Amakilasi amanoveli abhaliwe

Amakilasi amanoveli abhaliwe.

Amakilasi amanoveli abhaliwe.

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamanoveli, kanye nezindlela ezahlukahlukene zokuwahlukanisa ngezigaba. Enye yezindlela ezindala kakhulu zokuhlukanisa izinhlobo zendalo ebhaliwe kungokwemakethe ebhekiswe kuyo. Ngokunjalo, amanoveli angahlukaniswa ngamaqembu amakhulu amabili: lawo enzelwe ukukhiqiza imali (ezentengiselwano) nalawo anomsuka wobuciko (wokubhala).

Kodwa-ke, umbandela wokuhlukaniswa osuselwa esicini sentengiso ujwayelekile, ngoba inoveli ingaba yokubhala nokuhweba ngasikhathi sinye. Empeleni, into ebaluleke kakhulu emakilasini emibhalo yamanoveli uhlobo lwesakhiwo sabo. Lokho wukuthi, uma kusekelwe emicimbini yeqiniso noma kuyo yonke ingxenye yomcabango wombhali (noma inhlanganisela yakho kokubili).

Ulimi olusetshenzisiwe lunquma isendlalelo senoveli yombhalo

Izinsizakusebenza ezisetshenziswa ngumxoxi ziyizikhiye ezifanele kakhulu lapho kuhlukaniswa ukwakhiwa kwemibhalo. Ngakho-ke, izinhlobo zokuveza zimelela "isiginesha ngazinye" zombhali ngamunye ukufinyelela umfundi, ukunquma ubuqiniso bazo. Ulimi olusetshenzisiwe kumele lusebenze kahle ekudluliseni inhloso noma imizwa yombhali.

Ngaphandle kwalokho, uphenyo olwenziwe (uma lukhona) oluzungeze isihloko lilahlekile maphakathi nokufunda. Isibonelo: inoveli yomlando ebhalwe kahle kakhulu ingalahlekelwa yincazelo noma izuze ukubaluleka kuphela ngenxa yendaba eyenziwe. Ngokufanayo, indalo eqanjiwe eyi-100% ingabonakala ithembeke ngokuphelele uma umbhali ekwazi ukufinyelela ezingqondweni zabafundi bakhe.

Amanoveli angokoqobo

Inhloso yamanoveli angempela akhombisa izehlakalo ezilandiswa ngendlela ecishe ifane neqiniso. Ngokuvamile, ichaza abalingiswa bobuqotho noma umlingiswa oqinile phakathi kwezimo zansuku zonke endaweni yezinkinga zangempela zenhlalo. Ngakho-ke, indawo yezenhlalo ichazwe ngendlela ethembekile kakhulu.

Lezi zici zithambeka ngokuphelele emisebenzini enjenge Bulala i-Mockingbird (1960) nguHarper Lee. Kulolu hlobo lwezincwadi zama-Anglo-Saxon, umbhali ugqugquzelwe ngumndeni wakhe, omakhelwane bakhe, kanye nomcimbi owenzeka emphakathini wakubo lapho eneminyaka eyishumi. Ezinye izihloko ezaziwa kakhulu zalesi sizathu yilezi:

  • Madame Bovary (1856) kusuka ku- UGustave Flaubert.
  • U-Ana Karenina (1877) nguLeo Tolstoy.
  • Umuzi Nezinja (1963) nguMario Vargas Llosa.
Nkosikazi Bovary.

Nkosikazi Bovary.

Inoveli ye-Epistolary

Njengoba igama lalo likhombisa, kulolu hlobo lwenoveli icebo lilandiswa ngemiyalezo ebhaliwe yobuntu babo. Lokho kusho ukuthi, ngezincwadi, amathelegramu noma amadayari asondelene, ngakho-ke, ukubamba iqhaza komxoxi kufakazela umfundi umuzwa wokulandisa ngokuphila kwakhe. Phakathi kokushicilelwa kwakamuva kakhulu, Izinzuzo zokungabonakali (1999) nguStephen Chbosky umele kakhulu lesi sizalo.

Ubuhle bokuba namahloni (Isihloko sokuqala sesiNgisi) sifaka uCharlie oneminyaka engu-15 ubudala mayelana nokuqala unyaka wakhe wokuqala esikoleni esiphakeme esikoleni esisha. Ukukhathazeka kwakhe kukhulu kakhulu ngenxa yokuzibulala komngani wakhe omkhulu (uMichael) ngenyanga edlule kanye no-anti wakhe uHelen lapho eneminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Ngakho-ke, uqala ukubhala izincwadi (ngaphandle komthumeli othile) ngenhloso yokuzama ukuqonda indawo ezungezile naye uqobo.

Ezinye izincwadi zamanoveli epistolary yilezi:

  • Ubungane obuyingozi (1782) nguChoderlos de Laclos
  • Ubaba Imilenze Emide (1912) nguJean Webster.

Amanoveli omlando

Amanoveli omlando angukuqanjwa kwemibhalo okunesakhiwo esincike emcimbini wangempela odlule wokubaluleka komphakathi kanye / noma kwezepolitiki. Ngokulandelanayo, lesi sigaba esingezansi sihlukaniswe yaba inoveli yomlando oyinkohliso kanye neveli yomlando yokulwa nokukhohlisa. Esigabeni sokuqala sokuqala umbhali ufaka abalingiswa abasunguliwe phakathi komcimbi weqiniso. Lezi zimpawu ziyabonakala ezincwadini ezifana Igama le-rose (1980) ngu-U. Eco.

Le ncwadi ilandisa ngophenyo olwenziwa nguGuillermo de Baskerville kanye (nomfundi wakhe) u-Adso de Melk ochungechungeni lokubulawa kwabantu esigodlweni sezindela enyakatho ye-Italy ngekhulu le-XNUMX. Esimweni sesibili, umbhali unesikhundla esingaphansi kakhulu ngokuguqula (ngokubona kwakhe) izimpilo zabantu bangempela ekulandiseni kwakhe. Eminye imisebenzi edumile yamanoveli omlando yile:

  • USinuhé, umGibhithe (1945) nguMika Waltari.
  • Abisalomu! Abisalomu! (1926) nguWilliam Faulkner.
USinuhé, umGibhithe.

USinuhé, umGibhithe.

Inoveli yomlando womuntu

Yilezo ezinezindaba ezihlobene nezikhathi ezahlukahlukene ezifanele empilweni yombhali, njengokufeza, ukudumazeka, ukuhlupheka, ukuhlukumezeka, ukuthanda ... Ngalesi sizathu, umxoxi uchaza isikhundla sokungena. Omunye wemisebenzi edume kakhulu yalesi sizukulwana ngu Amathemba amakhulu (1860) nguCharles Dickens. Lapho, umbhali uxuba imvelo yenoveli nokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe okuningi.

Amanoveli okuqeqesha

Yimisebenzi ebhaliwe egxile ekukhuleni okungokomzwelo kanye / noma kwengqondo kwaba (protagonist) babo. Imvamisa, amanoveli okuqeqesha ahlanganiswa nalokhu: ukuqala, ukuhamba ngezinyawo nokuziphendukela kwemvelo. Ngokufanayo, bangalandisa isigaba esithile noma impilo yonke ye-protagonist. Izihloko ezimbili eziyizimpawu zalesi sigaba esincane yilezi Indlela Yokwenza Intombazane (2014) nguCainlin Moran futhi Umzingeli ku-rye (1956) nguJD Salinger.

Amanoveli ezindaba eziqanjiwe zesayensi

Yizinoveli ezincike ekuthuthukisweni kwezobuchwepheshe ukuphakamisa ezinye izimo kokuyiqiniso kwezwe lamanje. Ngenxa yalokho, izindlela zabo zokubikezela kufanele zihlale zivunyelwa kusukela ekubukeni kwendlela yesayensi. Ingqikithi ejwayelekile kakhulu kwezinganekwane zesayensi ukukhubazeka kwesintu nemiphumela elethwa ukwehluleka okunjalo.

Lolu hlobo lwesakhiwo lucacile emisebenzini efana ne- Uhambo oluya esikhungweni somhlaba (1864) nguJules Verne noma Indoda yesifazane (1975) nguJoanna Russ. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, Impi Yezwe (1898) nguHG Wells wethula amanoveli athandwayo aqanjiwe angaphandle. Ngokunjalo, lolu hlobo lokushicilelwa ngokuhlasela okungaphandle komhlaba luqondisa ingxenye yokuhlaziya kwabo ngosizi lohlobo lwabantu.

Amanoveli eDystopian

Amanoveli eDystopi nawo abhekwa njengegatsha lamanoveli eziqanjiwe zesayensi. Bethula umphakathi obukeka kahle wesikhathi esizayo ... kepha kunamaphutha amakhulu ayisisekelo, abangela ukunganeliseki - ukugqagqana - phakathi kwengxenye yezakhamizi zawo. Phakathi kwezibonelo zakamuva nezithandwayo zalolu hlobo lwezinhlamvu yi-trilogy ye- Imidlalo Yendlala nguSuzanne Collins.

A classic yalesi subgenre is 1984 (1949) nguGeorge Orwell. Ichaza umphakathi waseLondon kusuka esikhathini esizayo esiseduze lapho ushicilelwa. Lapho izakhamizi zakhona ezihlukanisiwe zizohlelwa ngokwezigaba ezimbili: ezinye zilawula imithetho kanti ezinye ziyayilalela ngenxa yokhuni lwazo oludlubulundayo. Esinye isihloko senoveli esaziwa nge-dystopian namuhla sithi Umlando Wencekukazi (1985) nguMargaret Atwood.

Amanoveli we-Utopian

Amanoveli we-Utopian aveza impucuko ephelele impela. Igama elithi "utopia" laqanjwa nguThomas Moore kusukela kumagama esiGreki "u" kanye "topos", ahunyushwa ngokuthi "ndawo". Esinye sezihloko ezindala kakhulu zenoveli ethi I-Atlantis entsha (1626) nguFrancis Bacon. Ilandisa ukufika kwe-protagonist eBensalem, insimu yasenganekwaneni lapho izakhamuzi zayo ezihamba phambili zinikezelwe ukuthuthukisa umphakathi.

Ngokusebenzisa "indlela ye-Baconian yokungeniswa", la "madoda ahlakaniphile" afuna ukuqonda nokunqoba izinto zemvelo ukukhulisa ikhwalithi yempilo yabo bonke. Abanye izibonelo zakudala zamanoveli asezingeni eliphezulu Isiqhingi (1962) ngu-Aldous Huxley no Ecotopia (1975) ngu-Ernest Callenbach.

Amanoveli amafantasy

Yimisebenzi ebhaliwe esuselwa kumhlaba oyimilingo ocatshangelwayo, ngakho-ke, abathakathi bavame kakhulu, ama-fairies futhi angafaka phakathi izibalo ezithathwa ngokungafanele. I-sagas enkulu yokusabalala komhlaba wonke esikrinini esikhulu ingeyale subgenre, phakathi kwayo:

  • u-Harry Potter nguJK Rowling.
  • INkosi yezindandatho ngu-JR Tolkien.
  • Narnia ngu-CS Lewis.

INkosi yamasongo. Amanoveli wabaseshi

Ziyizinoveli lapho umlingiswa oyinhloko (noma wayeyilungu) lamaphoyisa anetulo eligxile kuphenyo lobugebengu. Vele, akunakwenzeka ukukhuluma ngamanoveli wabaseshi ngaphandle kokusho umhloli wezithonjana Poirot eyenziwe ngu-Agatha Christie ngezincwadi zakhe eziningi. Olunye uchungechunge lwendawo yonke lwengqimba yile:

  • Izincwadi ze Perry Mason ngu-Erle Stanley Gardner.
  • Izinganekwane zikaSir Arthur Conan Doyle lapho kudlala khona uSherlock Holmes noJohn Watson.

Amanoveli we-Pulp fiction

Zithathwa njengomkhiqizo wentengiso (owenzelwe ukusetshenziswa kwemibhalo ngobuningi) phakathi kokushicilelwa kwabaseshi nezesayensi. I-classic yamanoveli we-pulp fiction yiyona UTarzan nezinkawu (1912) ngu-Edgar Rice Burroughs; enye yamanoveli okuqala athengiswa kakhulu emlandweni. Omunye umsebenzi wemphumela ofanayo kwaba Isiqalekiso seCapistrano (Ngo-1919) nguJohnston McCulley (olingisa u-El Zorro).

Amanoveli asabisayo

Amanoveli asabisayo alandisa ngezehlakalo eziphazamisayo ezihloselwe ukudala ukwesaba kubafundi. UStephen King nge Ukukhanya (1977) kumake ingqophamlando kulesi sigaba esingezansi. Ngokusho kombhali uqobo, isihloko besikhuthazwe yindinyana ethi "Sonke sikhanya ku ..." yengoma I-Karma esheshayo nguJohn Lennon. Kwakuyincwadi yokuqala ethengiswa kakhulu kunazo zonke emlandweni.

Amanoveli kaMistery

Kuyinto engaphansi ehlobene eduze nenoveli yabaseshi. Kubalulekile ukubeka okulandelayo ngombono: wonke amanoveli abaseshi angaphansi kwesigaba esingaqondakali, kepha akuwona wonke amanoveli ayimfihlakalo afakwa ngabaseshi. Lezi zakhiwo zicacile emisebenzini efana ne Igama le-rose ngu-Umberto Eco (futhi kuyinoveli yomlando) futhi Intombazane esitimeleni (2015) nguPaula Hawkins.

Amanoveli eGothic

Amanoveli amaGothic yimisebenzi efaka izinto ezingaphezu kwemvelo, ezesabekayo, kanye / noma eziyimfihlakalo. Ingqikithi ivame ukugxila ekufeni, ekushabalaleni nasekungenakugwemeka kosizi. Isici esivame ukwenziwa kulungiselelwa izindlu ezindala, izakhiwo eziwohlokile (amasonto achithakele noma amathempeli) nezindlu ezihlaselwa abantu.

Phakathi kwezihloko ezaziwa kakhulu kulesi sigaba esingezansi, okulandelayo kugqamile:

  • Indela (1796) nguMathewu G. Lewis.
  • UFrankenstein noma i-Prometheus yanamuhla (1818) nguMary Shelley.
  • Dracula (1897) nguBram Stoker.

Amanoveli eCowboy

I-Los entshonalanga yimisebenzi ebekwe entshonalanga ekude kakhulu ye-United States (esikhathini sempi yombango). Ngaphandle kwempikiswano ejwayelekile ye-cowboy, imvamisa ifaka izingqinamba zabomdabu baseMelika empini yabo nabokufika. Ukuphikisana ngobulungiswa basendaweni nobunzima obutholwe kuma-ranboy ezinkomo ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-XNUMX nakho kujwayelekile.

Phakathi kwe ama-classic amahle amanoveli e-cowboy, bangabizwa ngamagama:

  • I-virginian (1902) ngu-Owen Wister.
  • Inhliziyo yasentshonalanga (1907) nezinganekwane ze- Ubusuku base-Arizona nguStewart Edward White.

Amanoveli ePicaresque

Lesi sigaba samanoveli sinabaphikisi abangahambisani (i-anti-hero noma i-anti-heroine), i-histrionic, ethambekele ekwephuleni imithetho yokuziphatha komphakathi. Ngendlela efanayo, abalingiswa bakhe cishe banobuqili noma banolaka njalo, baphazamisa kalula emikhubeni emibi. Inoveli ye-picaresque ivela ngesikhathi okuthiwa yi-Spanish Golden Age, ngokuba Umhlahlandlela wamaTormes (1564) kubhekwe okokuqala kohlobo lwayo.

Kodwa-ke, imisebenzi kaMateo Alemán yiyona eyasabalalisa lolu hlobo, olubonakala ngesimo sakhe esibucayi maqondana nezinto ezijwayelekile zesikhathi sakhe (ngekhulu le-XNUMX). Yize amanoveli e-picaresque angakhombisa uhlobo oluthile lokuziphatha, lokhu akuyona inhloso enkulu. Mhlawumbe i-classic picaresque novel yakudala yesikhathi sonke UMnumzane Onobuhlakani uDon Quijote waseLa Mancha (1605), nguCervantes.

Amanoveli eSatirical

Ziyizincwadi zamanoveli zabalobi abasebenzisa ukuhlekwa usulu njengomthombo we-neuralgic ukucasula kumfundi ukubonakalisa noma okungenani, ukudala ukungabaza. Lolu hlobo lokuphendula lufuna ukuphakamisa esinye isisombululo esizungeze isimo esithile (esiyinkinga noma esiphazamisayo). Ezinye izibonelo zale subgenus yilezi Ukuhlubuka epulazini nguGeorge Orwell, futhi I-Adventures kaHuckleberry Finn by UMark Twain.

Amanoveli wokufanisa

Njengoba igama lisho, amanoveli angokomfanekiso anesakhiwo esakhiwe ukubhekisa komunye umcimbi (ongaba ngokoqobo) noma isimo. Ngakho-ke, ulimi olusetshenzisiwe lulayishwe uphawu oluhlose ukudala imibuzo yokuziphatha, yezenkolo, yezepolitiki kanye / noma yezenhlalo. Phakathi kwemisebenzi yamanoveli wokuqhathanisa, singasho Nkosi Yezimpukane (1954) nguWilliam Golding.

Incwadi kaGolding iqukethe umyalezo oqinile wokugxekwa emphakathini. Lapho ububi bomuntu buvezwa nguBelzebule, Umuntu wasenganekwaneni waseFilistiya (kamuva owamukelwa yisithonjana sobuKristu). Esinye isibonelo senoveli yokuqhathanisa uchungechunge lwe IziKronike zaseNarnia ngu-CS Lewis (ngenxa yokuqagela kwakhe okungokwenkolo). Kanye ne Ukuhlubuka epulazini ka-Orwell ngokuzindla kwakhe ngokuvukelwa kwezenhlalo).


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

i-bool(iqiniso)