USir Horace Walpole, uShadowforger

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Namuhla kugujwa iminyaka engama-290 yokuzalwa kwe- UHorace Walpole, isicukuthwane esikhanyayo esine Inqaba yase-Otranto (1764) waqala inoveli yesiGothic.

Umbhali uqobo ucacisa ukuthi le noveli eyasungula yaqala kanjani: “Ngolunye usuku ekuseni ekuqaleni kukaJuni odlule, ngavuka ephusheni engikukhumbulayo nje ukuthi ngangisenqabeni endala (…) nokuthi, esitezi esiphezulu esitebhisini esikhulu, ngabona isandla esikhulu esinamagilavu ​​ensimbi. Ntambama ngahlala phansi ngaqala ukubhala, ngingazi ukuthi ngifuna ukuthini ngempela. Umsebenzi wakhula ezandleni zami ”.

Kancane kancane abalingiswa bavela (umashiqela uManfredo, u-Isabel othandekayo, u-Teodoro osemncane…) kanye necebo elaligcwele ukusonteka okukhulu, ngeziqalekiso, ubunikazi obadalulwa ngokumangala nangokubukeka okubukekayo. Konke kusethwe endaweni esongelayo: leyo nqaba yangenkathi ephakathi evela ephusheni likaWalpole, indawo ekhona kuyo yonke inoveli.

Ungakusho lokho Inqaba yase-Otranto kufana nomshini wokuhlushwa wangezikhathi eziphakathi ogcwele izigaxa ezibuthuntu, amagiya, nezipikili. Yize ingasebenzi futhi sibona ukuthi ingeyenye inkathi, umbono wayo usibangela ukukhathazeka okuthile. Ngakho-ke inoveli, yize inamaphutha nobuthakathaka bayo, kwesinye isikhathi iyakwazi ukudala umoya omubi ongenakugwemeka.

Futhi naphezu kokulindelekile, ukuyifunda kunikeza ukuzijabulisa. Mhlawumbe sibonga ukuguquguquka okunehaba kusakhiwo kanye namahlaya okuthi kwesinye isikhathi kusinikeze umlingiswa onqamule kwi-self-parodic. I-parody yokuziqambela, ngokuqinisekile kunokuzithandela, ngoba uWalpole wayekwazi kokubili ukulinganiselwa namandla amakhono omsebenzi wakhe. Ngakho-ke uthi esandulelweni sohlelo lwesibili: “Kepha [umbhali] uma indlela entsha ayithathile ivula amathuba kubantu abanethalente elikhulu, uzokuvuma ngenjabulo nangesizotha ukuthi wayazi ukuthi umqondo ungathola kangcono imihlobiso kunalabo abanikele ngemicabango yabo noma ukuphatha kwabo izinkanuko ”.

Noma kunjalo, ukufaneleka kukaWalpole kuhle. Ngaphezu kokukhulu, okukhulu. Okokuqala ngokutshala le mbewu ezothela izithelo kamuva njenge Indelangu-MG Lewis. Okwesibili, ngoba ukwenziwa kwe- Inqaba yase-Otranto kuyisenzo sokuhlubuka kwamaqhawe ngaphambi kwepanorama yokubhala neyokuqonda yekhulu le-XNUMX, ebuswa ukucabanga okunengqondo kanye neoclassicism, eyayikhiye umcabango futhi yalandela ukunambitheka kwamandla angaphezu kwawemvelo kwezobuciko.

Isikhathi sabaphathi abanjengo USamuel Johnson, okwathi ngo-1750 wabhala ukuthi umsebenzi wale noveli uqukethe “ukubangela izehlakalo zemvelo ngendlela engenzeka, nokugcina ilukuluku lokufuna ukwazi ngaphandle kosizo lokumangala: ngakho-ke kuyakhishwa ezinhlelweni nasezinsizakalweni zothando lwamaqhawe; futhi akakwazi ukuqasha iziqhwaga ukuze zihlwithe intokazi emicimbini yomshado, noma ama-knights okuyibuyisa: futhi ayikwazi ukudumaza abalingiswa bayo ogwadule noma ibangenise ezinqabeni ezicatshangelwayo ”.

Imidondoshiya, izintokazi ezithunjiwe, amaqhawe anobuqhawe, izinqaba eziqanjiwe ... izakhi nje ezizosetshenziswa nguWalpole Inqaba yase-Otranto. Ngaphandle kwama-specters, izimfihlakalo neziqalekiso, kunjalo.

Ukwenza lula ukwamukelwa kwenoveli yakhe, uWalpole wasebenzisa ubuqili bokuyikhipha ngaphansi kwegama okungelona, ​​njengokungathi kwakuwukuhunyushwa kwekhophi yase-Italiyane yekhulu le-XNUMX elitholakala emtatsheni wezincwadi omdala. Ukukhohlisa kuphumelele, inoveli yaba yimpumelelo yomphakathi futhi uhlelo lwesibili selivele luvele nesiginesha yakhe.

sitrobheli-hill.jpgNgalesi sikhathi, kusobala ukuthi uHorace Walpole wayengumlingiswa okhaliphile njengoba wayengenabunono. Indodana kaSir Robert Walpole, uNdunankulu waseNgilandi phakathi kuka-1721 no-1742, u-Earl wase-Orford, ngemuva kokudabula iYurophu wabamba isikhundla sasePhalamende futhi waphila impilo ngokuhambisana nalokho akubona kufanelekile. Ukusuka ngo-1750 wayehlala eStrawberry Hill, isithabathaba somuzi asiguqula saba yinganekwane yamaGoth ehambisana nalokho akuthandayo.

Ngaphandle kokuthi Inqaba yase-Otranto, wabhala amakhulu wamakhasi phakathi kwezincwadi, izikhumbuzo, ukugxeka, umlando nezifundo zobuciko, kufaka phakathi inhlekelele mayelana nokulala nesihlobo, Umama ongaqondakali, kanye nochungechunge lwezindaba ezimfushane ezibizwa ngokuthi Izinganekwane ze-hieroglyphic. Akukho ukuhunyushwa kweSpanishi komdlalo, kepha kukhona kusuka encwadini yezindaba, nasezandleni zikaLuís Alberto de Cuenca.

UWalpole ubhale lezi zindaba ngenqubo esondele ekubhaleni okuzenzakalelayo, eshiya umcabango wokukhululeka, ngaphandle kwesizathu sokungenelela ngale kwenhloso yokuqala yokwenza isenzo eMpumalanga. Umphumela uba izindaba ezisheshayo, zoqobo, ezinenqwaba yezinto ezingenangqondo kwesinye isikhathi eziholela ku-macabre, njengakwimidwebo ethile ka-Edward Gorey. KuLuís Alberto de Cuenca, bakha isenzo esiphikisayo sokuzibophezela kweFrance, futhi kungabonakala sengathi, njenge Alicia nguLewis Carroll, hlonipha "umcabango wobudlova nowe-anarchist wobuntwana."

Kuhlelo lwakhe lwe Izinganekwane ze-hieroglyphicNgale ndlela, isithasiselo esinamakhasi angama-30 kwinoveli ebalulekile yesiNgisi yamaGothic sifakiwe kulabo abanentshisekelo kuhlobo kanye nabathandi bezinganekwane nezincwadi ezethusayo ngokujwayelekile.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.