Ama-subgenres wokulandisa

Ama-subgenres wokulandisa.

Ama-subgenres wokulandisa.

Siyaqonda ngezinkulumo ezilandelanayo, ngomqondo waso oyisisekelo, eqenjini ngalinye ngalinye elenza imibhalo elandisayo. Lezi zokugcina zenzelwe ukuxoxa indaba (ngesisekelo sangempela noma cha) ngenhloso yokudlala (ukujabulisa). Ekulandiseni, abalingiswa — imvamisa bengaphandle kombhali— banqunyelwe esikhaleni nesikhathi esithile.

Ezingxenyeni ezilandisayo singathola izinhlobo ezimbili: ezemibhalo nezingezona ezokubhala. Phakathi kwemibhalo elandelwayo ebhaliwe sinendaba, inoveli, indaba, indaba encane, inganekwane, inganekwane nenganekwane. Lokhu kulayishwa ngomsebenzi obizwa ngokuthi wunkondlo, okungeyona into ngaphandle kwesisetshenziswa esivumela ukunika amandla umlayezo okhishiwe. Ngokuqondene nemibhalo elandelwayo engeyona eyemibhalo, ingeyomuntu uqobo. Singathola phakathi kwabo izincwadi, amaphephandaba, ama-imeyili.

Udaba

Kungumlando omfishane wezehlakalo eziqanjiwe lapho inani elincane labalingiswa libamba iqhaza ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo okulula ukusiqonda. Ngakho-ke, ukuthuthukiswa kwendaba kunesakhiwo esilula futhi esihlelekile. Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zezindaba:

Izindabuko noma izinganekwane

Umbhali ongaziwa, udluliswa ngesiko lomlomo (ikakhulukazi) izizukulwane ngezizukulwane. Ngokunjalo, ngokuya ngendaba, izinganekwane zabantu zingaba:

  • Kwezilwane
  • Womlingo
  • Amahlaya noma ama-anecdotes
  • Abanoveli
  • Ezenkolo

Izinganekwane zemibhalo

Umbhali owaziwayo futhi ushicilelwe ngendlela ebhaliwe. Phakathi kwezichasisi zalesi sizathu, ezinye izihloko zabalobi abakhulu baseLatin America zigqamile. Bangabizwa ngokuthi: "Ukulandelwa kwegazi lakho eqhweni", nguGabriel García Márquez; "El Aleph", kaJorge Luis Borges; "A la deriva", nguHoracio Quiroga; "Axolotl", kaJulio Cortázar.

Umusho kaJorge Luis Borges.

Umusho kaJorge Luis Borges.

Indaba elwa noKhisimusi

Inganekwane elwa noKhisimusi iguqula amanani wendabuko kaKhisimusi ngendaba elayishwe ama-ironies, amahlaya amnyama nemicimbi esabekayo. Imvamisa umbalisi usebenzisa isichazamazwi esisodwa ukuchaza izehlakalo. Lezi zici ezilandisayo ziyabonakala ku- "Les Foufs" ngumbhali waseCanada uYvan Bienvenue.

Udaba

Kuyindatshana emfushane enesakhiwo esiphikisayo (ngenkulumo eyodwa noma ngaphezulu), entula ukuhleleka okuhlelekile kwendaba. Imvamisa, izindaba zingumkhiqizo wokhuthazo lwesikhashana noma isisusa sokugcina, lapho amaqiniso achazwa ngokunembile. Nazi ezinye zezindaba zaseMelika zaseSpain ezaziwa kakhulu:

  • "Omunye uzophupha", nguJorge Luis Borges.
  • "Amor 77", nguJulio Cortázar.
  • "UDuelo", ngu-Alfonso Reyes.
  • "Etching", nguRubén Darío.
  • "Idrama yabangakholwanga", nguGabriel García Márquez.

Indaba emincane

Ebizwa nangokuthi i-micro-story, Ngumbhalo obhalwe ngeprozi emfushane kakhulu onempikiswano eyinsumansumane, eyakhiwe ngolimi oluqondile nolubambekayo. Ngokunjalo, i-ellipsis ivame ukusetshenziswa endabeni encane njengesisetshenziswa esiyintandokazi yokumangaza umfundi.

Inoveli

Ukulandiswa okunwetshiwe kwemicimbi yesimo sokucabanga, okuhlala kufaka phakathi inkhulumomphendvulwano kanye nesinqumo. Amanoveli ngokuvamile anamagama okungenani ayizinkulungwane ezingamashumi ayisithupha abhalwe ngephrozi. Manje, phakathi kwezigaba kungaba nezinkondlo lapho indaba ikuvuma. Ngokufanayo, ukujula kwabalingiswa kukhulu kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nokwendaba noma kwendaba.

Izinhlokwana eziyinhloko zamanoveli

Inoveli enhle:

Kuzo abalingiswa abaphambili bayizidalwa ezingezona ezingokoqobo futhi isenzo senzeka emhlabeni wokucabanga noma endaweni yonke. Ngalo mqondo, ama-sagas afana INkosi yezindandatho de JRR Tolkien y Ingoma yomlilo neqhwa UGeorge RR Martin yizihloko ezimbili zamanoveli ezaziwa kakhulu zanoma yisiphi isikhathi. Lokhu kukhombisa ukukhula okukhulu kwalesi sigaba sezikhathi ezikhathini zanamuhla.

Inoveli yefilosofi:

Kubonakala ngokuphikisana komqondo ophakanyiswe ngumbhali (Kungahlobene nesimo esithile, ukuhlaziywa kokuziphatha komlingiswa noma ngomcimbi). Ngemuva kwalokho, lo mbhali ofanayo udalula okuphikisanayo futhi aphethe ngokuhlanganiswa okususelwa kulokho kuphikisana kwemibono. Izincwadi ezimbili ezaziwa kakhulu kule subgenre yilezi Ngakho-ke uSpoke Zarathustra (1883) nguFriedrich Nietzsche no I-nausea (1938), nguJean-Paul Sartre.

Inoveli yabaseshi:

Njengoba igama lisho, kulolu hlobo lwamanoveli umlingiswa oyinhloko imvamisa uyiphoyisa noma umphenyi ogxile ekuxazululeni ubugebengu. Mayelana nalokhu, i-CWA (Criminal Writers Association) ibheka ukuthi ama-3 aphezulu alesi sigaba sakhiwe: Indodakazi yesikhathi (1951), nguJosephine Tey; Iphupho elikhulu (1939) nguRaymond Chandler; Y Inhloli eyavela emakhazeni (1963), nguJohn le Carré.

Inoveli yezengqondo:

Kafka ogwini.

Kafka ogwini.

Ungathenga incwadi lapha: Kafka ogwini

Kuyinto eyodwa ebonakaliswa ukulandisa okugxile emicabangweni noma emhlabeni wangaphakathi womuntu oyedwa noma ngaphezulu wabalingiswa. Esinye sezihloko zakamuva futhi ezivelele ngaphakathi kwalesi sizukulwana sithi Kafka ogwini (2002), nguHaruki Murakami.

Inoveli engokoqobo:

Ngaphandle kokwethula abalingiswa abasungulwe ngumlobi, Luhlobo lwenoveli imininingwane yayo yokuthuthuka enemicimbi engenzeka noma engenzeka empilweni yangempela.

Inoveli epinki:

Yibo labo isihloko sabo esikhulu uthando. Enye yamanoveli adume kakhulu esikhathi sonke - futhi futhi aguqulelwe ngempumelelo esikrinini esikhulu - yi Ukuziqhenya nokubandlulula (1813), nguJane Austen.

Ezinye izinhlobo zamanoveli eziqondene nesikhathi esithile, umbhali noma inkolo

I-nívola:

Miguel de Unamuno.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Luhlobo lwenoveli eyasungulwa ngumlobi waseSpain Miguel de Unamuno, othuthukise ukulandisa okubanzi lapho isenzo sidlula kumonologues angenakwenzeka kakhulu wabalingisi abakhulu. Ngisho nakumantshi Inkungu (1914), umbhali waseBasque waveza imicabango yenja.

Inoveli yamaMoor:

Le ndlela engaphansi yenoveli yavela ngekhulu le-XNUMX ihlukaniswa yiprozi yokulandisa enezihloko ezinemibono kanye nabalingisi bayo abangamaSulumane. Bethula izibonelo zokuhlalisana ngokuthula phakathi kwamaMoor namaKrestu.

Inoveli eningi:

Leli gama laqanjwa yisazi sefilosofi saseRussia kanye nomgxeki wezincwadi uMikhail Bakhtin ekubuyekezweni kwakhe okunesihloko esithi Izinkinga zePoetics kaDostoevsky (1936). Le ncwadi iphakamisa isidingo sohlobo olusha lwenoveli, lapho kuba khona ukuhilizisana okwehlukene phakathi kokubukwa komhlaba okuhlukahlukene noma imigomo ehlanganiswe izinhlamvu ezahlukahlukene.

Ezinye izinhlobo zenoveli

  • Impi.
  • IByzantine.
  • Kwaziwa.
  • Inkantolo.
  • Ithisisi.
  • I-Picaresque.
  • I-Satirical.

Leyenda

Luhlobo lokulandisa —cishe luhlale luwuhlobo lomlomo— lapho imicimbi engaphezu kwemvelo iphathwa njengokungathi yenzekile ngempela. Ngakho-ke, inhloso yezinganekwane (ukuzama) ukuthola incazelo enengqondo ngomcimbi ongaqondakali noma ongenangqondo.

Mito

Kuyindaba enenkanyezi eyodwa noma ngaphezulu yamaqhawe avela emasikweni athuthukile (amaGrikhi, amaRoma, amaGibhithe, amaMaya ...). Okungukuthi, amalungu endaba angonkulunkulu, onkulunkulu noma onkulunkulu abanokulandiswa kwama-epic okudluliswa ngomlomo. Isibonelo: inganekwane yokuzalwa kuka-Aphrodite (inganekwane yamaGrikhi) noma indaba yama-Aluxes (inganekwane yamaMaya).

Inganekwane

Kuyindaba elandelwayo ngephrozi (kungabuye kube sevesini) izilwane ezinenkanyezi ezibandakanya uhlobo oluthile lokuziphatha komuntu. Kuphi inhloso enkulu ukushiya isifundo sokuziphatha noma sokugcina. Ngalesi sizathu, izinganekwane zivame ukusetshenziswa njengengxenye yezindaba zezingane. Isibonelo: inganekwane kanogwaja nofudu.

Imibhalo elandisayo engeyona eyemibhalo

Imibhalo yobuntatheli

Ngokungahluleki, umbhalo wezintatheli kufanele ukhombise ngokuqinile imininingwane ehlobene nomcimbi wangempela. Ngakho-ke, ulimi kumele lucace futhi lube mfushane, ukuze kwenziwe lula ukuqonda komfundi. Ngokufanayo - ngaphandle kokuthi kuyisiqeshana semibono - ukubhekabheka kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu.

Imibhalo yomuntu siqu

Lokhu kuyindaba elandelanayo, enengxenye ephezulu yemizwa yomxoxi wendaba. Zibonakaliswa ngokulandelana kwemicimbi ethembekile.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Rodrigo kusho

    Inoveli yezinkantolo kufanele ifakwe ezindabeni ezimfushane noma kwinoveli emfushane okungenani, ukuyihlukanisa ne-Byzantine, izincwadi ze-chivalric, njll. https://ralatosmb.blogspot.com/