UManolito Gafotas

UManolito Gafotas.

UManolito Gafotas.

UManolito Gafotas Kwakuyincwadi yokuqala yezingane yombhali weCadiz nentatheli u-Elvira Lindo. Abalingisi bayo abaphambili bavela njengabalingiswa bomsakazo abazwi labo lalinikezwa bona uqobo. Kuze kube manje, lolu chungechunge lunezincwadi eziyisishiyagalombili (kanye nokuhlanganiswa okukodwa) okushicilelwe phakathi kuka-1994 no-2012.

Ngokusho kukaSonia Sierra Infante, umlingiswa kaManolito Gafotas "ungomunye wemigqa emikhulu yesiko laseSpain emashumini eminyaka amuva nje." Inkulumo kaSierra Infante kumqondo wakhe wobudokotela Okuphezulu kanye nokujula emsebenzini ka-Elvira Lindo (2009), kukhombisa ngokuphelele ukubaluleka komsebenzi.

Mayelana nomlobi, u-Elvira Lindo

U-Elvira Lindo Garrido wazalelwa eCádiz, eSpain, ngoJanuwari 23, 1962. Maphakathi nawo-70 wathutha nomndeni wakhe wayohlala eMadrid. Enhlokodolobha yaseSpain, waqeda isikole samabanga aphezulu futhi waqala umsebenzi wakhe wobuntatheli eComplutense University of Madrid. Umsebenzi wakhe emsakazweni waqala esemncane kakhulu - eneminyaka engu-19 - njengommemezeli nombhali wombhalo weSpanish National Radio.

Ngo-1994, ukushicilelwa kwe- UManolito Gafotas bekumele ukungena okuhle kumkhakha wokubhala. Hhayi ngeze, Izidwedwe ezingcolile zikaManolito Gafotas ngo-1998 wathola Umklomelo Kazwelonke Wezincwadi Zabantwana Nentsha. Ngaphandle kwe UManolito Gafotas, ULindo ushicilele ishumi nanye izincwadi zezingane (kufaka phakathi uchungechunge Olivia), izihloko ezilandelanayo zabantu abadala eziyisishiyagalolunye, imisebenzi emine engeyona eqanjiwe, imidlalo emithathu, nemidlalo yesikrini eminingi.

UGenesise kaManolito

Ngamazwi ka-Elvira Lindo, umlingiswa uManolito Gafotas "wazalwa ngesifiso sokuzijabulisa emsebenzini wami emsakazweni." Kamuva, kwondliwa yimicimbi esuselwa ebuntwaneni nakwezinye izici zobuntu bomlobi uqobo. Uyanezela, “abalingiswa bamahlaya banjalo, bazalwa ngabazenzayo futhi banezindawo zangaphakathi ezinesiphepho esikhulu. Bahlale becabanga ngesikhundla abakuso emhlabeni ”.

ULindo uveze ezinkulumweni ezahlukahlukene ukuthi impumelelo kaManolito ibingalindelekile. Mayelana nalokhu, imvelaphi yomsakazo kaManolito mhlawumbe ibibaluleke kakhulu. Ngoba inikeza izici zomsebenzi wezwi langaphakathi ngaphakathi kwesitayela sokulandisa okulula ukusiqonda. Ngasikhathi sinye, kuyizwi eliwuketshezi kakhulu, eliphikelelayo, eligcina yonke incazelo, elinokungenelela okuqondile ukunika isikhala ezingxenyeni ezihlekisayo.

UManolito Gafotas (1994)

Encwadini yokuqala, i-protagonist ilandisa izindaba eziningana ezifanayo, ezingahlobene ezenzeka edolobheni laseCarabanchel Alto. Lezi zindaba zinendawo enganqunyelwe yokulandelana kwezikhathi phakathi kosuku lwabo lokuqala lwesikole kanye no-Ephreli 14, usuku lokuzalwa kukayisemkhulu. Usuku aluzange lwenzeke ngengozi (usuku lokumenyezelwa kweRiphabhulikhi Yesibili) njengoba lufanekisela ngobuqili izintandokazi zepolitiki zomndeni wakwaManolito.

Isici esibalulekile ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo sokulandisa ukubukeka okuhle kwe-protagonist, okudluliselwa ngemvelo ejwayelekile yengqondo yobuntwana. Kodwa-ke, ngaphansi kwalokho kubonakala okungenamqondo, kuvezwa izimfanelo zokuqonda, umusa nokuzibophezela kubantu abaseduze. Konke okushiwo ku "i-encyclopedia enkulu" ngempilo kaManolito.

Elvira Muhle.

Elvira Muhle.

UMandla Manolito (1995)

Kwivolumu yesibili ye "encyclopedia enkulu" yempilo yakhe, uManolito uyakubona ukugqama kwakhe njengomuntu obala. Isandulela sichaza ubudlelwano phakathi kwabalingiswa abasencwadini eyedlule nalabo abavele kulesi sitolimende. Vele, umngani wakhe omkhulu uPaquito Medina ubaluleke kakhulu (futhi umbonge) ngokulungisa amaphutha angama-325 ayewenzile.

En UMandla Manolito, kunokuqhubeka okuthile phakathi kwezahluko ezithi "Anti Melitona" kanye "no-Anti Melitona: ukubuya", okugcwele amahlaya amaningi. Isahluko sokuvala sale ncwadi sithi "A White White." Lapho, ukwesaba kwe-protagonist kuyambamba ngokulandelana okuhle kakhulu lapho ezama ukufihla okungenakugwemeka: uhlulekile izibalo.

Molo kanjani! (1996)

Lesi sitolimende sibuye siqale ngokwethula isikhathi eside. Kuyo, uManolito uchaza umfana ofunde umqulu wesibili we-encyclopedia yakhe wafika eCarabanchel Alto. Umlingiswa omusha okukhulunywa ngaye uphakamisa ukungabaza okuningi nge-protagonist. Okugqugquzela uManolito ukuthi aqedele — ngosizo lomngani wakhe othembekile uPaquito Medina— isihlahla sakhe sohlu lozalo esigcwele imibono emihle kakhulu.

Ngokufanayo, in Molo kanjani! "al Mustaza" kwethulwa, ofunda naye ekilasini likaManolito ngaphandle kokubaluleka okukhulu ezincwadini ezedlule. Umugqa wokulandisa uqhubeka nezehlakalo ze UMandla Manolito (inkinga yakhe ngezibalo) futhi yakhelwe ngokulandelana kwesikhathi sehlobo.

Ukuwashwa okungcolile (1997)

Ukubaluleka kukaManolito njengomuntu ovelele kumholela ekutheni acabange ngokulahleka kwemfihlo esandulelweni sevolumu yakhe yesine. Lolu hlobo lodumo lwasekhaya luqala ukuthinta izihlobo zakhe (ikakhulukazi umama wakhe lapho eya emakethe). Ngalesi sizathu, umlingiswa ophambili uhlangabezana neziqephu zehlazo ezisetshenziselwa ukuxuba okungokoqobo nokuqanjiwe ngokuvela kombhali uqobo.

ULindo uzibonakalisa njengowesifazane ohahayo osebenzisa ukuvelela kukaManolito ukuze azuze kwi "realiti-chous" yakhe. Okubi kakhulu yimali ebekelwe umndeni kaManolito: uziro. Ingqikithi ejwayelekile ye- Ukuwashwa okungcolile igxila ezimweni zengqondo ezinikezelwe - ngamazwi ka-Elvira Lindo - kwabancane, umona nomona.

Manolito emgwaqeni (1997)

Le ncwadi yehlukaniswe nezinye ezikuchungechunge ngenxa yokulandisa kwayo okuqondile komzila owenziwe nguManolito. Manolito emgwaqeni Siqukethe izingxenye ezintathu. Iqala ngo- "Adiós Carabanchel (Alto)"; Lesi sahluko sikhuluma ngendlela uManolo (ubaba wakhe) anquma ngayo ukuthatha izingane zakhe ukuyokwenza lula ihlobo likaCatalina (umama wakhe).

Ngokusobala, umama ompofu akakwazanga ukubekezelela esinye isikhathi seholide esivaliwe endaweni ebekezelela ububi nokulwa okuqhubekayo kwezingane zakhe. Noma kunjalo, ku- "Japan Week" uManolito kanye ne-Imbécil (umfowabo omncane) benza izinto eziningi ezimbi ngaphakathi esitolo. Isahluko sokugcina esithi, "El zorro de la Malvarrosa" sivala lencwadi ngobuciko obuningi bezinhlekelele kanye ne-paella ogwini lwaseValencian.

Mina nojele (1999)

Kusukela ekuqaleni, u-Elvira Lindo ufakazela ngesihloko sakhe inhloso yakhe yokuqhubeka nokuhlola kwakhe izindaba eziphathelene "nokunemba kwezepolitiki". Ngenxa yenhlonipho kufanele kube "yimi nembongolo." Kepha le nkulumo iguqulwa ngamabomu ukuze iveze inzondo ye-protagonist kumfowabo omncane. Le ncwadi ihlukaniswe izingxenye ezintathu: "Abazukulu bakho abakukhohlwa", "Izingane ezimbili ezilahliwe" kanye "nobusuku obuyinkulungwane nobusuku obunye".

Amagama alezi zingxenye amele ngokunembile imizwa kaManolito ne-Imbécil. Yize isimo - ukuhlinzwa kwendlala kamkhulu - kungasinciphisi isifiso sokwenza okubi kwabancane. Ngokuphambene nalokho, izingane zithola ukungahambisani nabantu abadala ezibazungezile, kubangele izimo ezihlekisa kakhulu.

UManolito unemfihlo (2002)

Kuyinto ukulethwa ebukhali yonke Saga. Izahluko zayo zikhuluma ngokuhambela kukameya waseMadrid esikoleni iCarabanchel Alto. Umcimbi ukudalula ngokusobala ukugxekwa kuka-Elvira Lindo ngalolu hlobo lomsebenzi. Okufaka ukucindezela okungadingekile ezinganeni ngenxa yokulindelwa ngabantu abadala. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ingcindezi engokwengqondo ebhekene nezingane ingahle ibhekwe njengokuhlukumeza.

Ngokufanayo, umbhali ugcizelela ubuzenzisi bosopolitiki. Labo abasebenzisa lolu hlobo lwenkomfa ukwenza amaproselithe futhi bathethelele ukuhlela okunempikiswano. Kuyinto Le ncwadi inokuqhubeka ku- "The flying Chinese", indaba ekhishwe nguLindo ku Izwe lamasonto onke. Uchaza ukwamukelwa kwengane entsha emndenini ngokombono kaMoron (ombona njengomShayina onezimfanelo zenja).

Umusho ka-Elvira Lindo.

Umusho ka-Elvira Lindo.

UManolo omuhle kakhulu (2012)

Sekudlule iminyaka eyishumi. Isikhwele esidalwe nguMoron yinto yesikhathi esedlule ngoba "uChirly" ukhiphe umfowabo omncane esihlalweni sobukhosi njengomuntu owonakele kakhulu emndenini. Ukukhula kukaManolo nakho kusho ukuqonda okungcono (nokuzidela) kokusebenza kukayise uManolo ukondla ikhaya lakhe. Ngokunjalo, uManolito akasamboni unina uCatalina njengomjezisi wenkohlakalo; ubonga kakhulu abazali bakhe.

Abanye abalingiswa abayizithonjana zochungechunge abantuleki kule ncwadi: umkhulu, agcina isibopho esibaluleke kakhulu. "Ama-orejones", i-Jihad, noma isimanga sesici se-protagonist noma izingxenye ezigcwele amahlaya angempela akuhluleki ukuqokwa. UManolo omuhle kakhulu Imele ukuthintwa kokuqedwa komlingiswa othandwa kakhulu yizingane nabantu abadala abavela kulo lonke elaseSpain.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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