UJane Austen: izincwadi

Jane Austen

Jane Austen

UJane Austen wayengumbhali wenoveli odumile wekhulu le-XNUMX, imisebenzi yakhe ibhekwa njengezincwadi zakudala zesiNgisi. Inoveli yakhe evelele kakhulu kwaba Ukuziqhenya nokubandlulula, indaba yothando eyabekwa ngaleso sikhathi, yashicilelwa ngokungaziwa ngo-1813. Sekungamakhulu eminyaka, le ndaba isetshenziselwe ukukhuthaza abanye ababhali, kanye nokuguqulelwa esikrinini ezikhathini eziningi.

U-Austen uthathe isitayela esiyingqayizivele nesinamandla, esigcwele impilo yansuku zonke, isimilo kanye nezincazelo eziqondile yamasiko omphakathi waleso sikhathi. Abameli abaningi bambheka njengombhali olandelanayo, yize abagxeki besifazane besimanje bethi wayengumvikeli othembekile wabesifazane. Ngo-2007, impilo yombhali yayiswa ebhayisikobho, nefilimu: Ukuba Jane.

I-Biography

UJane Austen wazalwa ngoDisemba 16, 1775 edolobheni elincane laseNgilandi iSteventon enyakatho neHampshire. Abazali bakhe kwakunguMfundisi wase-Anglican uGeorge Austen noCassandra Leigh. Wayeyingane eyandulela eyedlule ezinganeni eziyisishiyagalombili zomshado, ngaphezu kokuba yintombazane yesibili yeqembu. Kusukela esemncane, uJane wayesondelene kakhulu nodadewabo omdala, Cassandra.

Umndeni, imfundo namasiko angaleso sikhathi

Ngaphakathi emphakathini, i-Austen babengabakwa "gentry", elinye lamaqembu anezinga elincane ngaphakathi kwezicukuthwane. Babengenayo ingcebo enkulu futhi imali ababeyihola yayikhokhela izindleko eziyisisekelo kuphela, ngakho-ke abafowabo bakaJane kwadingeka basebenze besebancane. Kodwa-ke, ukuqinisekisile ngezincwadi ukuthi bajabulele ubuntwana obumnandi lapho ubaba wabo ebakhuthaza khona ngokwengqondo.

Ngaleso sikhathi abesifazane babethola imfundo eyisisekelo ekhaya, noma ngabe umndeni wawunamathuba, babekwazi ukuthumela amadodakazi abo esikoleni. e 1783, UCassandra kwakufanele ayofundela ngaphandle, kepha uJane wenqaba ukumvumela ukuba asuke kuye. Lokhu, umpristi wanquma ukubathumela ndawonye esikoleni okuhlalwa kuso e-Oxford, kodwa kwaba okwesikhashana nje, ngoba bobabili kwadingeka babuyele emuva kokugula nge-typhus.

Ngo-1785, uJane noCassandra bafunda e-Abbey boarding school edolobheni laseFunda; kodwa, ngoba babengakwazi ukukhokha imali yokufunda, kwakudingeka babuye. Basuka lapho baqhubeka nemfundo yabo ekhaya, lapho ubaba wabo ebeseka kakhulu.. Umfundisi wayenomtapo wolwazi obanzi futhi kukhuthazwa njalo umkhuba we i-leer eqenjini lomndeni, yingakho uJane wayengumfundi okhuthele kusukela esemncane.

Iziqalo ngokubhala

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi U-Austen waqala ukubhala esemncane, Ubufakazi balokhu yizincwadi zokubhala ezenziwe phakathi kuka-1787 no-1793, ezifaka izindaba ezimfushane eziningana. Lezi zindaba ezincane zashicilelwa ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, njengoba imisebenzi yezingane yaqoqwa ngemiqulu emithathu. Ezinye zezindaba ezifakiwe yilezi: "Lesley's Castle", "The Three Sisters" kanye "Catherine".

Novelas

Kusukela ngo-1795, u-Austen waqamba okusalungiswa kwamanoveli akhe okuqala, okwathi - ngemuva kokuthuthela eChawton ngo-1809 - wabuyekeza ngaphambi kokuba kushicilelwe. Owokuqala owamukelwa ngumhleli kwaba: Umuzwa nokuzwela (1811). Lokhu kulandisa kuthunyelwe ngokungaziwa, kusayinwe kuphela "Ngu-Lady”. Umsebenzi wajabulela ukwamukelwa okuhle ngabagxeki bangaleso sikhathi.

Ngemuva kokuphumelela kwale ncwadi, washicilela Ukuziqhenya nokubandlulula (1813), inoveli aqala ukuqashelwa ngayo umbhali. Ngemuva konyaka kwavela I-Mansfield Park (1814), amakhophi awo athengiswa ngokushesha. Ekupheleni konyaka we-1815, umbhali washicilela umsebenzi wakhe wokugcina empilweni, Emma. Ngo-1818 imisebenzi yakhe yenziwa yaziwa INorthanger Abbey y Ukukholisa.

Ukufa

Jane Austen Wafa ngoJulayi 18, 1817 edolobheni laseWinchester, eneminyaka engama-41 kuphela. Njengamanje, kucatshangwa ukuthi ukufa kwakhe bekungenxa yokuhlushwa yisifo i-Addison. Izinsalela zombhali zihlala eWinchester Cathedral.

Amanoveli kaJane Austen

  • Umuzwa nokuzwela (1811)
  • Ukuziqhenya nokubandlulula (1813)
  • I-Mansfield Park (1814)
  • Emma (1815)
  • INorthanger Abbey (1818) umsebenzi oshonile
  • Ukukholisa (1818) umsebenzi oshonile

Isifinyezo sencwadi kaJane Austen

Umuzwa nokuzwela (1811)

Impilo ka U-Elinor, uMarianne noMargaret UDashwood ushintsha kakhulu ngemuva kokushona kukayise. Le ndoda ishiye zonke izimpahla zayo enganeni yesilisa eyayinayo enhlanganweni yayo yangaphambilini, uJohn. Yize indlalifa ifunga ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha nokunethezeka kwabesifazane abangenakuzisiza, uFanny - umkakhe - wenza yonke into ibe nzima. Isimo siholela ku amantombazane kufanele inyakaze nomama wakhe endlini encane futhi ethobekile.

Isakhiwo esijwayelekile sigxile ku-Elinor noMarianne, njengoba uMargaret esemncane. Kusuka eqinisweni labo elisha kwezomnotho nakwezenhlalo, impilo yenza into yayo, futhi abesifazane abasebasha baqala ukuhlangana nabangane abasha futhi badlule ezikhathini zothando.

Ngamunye uthatha impilo ngokuhlukile; U-Elinor, ngubani omdala kakhulu, ubaluleke kakhulu uvuthiwe futhi wagxila. Marianneyena, uyintombazane ezithandayo futhi imizwa kakhulul. Kodwa-ke, ekwakhiweni kwesakhiwo kungabongwa ukushintshashintsha kobuntu babalingiswa abaphambili.

Indaba yenzeka ku ukufunwa kothando ngokombono womuntu omusha ngamunye. Ngenkathi izinkinga ezijwayelekile zesakhiwo zenzeka, odade bakwaDashwood badabukile phakathi komqondo nokuzwela ngaphakathi kwamasiko wezicukuthwane nonxiwankulu bekhulu le-XNUMX leNgilandi.

Ukuziqhenya nokubandlulula (1813)

Ekupheleni kwe- Ikhulu le-XNUMX, endaweni esemaphandleni eNgilandi kuhlala umndeni wakwaBennet, lo mbhangqwana namadodakazi abo ama-5: uJane, u-Elizabeth, uMary, uCatherine noLydia. Ngenxa yesimo sayo sezomnotho namasiko agxile ngaleso sikhathi, umama ugxile ekutholeni imishado emihle. Yize kunjalo, ukhathazekile ngo-Elizabeth -Lizzie- nangesimilo sakhe esinzima, othi akanaso isifiso sokushada.

Ngokungazelelwe, ukufika edolobheni labantu abasha ababili ababalulekile - Mnu. Bingley noMnu Darcy— kuvuse ukunaka kukaNkk. Bennet, obona kubo ikusasa elihle lamadodakazi abo amadala, uJane noLizzie. Ukusuka lapho, bobabili ubudlelwano buhamba ngezimo ezahlukahlukene. Isiphetho sabaphikisi sidabukile phakathi kokubandlulula, ukuzikhukhumeza, izimfihlakalo, izinkanuko nemizwa eminingi exubekile.

Thengisa Ukuziqhenya nokubandlulula ...

I-Mansfield Park (1814)

UFanny Price omncane uthathwe omalume bakhe abacebile: udadewabo kanina, uLady Bertram; nomyeni wakhe, uSir Thomas. Umndeni uhlala esithabathabeni somuzi waseMansfield Park nezingane zabo ezine: uTom, u-Edmund, uMaria noJulia. Ngenxa yemvelaphi yayo ethobekile, intokazi ubekwa phansi njalo kubazala bakhe, ngaphandle kuka-Edmund, omphatha ngomusa nangenhlonipho

Lesi simo sihlala iminyaka UFanny ukhula ngempatho ehlukile, yize ukubonga kwakhe ku-Edmund kuphenduka uthando oluyimfihlo. Ngelinye ilanga, uSir Thomas wenza uhambo olubalulekile, oluqondana nokufika eMansfield Park yabazalwane baseCrawford: uHenry noMary.

Ukuvakashelwa kwale ntsha kuzodonsela lo mndeni ezicupheni naseziyengweni ezahlukahlukene. Phakathi kothando, izingxabano nezinkanuko, nguFanny kuphela —Ngombono wakhe— kwangathi ingamemezela lezo zinsongo ezifihliwe.

Thengisa IMansfield Park (uhlelo ...

Emma (1815)

Emma izinkuni yintokazi enhle ehlakaniphile, ngubani uthathe njengenhloso yokuhlelela bonke abasondelene naye imishado. Kuyena, impilo yakhe yothando ayiyona into ebaluleke kakhulu, unendaba kakhulu neyesithathu.

Konke kwakuhamba kahle empilweni ka-Emma, ​​kuze UTaylor - umphathi wakhe nomngani wakhe - uyashada. Ngemuva kwalo mcimbi, isimo phakathi kwalezi zinguquko ezimbili siphawuleka, ngakho-ke le ntokazi UWoodhouse ungene ngaphansi kwesizungu esijulile. Kodwa-ke, le ntokazi ifuna ukubhekana nokudabuka ngokusebenzisa ubizo lwayo lokuba ngumlingisi.

Ngokushesha u-Emma uthola umngane omusha, uHarriet Smith, intokazi ethobekile. Noma intombazane ingenazo izifiso eziphezulu, umlingisi uyaphikelela ukuthi amtholele umyeni ocebile. Kodwa-ke, uHarriet uyenqaba ukusetshenziswa, okuwa izinhlelo zikaWoodhouse. Iqiniso ukuthi phakathi kwezakhiwo ezahlukahlukene kakhulu ezihlangene nokuvela kwezinhlamvu ezintsha nezakhiwe kahle, i- "casadora" iphelela esimweni ebingakaze icabange yona.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.