Isifinyezo sempilo siyiphupho

UPedro Calderon de la Barca.

UPedro Calderon de la Barca.

Impilo Iphupho Kubhekwa njengengxenye emele kakhulu yaseshashalazini yaseCalderonian. Lo msebenzi wakhonjiswa eMadrid ngo-1635. Ngaleso sikhathi, ukumiswa enhlokodolobha yaseSpain kwenzeka emagcekeni avulekile angunxande (amamitha ayi-15 - 17 ububanzi namamitha angama-30 kuya kwangu-40 ubude), ezungezwe izindlu ezinamabhalkhoni.

Ngokufanayo, lo msebenzi uyisibonelo sakudala semidlalo yobuciko, iphethwe izingqikithi zefilosofi nezingxoxo ngempilo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kulezi zinhlobo zezethulo isimo siveza ukungafani kwemicabango ephikisayo, kanye nokwanda kwempucuko ngobubi (ukungazi).

Mayelana nomlobi, uPedro Calderón de la Barca

Igama lakhe eligcwele nguPedro ICalderón de la Barca kanye noBarreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño Wabona ukukhanya okokuqala eMadrid, ngoJanuwari 17, 1600. Wayengowesithathu ezinganeni eziyisithupha (ababili bashona besebancane) zomshado phakathi kukaDiego Calderón no U-Ana María de Henao, bobabili bomndeni ohloniphekile. Wafunda izincwadi, imfundiso yenkolo, isiLatini nesiGreki e-Imperial College yamaJesuit eMadrid.

Lapho eneminyaka engu-14, wabhaliswa e-University of Alcalá, kodwa kwadingeka ayeke izifundo zakhe ngenxa yezinkinga zomndeni. Kamuva, Wakwazi ukuqhubeka nokuqeqeshwa kwakhe kwezemfundo eNyuvesi yaseSalamanca, lapho athola khona iziqu zakhe ze-bachelor kuCanon Law kanye ne-Civil (1619). Ngo-1621, wangenela inkonzo yezempi ukuze afosele izikweletu zomndeni futhi asize abafowabo.

Wezempi, umfundisi nomlobi wemidlalo

Yize eminye imithombo ikhomba Ihlathi elididayo (1622) njengesiqephu sakhe sokuqala esizokwaziswa, amahlaya Uthando, udumo namandla (1623) kwakuyisihloko esamenza waziwa. Kusuka lapho, ukwazile ukuhlanganisa umsebenzi wakhe wezempi nendalo yakhe emangalisayo. Eqinisweni, waqanjwa njengoK Knight we-Order of Santiago futhi wahlonishwa ngomsebenzi wakhe njengesosha eFuenterrabía (1638) naseCatalonia (1640).

Futhi, Wabekwa njengompristi (1651), umfundisi waseReyes Nuevos de Toledo (1653) nomfundisi ohloniphekile wenkosi (1663). Futhi - ngenxa yendalo yakhe ehlukahlukene, ecebile futhi enobuciko - ngawo-1640 waba ngumbhali wemidlalo ohlonishwa kakhulu ngesikhathi sakhe.

Umsebenzi wakhe, ngamafuphi

Eminye imithombo efana neRuiza et. ku- (2004) kusuka kwingosi Imilando nokuphila, uqinisekisa ukuthi uPedro Calderón de la Barca wenza ukubala kwendalo yakhe ngaphambi nje kokufa kwakhe (Meyi 1681). Umsebenzi wakhe uhlanganisa "amahlaya ayikhulu namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye nama-autos sacramentales ayisishiyagalombili, izindumiso, ama-hors d'oeuvres neminye imisebenzi emincane."

Izici zeshashalazi laseCalderonian

La Ukwakheka kwetiyetha kweCalderonian itholakale phakathi nesikhathi sezimbali. Kubonakala ngezinga elimangalisayo lokuphelela kobuchwepheshe, kanye nesitayela esisangulukisayo, ngenani elincishisiwe labalingiswa kanye ne-eksisi ecacile yesakhiwo ezungeze i-protagonist. I-Sigismund edabukile ye Impilo Iphupho mhlawumbe ungowendawo yonke phakathi kwabo bonke abalingiswa bayo abakhulu.

Isifinyezo se- Impilo Iphupho

Impilo Iphupho.

Impilo Iphupho.

Ungathenga incwadi lapha: Impilo Iphupho

Lo msebenzi umelela ukujwayela ebuKristwini umyalo wamaBuddha womuntu olele ophapheme. Noma kunjalo, isimilo ngokungangabazeki sikhombisa imfundiso yobuKrestu: ubungqayizivele bempilo yasemhlabeni —Iphupho lesikhashana nje — uma kuqhathaniswa nempilo yangemva kokufa.

Lezi zingqikithi zethulwa ngokuxuba ngobuciko kwefilosofi enkulu namahlaya nguCalderón de la Barca. Ngokwengeziwe, ngesikhathi sokumelwa abanye abalingiswa bavela ezicashile ezahlukahlukene ngenhloso yokwandisa ukungaqiniseki kwesibukeli mayelana nokuthi yimiphi imicimbi engokoqobo futhi eyi-ethereal.

Isiboshwa

UBasilio, inkosi yasePoland, uthola nge-horoscope isibonakaliso sokuthi indodana yakhe uSigismund izoba ngumashiqela. Ngalesi sizathu, umvalela emgodini ongaphansi kombhoshongo. Lapho, inkosana yomqhele iqalekisa inhlanhla ngenkathi iboshwe ngamaketanga, ithi ayikaze yenze noma yiliphi icala. Ngalesi sizathu, ugcwele intukuthelo futhi ufisa ukubulala izinhloli ezimbili okusolwa ukuthi ziye zafika kuye.

Abazona izinhloli ngempela, bayiMuscovite Rosaura - ngokufihla komuntu - noClarín, inceku yakhe. Labo abafike emaphandleni ngezinyawo ngoba ihhashi lowesifazane liphunyuke ngendlela engaqondakali. Kamuva, USigismund uzwela uRosaura futhi wamukela isicelo sakhe somusa.

Unogada

UClotaldo, unogada wombhoshongo, ugqekeza ukujezisa abantu bangaphandle ngoba noma yikuphi ukuxhumana nesiboshwa kujeziswa ngokufa. Kepha umlindikazi uyanqikaza ukwenza umsebenzi wasebukhosini lapho uRosaura emkhombisa inkemba ehlobene nokwedlule kukaClotaldo. Yebo, wayinika isithandwa sakhe uViolette ngesithembiso sokubona indodana yakhe ethwele inkemba.

Ukucasulwa ukuthi kungenzeka abulale indodana yakhe (uRosaura transvestite), UClotaldo uthatha iziboshwa phambi kwenkosi azicele umusa. Khonamanjalo, inkosi ijabule ngokufika kwabashana bayo u-Astolfo (uMbusi waseMoscovia) no-Estrella bezoqedela izinhlelo zakhe zokulandela. Lesi sakamuva siyasola ngendondo eyaphathwa yinduna ngesithombe sowesifazane.

Ukuhlolwa

Ngomzuzu weqiniso, iNkosi uBasilio yasheshe yadalula laba abasha kanye nasenkantolo ngobukhona bendodana engokwemvelo. Ngokulinganayo, Inkosi ikungabaza ukubikezela kokuqala ngomlingiswa wobushiqela wenzalo yakhe. Ngakho-ke, unquma ukwenza ucwaningo ngaphambi kokulindela kwabo bonke abantu bakhe: lalisa uSigismund, adalule imvelaphi yakhe yangempela futhi amhlalise esihlalweni sobukhosi usuku lonke.

Ukuhlonishwa kukaRosaura

UBasilio umemezela ukuthi ukuxhumana noSigismund akusekho ukujeziswa. Ngaleso sikhathi, uClotaldo ufuna ukuziveza njengoyise womuntu ophethe inkemba, kepha uRosaura (osazifihlile) uthi uzele ukuhlangana no-Astolfo ukuziphindiselela udumo lwakhe. Ngemuva kwalokho, URosaura wembula ukuthi ungowesifazane futhi uhamba nenceku yakhe. Ngemuva kwalokho - esevele eguqule izingubo zakhe - uzenza umshana kaClotaldo.

Inkosi ngosuku

USigismund olele uholelwa egumbini lokulala lasebukhosini futhi ugqoke umvunulo wenkosi. Lapho evuka udidekile kakhulu futhi akamazi neze umqaphi wombhoshongo afisa ukumbulala. Kamuva, umqhele wenkosi uziphatha kabi izisebenzi (uphonsa noyedwa ngefasitela) no-Astolfo.

Inkosi ifunda ngokuziphatha okungenangqondo kwendodana yayo, ngenxa yalokho, iyisiboshwa sokuphelelwa yithemba ngoba yenqaba ukwamukela iziphrofetho ngendlalifa yayo. Noma kunjalo, Lapho uBasilio ezama ukwamukela uSigismund, uyamenqaba ngenkathi efuna ilungelo lakhe elingenakuphikiswa lokubusa. Ngaleso sikhathi, uBasilio umtshela ukuthi mhlawumbe "kuyiphupho nje."

Buyela embhoshongweni

USigismund ujatshuliswa ubuhle bukaRosaura futhi uzama ukumyenga ngemisho ethophayo. Yize lapho eyilahla, isikhulu sithumela zonke izisebenzi zendawo ukuthi ziyomthatha ngenkani. Ukuhlukumeza ekugcineni kumiswa nguClotaldo bese kuba nokulwa okuthi ngisho no-Astolfo akakwazi ukuyeka. Inkosi kuphela ekwazi ukuqeda umncintiswano.

UBasilio uyala ukuba indodana yakhe iphinde ilaliswe. Uma esesembhoshongweni, uClarín ubuye waboshwa ngoba wazi kakhulu ngale ndaba. Ngasikhathi sinye, uClotaldo uchazela uSigismund ukuthi usuku lwakhe esihlalweni sobukhosi lwaluyinkohliso. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, isikhulu asihlukanisi iphupho kahle neqiniso, ngakho-ke, liyaqonda ukuthi kufanele liziphathe kahle.

Isihlalo sobukhosi esiphikisanayo

URosaura no-Estrella basuka e-Astolfo lapho bethola amaqhinga akhe othando ngenxa yesithombe (sokuqala) esilengiswe entanyeni yombusi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, isixuku sabantu abavamile sifinyelela embhoshongweni ukuyokhulula uClarín (bakholelwa ngephutha ukuthi uyinkosi). Okuningi, Lapho kuvela uSigismund, isixuku sithi sifisa lowo ozothatha izintambo esikhundleni sobukhosi nokuthi bakulungele ukumlwela.

Ukucaphuna kukaPedro Calderon de la Barca.

Ukucaphuna kukaPedro Calderon de la Barca.

Inkosana yomqhele iyakwazi ukuzilawula futhi iziphathe kahle (namanje ingazi noma iyaphupha noma cha), ngisho nomuntu impilo kaClotaldo owesulile. Okwamanje, Esigodlweni saseClarín wazisa u-Astolfo no-Estrella ngemicimbi. Abantu bahlukene phakathi kwalabo abahlala bethembekile kuBasilio ngokumelene nalabo abasekeli bakaSigismund.

Isixazululo

Ngesikhathi sempi, uRosaura ubonakala enkundleni ezoncenga uSigismund ukuthi amsize abulale u-Astolfo (ngaleyo ndlela ahlenge udumo lwakhe). Uma impi isiqalile, UClarín ubulawa ukuqhuma kwesibhamu kanti uBasilio uyaqonda ukuthi akakwazi ukubhekana nendodana yakhe. Ngalesi sizathu, unikela ezinyaweni zakho. Kodwa lesi siprofetho asigcwaliseki ngendlela elindelekile.

USigismund akayena undlovukayiphikiswa, ufinyelela kuyise amvuse. Ekugcineni, indodana imenyezelwa njengomlandeli osemthethweni owamukelwa ngabahlali nenkantolo.. Ngaphezu kwalokho, inkosi entsha ishiya wonke umuntu ejabule: ubuyisela inhlonipho kaRosaura ngokumshada no-Astolfo futhi yena uqobo ucela isandla sika-Estrella, osamukelayo.

Impilo Iphupho

Ekugcineni, USigismund uchaza izizathu zenguquko yakhe emangalisayo: wafunda ukuba yinkosi elungile ngephupho. Ngakho-ke, uma ubukhona basemhlabeni bomuntu kuyinkohliso, ufisa ukusizakala ngaleyo nkani engukuphila ukuze asebenze njengombusi olungile.

Ucezu

"Kodwa, yiqiniso noma uphuphe,

ukwenza kahle yilokho okubalulekile.

Ukube bekuyiqiniso, ngokuba yiyo;

uma kungenjalo, ukuwina abangane

ngoba lapho sivuka ”.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UGustavo Woltmann kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, ichaza kahle umsebenzi osudlulele esikhathini sethu nokuthi namuhla uyaqhubeka nokumangaza nokujabulisa.
    - UGustavo Woltmann.