ecela "izincwadi zikaSherlock Holmes" kuGoogle, izindaba zomphenyi (mhlawumbe) wamaphoyisa odume kunabo bonke avela esikrinini. U - kanye no-Edgar Allan Poe's Dupin no-Agatha Christie's Poirot - omunye wabalingiswa "abasungula" bohlobo lwabaseshi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukubaluleka kwegama lakhe kudlulela ngale kwenkambu yokubhala.

Eqinisweni, Lesi sithonjana samasiko esidumile esenziwe nguSir Arthur Conan Doyle odumile siyisithenjwa esingenakugwenywa kwezobuciko bokubukwa kwezwi. Akumangalisi ukuthi ikhuthaze izihloko ezingaphezu kwamashumi amathathu phakathi kwamafilimu wezinto nochungechunge lwethelevishini. Kulesi sigaba, ukusebenza kwabalingisi abadume umhlaba wonke (R. Downey Jr. noma uJeremy Brett, ngokwesibonelo) kwenze uHolmes waba ngumuntu ovelele.

Mayelana nomlobi, uSir Arthur Conan Doyle

Ukuzalwa, umndeni nezifundo zokuqala

Indodana yabadwebi uCharles A. Doyle noMary Foley, U-Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle Wazalelwa e-Edinburgh, eScotland, ngoMeyi 22, 1859. Wakhulela ngaphansi kokunakekelwa ngumndeni wamaKatolika ocebile, ocabangayo. Ngakho-ke, u-Arthur osemncane wabhaliswa ezikoleni zamaJesuit eNgilandi (amabanga aphansi kanye nengxenye yesibili) kanye ne-Austria (isikole esiphakeme).

Imfundo ephakeme

Ngo-1876, uDoyle waqala izifundo zakhe zobudokotela eYunivesithi yase-Edinburgh. Lapho wagqama ngenxa yeziqu zakhe futhi emidlalweni ehlukene (isibhakela, umbhoxo, igalofu lekhilikithi)… Ngendlela efanayo, kuleyo ndlu yezifundo waba ngumfundi kadokotela odumile wase-forensic uJoseph Bell, owahlaba umxhwele u-Arthur osemncane ngokunemba kwezinqubo zakhe zokuncisha.

Izindaba zokuqala

UBell waba nethonya elibalulekile ekwakhiweni komlingiswa onikeze uDoyle udumo lwemibhalo: USherlock Holmes. Ngokulinganayo, Imfihlakalo yeSasassa Valley (1879) —indaba emfushane eyashicilelwa ku- Ijenali KaChambers Edinburgh— wenza i-debut yakhe. Ngonyaka olandelayo waphothula ukuqeqeshwa kwakhe njengodokotela ohlinzayo ngaphakathi komkhomo whaler Ithemba, E-Arctic.

Kamuva, wagibela umkhumbi i-SS Mayumba lapho ahamba khona ingxenye enkulu yogu lwaseNtshonalanga Afrika. Lezi zinkambo zakhuthaza izindaba ezifana Isitatimende sikaJ. Habakuk Jephson (1884) futhi UKaputeni wePole-Star (1890). Ngo-1889 wathola iziqu zakhe zobudokotela ngenxa yethisisi yakhe Amathebhu we-Dorsal.

Ukushintshela ezincwadini

Ngo-1882, uDoyle wazama ukuziphilisa ngezokwelapha ehhovisi lalowo owayefunda naye ekolishi, uGeorge T. Budd. Kepha, njengamahhovisi akhe alandelayo ePortsmouth naseLondon, lolu hlelo aluzange luphumelele. Ngakho-ke, waqala ukudala imibhalo kaningi, kufaka phakathi, Imfihlakalo yeCloomber (1888) y Funda nge-Scarlet (1887), inkanyezi yokuqala kaHolmes.

Futhi, uConan Doyle wayenesikhathi sokuzinikela ekudlaleni igalofu, ibhola likanobhutshuzwayo (wayengunozinti wePortsmouth AFC) nekhilikithi (wayeyingxenye yeMarylebone CC ehlonishwayo). Ngokolunye uhlangothi, Wayeshade kusukela ngo-1885 waya kuLouise Hawkins, owayenezingane ezimbili, waze washona ngo-1906 (isifo sofuba). Kamuva, umbhali waba nezinye izingane ezintathu emshadweni wakhe wesibili noJean E. Leckie.

Ubudlelwano benzondo kaDoyle noSherlock Holmes

Ngo-1891 u-Arthur Conan UDoyle uzwakalise encwadini ayibhalele unina que isimilo se UHolmes "ubedle ingqondo yakhe". Kodwa-ke - yize kusolakala ukuthi ushonile umseshi, kushiwo Inkinga yokugcina-, umbhali waseScotland wakhipha izindaba ezikhuluma ngoHolmes kwaze kwaba ngu-1927 (Ingobo yomlando kaSherlock Holmes). Eqinisweni, uDoyle washona eNgilandi eminyakeni emithathu nje kuphela ngemuva kokushicilelwa, ngoJulayi 7, 1930.

Kunoma yikuphi, UDoyle wakhonjiswa kabanzi ukuthi "anganciki" kuHolmes ukudala izindaba ezimnandi nempumelelo yokuhlela. Phakathi kwazo, ivelele izincwadi eziyisithupha ezihambisana noProfesa Challenger, amanoveli akhe amaningi omlando -URodney itshe (1896), isibonelo - nama-manifesto afana Impi enkulu yeBhunu (1900). Lesi sakamuva sathola umbhali wase-Edinburgh isihloko se- Sir.

IHolmesian Canon

Izindaba ezingamashumi ayisithupha nesithupha eziqoqwe emaqoqweni amahlanu kanye namanoveli amane akha lokho okubizwa ngokuthi uhlu lwezincwadi lukaHolmesian olwenziwe nguSir Arthur Conan Doyle. Ngokuqondene ne-oda lokufunda ukulandisa okulingiswa nguSherlock Holmes, kunezindlela ezimbili eziphakanyisiwe.

Owokuqala ubhekisa ku-biography yomseshi, kufaka phakathi ukulandelana okuhambisanayo kokushona kwakhe okuzenzekelayo nokuvela kabusha okulandelayo. Elesibili indlela yokusondela ohlwini lwezincwadi ze-holmesian es ngokusho komugqa wesikhathi wokukhishwa kuboniswe ngezansi (izihloko ezingakhonjisiwe njengamanoveli zihambelana nokuqoqwa kwezindaba):

  • Funda nge-Scarlet (1887). Inoveli.
  • Isibonakaliso sabane (1890). Inoveli.
  • I-Adventures kaSherlock Holmes (1892)
  • Izinkumbulo zikaSherlock Holmes (1903)
  • I-hound yebaskerville (1901-1902). Inoveli.
  • Ukubuya kukaSherlock Holmes (1903)
  • Isigodi sokwesaba (1914-1916). Inoveli.
  • Umnsalo wakhe wokugcina (1917)
  • Ingobo yomlando kaSherlock Holmes (1927)

USherlock Holmes biography

Ngokweziqondiso zemibhalo kaDoyle, uSherlock Holmes wazalwa ngonyaka we-1854. Wayeyindodana yomnikazi womhlaba waseNgilandi futhi owesifazane ezalwa ngabaculi beGallic. Wayenabafowabo ababili: uSherrinford (ongasho lutho kulo lonke uhlu lwezincwadi zeHolmesian) naseMycroft.

Uthole imfundo ephakeme ezifundweni zamakhemikhali, ezokwelapha, ezomthetho nezomculo eyunivesithi ethile ehlonishwayo yase-UK (UDoyle akakhombisi ngqo ukuthi iyiphi). Kusona leso sikhathi njengomfundi waseyunivesithi lapho uHolmes aqala khona umsebenzi wakhe wokuphenya, kanye nemisebenzi yeshashalazi.

Izici zobuntu

Ngemuva kokuhlala kwakhe eyunivesithi, uHolmes wathuthela eduzane neBritish Museum ukuze ugcwalise izifundo zakho zesayensi. Phakathi naleso sikhathi, wahlangana noDkt Watson —Wahlanganyela naye iminyaka eyishumi nesikhombisa eminyakeni yakhe engamashumi amabili nantathu emsebenzini wakhe— elabhorethri yeSibhedlela iSaint Bartholomew ngonyaka we-1881. akuchaze ngezimfanelo ezilandelayo:

  • Umlandeli wezincwadi zeTabloid. Yize kwesinye isikhathi ekhomba ababhali abanjengoGoethe, La Rochefoucaud noma uJean-Paul.
  • Ubufakazi obungenalwazi mayelana ne-Astronomy ne-Philosophy, ukuqonda okuncane kwezepolitiki nezisekelo ngomthetho waseBrithani.
  • Wayenguchwepheshe kwezamakhemikhali futhi edlala i-violin ngendlela enhle kakhulu.
  • Ufakazele ukuthi unolwazi olunzulu nge-botany (ikakhulukazi ezindabeni eziphathelene nobuthi nezidakamizwa), yize wayengenalwazi ngezinto ezifana nezolimo.
  • Uveze ulwazi oluyisisekelo mayelana nokwakheka komhlaba nokwakheka kwenhlabathi.
  • Ingcweti yesibhakela nefencer.

Ezinye izinhlamvu nezinye izifiso

Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX, UHolmes wenqabe umehluko we mnumzane (Knight of the Empire), kepha wamukela iLegion of Honor ngendlela ebekiwe. Ngokuqondene nabesifazane, umphenyi wayehlala ebasola kakhulu kanye nezinkulumo zokushayisana, inhlonipho nokubabaza. Ikakhulu maqondana no-Irene Adler wakhe amthandayo.

I-nemesis enamakhono angajwayelekile engqondo

UProfessor Moriarty okhaliphile kwakuyizisulu zikaHolmes, kanye nembangela yokushona kwakhe (okusobala) empophomeni iReichenbach, eSwitzerland. Kodwa-ke, umseshi ovelele waphinde wavela ngemuva kweminyaka emithathu Ukubuya kukaSherlock Holmes (1903), ikakhulukazi esimweni se- Indlu engenalutho.

URetiro

Ngemuva kokuthatha umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe wokuphenya, UHolmes wathuthela eSussex, eNgilandi, ukuze azinikele ekufundeni ifilosofi nokufuya izinyosi. (Waze wabhala incwajana enemininingwane eminingi yezinyosi.) Noma kunjalo, wayenesikhathi sokuxazulula cishe ngecala elinye icala elibalulekile ku I-adventure yemane yengonyama (1907).

Ekugcineni, UHolmes wabamba iqhaza ekuhleleni imishini eyinkimbinkimbi yobunhloli eminyakeni eyandulela iMpi Enkulu.. Ngemuva kuka-1914 alikho irekhodi (ngaphakathi kohlu lwezincwadi zeHolmesian) ngempilo yomphenyi wamaphoyisa odume kakhulu emlandweni wezincwadi.

Ukufundwa kwe-canon yaseHolmesian ngokwe-biography yomseshi

- I-corvette Gloria Scott

- Isiko leMusgrave

- Funda nge-Scarlet

- Ibhande le-polka dot

- Isiguli esihlala khona

- Isiphathimandla sobukhosi

- I-adventure yebala lesibili

- Ama-squire kaReigate

- Ihlazo eBohemia

- Indoda enodebe olusontekile

- Izimbewu ezinhlanu eziwolintshi

- Icala lobunikazi

- I-League of Redheads

- Ukuzidela Komphenyi Ofayo

- I-carbuncle eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka

- IsiGodi Sokwesaba

- Ubuso obuphuzi

- Umhumushi ongumGreki

- Isibonakaliso sabane

- I-hound yebaskerville

- Imfihlakalo Yethusi

- Imfihlakalo yaseBoscombe Valley

- Umabhalane WaseStockbroker

- Isivumelwano sasolwandle

- Ibhokisi

- Isithupha sikanjiniyela

- Indoda eboshiwe

- IWisteria Lodge nokuzidela

- Inkanyezi yesiliva

- Umqhele we-beryl

- Inkinga yokugcina

- I-adventure yendlu engenalutho

- Ukuzijabulisa Kwezibuko Ezigolide

- I-adventure yabafundi abathathu

- Ukuzijabulisa komgibeli webhayisikili onesizungu

- Ukuzijabulisa kukaPeter "El Negro"

- Ukuzijabulisa kukaNorwood Builder

- Izinhlelo zeBruce-Partington

- Ukuzijabulisa Komqashi Weveli

- ISussex Vampire nokuzidela

- Ubumnandi bomgadli ongekho

- I-Abbey Grange's Adventure

- Ukuzijabulisa Konyawo lukaDeveli

- Ukuzijabulisa kophaphethi

- Umenzi wombala osethathe umhlalaphansi

- UCharles Augustus Milverton

- Ukuzijabulisa KwamaNapoleon Ayisithupha

- Inkinga yebhuloho likaThor

- I-adventure yesikole se-Priory

- Shoscombe Old Place nokuzidela

- Ukuzijabulisa kwamaGarridebs amathathu

- Ukunyamalala kukaLady Frances Carfax

- I-Illustrious Client Adventure

- I-adventure ye-Red Circle

- Isosha elinesikhumba esinsundu

- I-adventure yeTres Frontons

- Ukuzijabulisa Kwetshe LakwaMazarin

- Indoda ekhase

- I-adventure yemane yengonyama

- Ukubingelela kokugcina


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.