Incwadi enhle kunazo zonke emhlabeni

Iyiphi incwadi enhle kunazo zonke emhlabeni? Mhlawumbe kubasebenzi benkolo impendulo esobala kungaba yi-The Bible, The Torah, noma i-Qur'an. Yize kuyimibhalo yokusebenza kwaphakade futhi igcwele izindaba ezilandiswa kahle, ukukhetha okukodwa kuphela kuzo kudala impikiswano ngezenkolo (akudingekile). Ngakho-ke - ngokususelwa ekubukeni kokuhlaziywa kwemibhalo - abakwazi ukuba ngabaqokelwe umehluko onjalo.

Ngokunjalo, ukuphakamisa umbhalo ngokuthi "owokuqala" kubo bonke abantu kuyindaba - eqinisekile - engaphansi. (Ngaphandle kokuthi kuyindaba yezindaba zezibalo, isibonelo: inani lamakhophi athengisiwe). Ngalezi zizathu, Kule ndatshana, izihloko eziningana ziphakanyiswa ngokususelwa ekubalulekeni kwazo ngokomlando nasekusebenzeni kwazo ezincwadini zomhlaba jikelele.

Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605), nguMiguel de Cervantes

Ukuhlanganiswa komlando womlobi

Cervantes Wazalelwa e-Alcalá de Henares, eSpain, ngo-1547. Kusukela esemncane kakhulu wakhombisa ukuba nentshisekelo ngeLiterature, waqala ngezinkondlo. Kamuva, Ohambweni oludumile oluya e-Italy, wafunda izinkondlo ezithile ze-chivalric ezathonya ukwakheka kamuva kwe- I-Quixote. Umbhali uphinde wasebenza eMpini yaseLepanto ebuthweni lamaKrestu, nokuyiqiniso elibuye lashukumisa ipeni lakhe.

Ngemuva kokubuyela eSpain waboshwa e-Algiers ngo-1575. Ngenkathi evalelwe wahlushwa yizo zonke izinhlobo zezehlakalo. Lapho ekhululwa, wazinikela emisebenzini ehlukahlukene futhi wabhala I-galatea, umsebenzi wakhe wokuqala omkhulu. Kamuva, waphinde waboshwa ngo-1597.

Kulokho kuboshwa kwesibili, uCervantes wakhulelwa i- I-Quixote, opera wakhe omkhulu. Ushone eMadrid ngo-1616 eneminyaka engama-68.

Ukuhambisana komsebenzi

UMnumzane Onobuhlakani uDon Quijote waseLa Mancha, ingxenye yayo yokuqala eyanyatheliswa ngo-1605, ebhekwa njenge- umsebenzi wokuphayona wenoveli yesimanje. Lokhu kungenxa yesakhiwo esiyingozi nokuhlangana kwamanoveli, lokho kufaka izindaba, "amanoveli" nokufakwa kwezinye izinhlobo ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo esiphakathi.

Ngokufanayo, Don Quixote de la Mancha kwakha ingqopha-mlando ebaluleke kakhulu yokuhlanganiswa kolimi lwaseSpain; okungukuthi, ulimi lwesizwe esivela. Iqiniso lokuthi phakathi nekhulu leshumi nanhlanu amakhosi aseSpain akwazi ukuxosha amaSulumane nokutholakala kweMelika kwenzeka, kwenza kwaba lula ngoDon Quixote ukuthi kamuva asebenze njengombonisi omkhulu wezincwadi waseCastilian.

Ukhuluma ngani uDon Quixote?

I-hidalgo evela eLa Mancha iyahlanya ngokufunda kakhulu amanoveli e-chivalric, ize ifike ezingeni lokuzihlomisa njenge-knight errant, yize lelo hhovisi lase linyamalele. Ngakho-ke, u-Alonso Quijano uba nguDon Quixote futhi "aguqule" omakhelwane ababili. Enye yenziwa yisikwele sakhe —uSancho Panza— kanti esinye senziwa incekukazi yakhe, - u-Aldonza Lorenzo, amkhulise uDulcinea del Toboso.

Ngale ndlela, i-knight kanye ne-squire sakhe bayaphuma bayofuna ama-adventures alungile ukuze uDulcinea "wakhe" afunde ngokubaluleka kukaDon Quixote. Ngakho-ke, phawula ngazo zonke izinhlobo zezinto ezingasile, uzuze ukuhlekwa usulu nokwenqatshwa, kepha phikelela ngezimbangela zokukhohlisa uze usindiswe umndeni nabangane. Ekugcineni, uyiswa ekhaya, uyaqonda ukuthi okwenzekile kwavela engqondweni yakhe, uyadabuka futhi uyafa.

Thengisa UDon Quijote weLa Mancha ...

I-Divine Comedy (1304 no-1321), nguDante Alighieri

UDante, imbongi evelele

Ebhekwa njengembongi enkulu kunayo yonke yase-Italy, uDante wazalelwa eFlorence ngo-1265. Ngesikhathi esemncane intombazane egama linguBeatrice yayizokhuthaza umlingisi omkhulu wamahlaya akhe. Lapho esemusha, wayibona inkumbulo yakhe enamandla, kanye namakhono akhe okudweba. Ubuye wakhuluma ngobuciko bomculo nezikhali.

Ngokufanayo, kukhuthazwe ukufa kukaBeatriz, uthando lwakhe olungenakwenzeka, wabhala i- Vita nuova. Kamuva, uDante wafunda izifundo zakudala zesiLatin nefilosofi, washada futhi wangena kwezombusazwe. Kamuva, wagwetshwa ukudingiswa, kwathi ngo-1302, washiswa ephila uma ebuyela eFlorence. Ngalesi sizathu, waqala impilo yokuzulazula emadolobheni ase-Italy, waze wazinza eRavenna, lapho ashonela khona ngoSepthemba 14, 1321.

Ifa le- La Amahlaya aphezulu

Ithonya lalo kwezobuciko ezifana nezincwadi, ukudweba, ukubaza, umculo ngisho nasempucukweni ezayo yabantu baseNtshonalanga akunakuphikwa.. Esikhathini esifushane singakhuluma ngokwehla kwalesi sigaba ku-Romanticism. Ngokufanayo, emfanekisweni nasekudwebeni, kusuka kuDoré kuya kuBlake; emculweni, uFrankz Liszt; ebaziwe, u-Auguste Rodin ...

Ngokwengeziwe, Inani elikhulu leDantesque Comedy likuhlamvu lwalo jikelele nasekusebenzeni kwalo eminyakeni eyi-XNUMX edlule. Mayelana nalokhu, u-TS Elliot uthe "Umcabango ungaba mnyama, kepha igama leli libucayi" ... yingakho lifinyeleleka. Ngamafuphi, ucezu olungafundwa evesini noma kwiprozi, ngumphakathi okhethekile noma cha, ogcwele ukuqhathanisa okunobuhlakani.

Mayelana nomsebenzi

I-Divine Comedy Kuyinkondlo ngesiNtaliyane ihlukaniswe yaba izingxenye ezintathu: Isihogo, iPurgatory nePharadesi, enamavesi angama-14.333 XNUMX hendecasyllable. Ilandisa ngohambo lwembongi uDante, enkampanini kaVirgil, edlula endaweni yabafileyo phakathi kwezingxenye ezimbili zokuqala. Kamuva, kanye noBeatriz wakhe amthandayo, wahambela ingxenye yesithathu, iPharadesi.

UDante uqale alandise ngohambo lwakhe aye esihogweni futhi achaze abalingiswa njengothisha wakhe wokuqala. Ngokushesha, baya ePurigatori, indawo yokuhlanzwa kwemiphefumulo ethethelelwe nguNkulunkulu. Ekugcineni, umlingiswa ophambili ushiya uVirgilio ahambe ePharadesi noBeatriz. Lapho, ezungezwe ukukhanya nezingoma ezimnandi, ufinyelela injabulo ebusweni bukaZiqu-zintathu Ongcwele.

Thengisa Ihlaya Laphezulu (13/20)
Ihlaya Laphezulu (13/20)
Azikho izibuyekezo

Hamlet (1601), nguWilliam Shakespeare

Impilo kaShakespeare, ngamafuphi

Wazalwa ngo-Ephreli 1564 eNgilandi, William Shakespeare uthathwa njengomunye wababhali ababaluleke kakhulu bezincwadi zomhlaba. Noma kunjalo, kuncane okwaziwayo ebuntwaneni nasebusheni bakhe, ngaphandle kokuthi wayeyindodana kasomabhizinisi wendawo nosopolitiki ovela emndenini wamaKhatholika. Ngokufanayo, kuyaziwa ukuthi umsebenzi wakhe njengomlingisi nombhali weshashalazi waqala lapho eshiya eLondon ngo-1590.

Ngesikhathi sobusha bakhe waqala ukusebenza enkampanini yaseshashalazini i-Lord Chamberlain's Men; lapho wagcina esengomunye wabanikazi (futhi ukuthandwa kwakhe kwanda). Kungezwe kulokhu, UShakespeare wabhala izinkondlo ezimnandi, kepha wayaziwa kakhulu ngezindaba zakhe ezibuhlungu (Hamlet o Macbeth, Ngokwesibonelo). Ushone ngo-Ephreli 23, 1616.

Ithonya le- Hamlet

Kungashiwo ngaphandle kwehaba ukuthi yonke inkundla kaShakespearean iyanquma ezincwadini zakamuva. (namanje okwamanje kubalulekile). Ngakho-ke, kunzima ukukhomba ukuthi ngabe kunjalo Hamlet Kubaluleke ngaphezu kwe- Macbeth yini Romeo noJuliet. Noma kunjalo, ku Hamlet unengxenye emele ngempela yonke indalo kaShakespearean.

Ngenxa yalokhu, ku Hamlet ukubaluleka okukodwa emcabangweni wobumbano jikelele kungagqanyiswa, ngezilimi namasiko ahlukahlukene, isibonelo. Kulokhu kungezwa, ithalente elingenakunqotshwa lokwenza abalingiswa abangabantu abafunyanwa ngumfundi. Futhi, Kuyadingeka ukugqamisa ingcebo eyingqayizivele yezobuchwepheshe nesitayela yombhali, okuyinkomba yezizukulwane kuze kube namuhla.

Isifinyezo sale nhlekelele

E-Elsinor, eDenmark, inkosi isidlulile emhlabeni. Ngenxa yalokho, umfowabo uClaudio ushada nendlovukazi, uGertrude, kanti isikhulu sibonakala siphazamisekile. Yini enye, usongo lokuhlaselwa yiNorway ngaphansi komyalo weFortimbrás, lubonakala njengesizinda esikhulu enhlekeleleni ehlangene. Ngakho-ke, umoya wenkosi wembulela uHamlet ukuthi umfowabo wambulala futhi wacela ukuziphindiselela.

Okulandelayo, intukuthelo isiphazamisa ngokuphelele isahlulelo se-protagonist, obulala ngephutha uPolonio bese egcina ebhekene ne-duel neLaertes (ngozungu lukaClaudio). Emgodini, indlovukazi iphuza ubuthi ngengozi, kuyilapho uHamlet noLaertes bewa enkembeni enobuthi.. Yize inkosana iqeda ukuziphindiselela kwayo ngaphambi kokufa.

Thengisa I-Hamlet (Classical)
I-Hamlet (Classical)
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ezinye izincwadi zomhlaba jikelele

-         Ubugebengu nokujeziswa (1866), nguFyodor Dostoevsky

-         Abadabukisayo (1862), nguVíctor Hugo

-         UbukhazikhazinguJohann Goethe

-         INkosi yezindandatho (1954), uJRR Tolkien


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-6, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   I-Leopoldo Alberto Trcka Sasia kusho

    Sawubona. Njengesazi semfundiso yenkolo kanye nomfundi wesi-7 weTheology, ayikho impikiswano ebonakala ingadingekile kimi, futhi noma ingaphansi uma kungokwenkolo, kepha uma iyiqiniso, kunzima kakhulu ukwazi ukuthi iyiphi incwadi engcono kakhulu, yize kungenakuphikwa ukuthi uma efundwa kakhulu iqondakala ngokuhamba phambili, yiBhayibheli nenkathi.

    Ayikho enye into

    Ngikuthumela ukugona

    INKOSI IKUBUSISE
    Sanibonani atte.

    I-Leopoldo Alberto Trcka Sasia

  2.   Marcelo kusho

    Bonke labo okukhulunywe ngabo bahle kakhulu futhi ngingeze "Ubusuku obuyinkulungwane nobunye."

    Phendula ngokucaphuna

  3.   U-Alejandro Torres Diaz kusho

    Caramba!
    Sekwanele ukusho ukuthi uDon Quixote ubhalwe ngabakwaCervantes!
    Wayishicilela kuphela, akukho okunye

    1.    Sara kusho

      Uqinisile kepha ngokwengxenye kuphela, umqondo wokuqala akusiwo owakhe, owokuqala wawumayelana nomArabhu (igama lakhe kwakungu quihat, ngiyaxolisa uma ngingabhalanga kahle) owayelahlekile ogwadule futhi womile (hhayi izincwadi ) lokho okwamenza walahlekelwa ikhanda futhi, njengo-Alonso Quijano, wayedida konke ayekubona nezinto ezazimhlasela njalonjalo ... Qaphela ukuthi yena (uCervantes) akazange azifihle ukuthi lo mbono kwakungewona owakhe, kamuva, uyazi, ubaba.… Imali, ukuthi bafuna ukuyidlulisa njengeyabo ngokuphelele. Yize bengingakwazanga ukufunda enye, ngihlala noDon Quixote, kubonakala kimi kakhulu… angazi, kwehlukile… ngiyaxolisa, ngivela e-Alcala futhi ngokufanayo angiyona inhloso lol . Sanibonani

  4.   UHernando Varela kusho

    Sawubona. Yonke imisebenzi emikhulu ebeke uphawu lwezinto ezinkulu futhi yaguqula nolimi kwezinye izimo ... Isihloko sencwadi enhle kunazo zonke emhlabeni? Angiyithandi ngisho nendlela ezwakala ngayo. Kuningi kakhulu okulahlekile ukuthi uhlu belungapheli. Borges, Hesse, Goette, Joyce, nezinye izinkulungwane ... Ngiyabingelela futhi uma uNkulunkulu engakubusisi ungakhathazeki ngokuthi akukho okwenzekayo.

  5.   Ignacio kusho

    Izinto ze-Euclid, i-Principia mathematica