1984

1984.

1984.

1984 iyona noveli ebabazekayo yombhali waseBrithani nentatheli u-Eric Arthur Blair, waziwa emhlabeni wonke ngaphansi kwegama lakhe, George Orwell. Ishicilelwe ngoJuni 9, 1949, akuwona umsebenzi wokuqala obhekwa njenge-dystopian, ikakhulukazi uma bekuyisihloko esenze leli gama laba yimfashini emhlabeni wonke.

Le ncwadi ibe impumelelo enkulu kwezentengiselwano kusukela ekufakweni kwayo kokuqala emashalofini ezitolo ezidayisa izincwadi. Kusukela lapho, ibuyile ngokujwayelekile phezulu kwamashadi wokuthengisa. Ukuhlubuka okukhulu kokugcina kwenzeka ngo-2016, ngenkathi kukhethwa uDonald Trump - okwamangaza abaningi - njengomongameli wama-45 wase-United States.

Umbhali

U-Eric Arthur Blair wazalwa ngoJuni 25, 1903, eMotihari, idolobha elisendaweni enkulukazi yamakholoni aseBrithani eNdiya. Ngesikhathi sokuphila kwakhe wayengumuntu olwa kanzima nezinhlelo zobushiqela nezombusazwe. Ngesikhathi esemncane, waze wavukela nohulumeni wakhe eBurma.

Kamuva waya eSpain ukuyojoyina ukuvikela iRiphabhulikhi ngokuhlaselwa kombuso kaFranco. Eqinisweni, wacishe wadutshulwa eCatalonia ngenxa yayo (waphunyuka ngokuyisimangaliso). Konke lokhu okuhlangenwe nakho, kanye nokuphikisana nemibuso yamaNazi nekaStalin, kukhona emisebenzini yakhe eminingi. Isici esisobala ku- 1984, nakwenye inoveli yakhe eyisithonjana: Ukuhlubuka epulazini.

Iminyaka yophenyo lobuntatheli

U-Orwell, intatheli, uhambe ibanga elide ukuqoqa yonke imininingwane efakwe embhalweni okungenani iminyaka emihlanu. Lezi zimelele imininingwane ekhanyisela izethameli maphakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX. Ukufunda lokhu kubuyekezwa okungokomlando kuvumele abaningi ukuthi baqonde ukuqoqwa kwemicimbi edidayo eyenzeke eYurophu kusukela ngeMpi Enkulu.

Isihloko esithi 1984 sibeka uzungu esikhathini esizayo esisekude, ngenxa yalesi sizathu ngaleso sikhathi lwaluthathwa njengendatshana "engokwesiprofetho". Yize umlobi ngokwakhe acacise kaningi ukuthi bekungekhona nje ukuqagela ngekusasa lesintu. Kwakungukubuyekezwa okuhlekisayo kwezinto okwenzeka kuze kufike engxenyeni yokuqala yekhulu lama-XNUMX.

Ezizukulwaneni ezizayo

Ukuhlubuka epulazini yanyatheliswa ngo-1945; 1984 ngo-1949… uGeorge Orwell washona ngemuva konyaka, eyisisulu sesifo sofuba esesinesikhathi eside sikhona. Njengabaculi abaningi abakhulu besikhathi sonke, wayengenakujabulela ngokugcwele impumelelo yomsebenzi wakhe. Lokhu akulona iqiniso elincane, njengoba ethathwa njengomunye wababhali abanethonya elikhulu kulo lonke ikhulu lama-XNUMX.

UGeorge Orwell.

UGeorge Orwell.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ithonya lawo liqhubeka lisebenza kuze kufike enkulungwaneni entsha yeminyaka. Yini enye, ukweleta isichasiso esithi "Orwellian", igama elisetshenziswa njengamanje ukubhekisa emibusweni yobushiqela. Futhi, leli gama lisho izinhlelo ezonakalisa ngamabomu umlando namasiko emiphakathi yonke ukuze ihambisane nezintshisekelo zayo.

1984, ngamafuphi

ILondon, ngo-1984. Idolobha laseNgilandi, kanye nazo zonke ezinye iziQhingi zaseBrithani, bayingxenye ye-Oceania. Eqinisweni, zimelela omunye wamandla amakhulu amathathu umhlaba ohlukaniswe ngawo. Izindawo zalesi sifundazwe se-mega zifaka i-Ireland, i-Afrika eseningizimu, iMelika iyonke, iNew Zealand ne-Australia.

Ezinye izizwe ezimbili ezikhona yi-Eurasia - eyenziwe yiSoviet Union kanye neYurophu yonke (ngaphandle kwe-Iceland - ne-East Asia, okuyisivumelwano phakathi kweChina, Japan neKorea. La maqembu ahlala elwa njalo (Into ebaluleke kakhulu yezomnotho, ngakho-ke, kufanele ihlale intanta nganoma iyiphi intengo). Ngasikhathi sinye, izingxabano zempi ziyindlela ephelele yokulawula inani labantu.

Izinhlamvu

UWinston Smith uyena ophambili nomlandeli. Sebenza komunye wemincintiswano eyenzelwe ukugcina umbuso usemandleni: Inkonzo Yeqiniso. Umsebenzi wakhe ukubhala kabusha umlando ukuze uhambisane nezintshisekelo zikahulumeni. Okwamanje, akunandaba ukuthi kufanele ubhale inganekwane yesayensi futhi uhlehlise amarekhodi angempela. Ngalesi sizathu, unengekile ngohlelo olukhona.

Isifiso sakhe soshintsho simshukumisela ukuba ajoyine i-Brotherhood of Resistance noJulia, intombazane athandana nayo futhi ahlanganyele izimiso ezifanayo.. Kepha le nhlangano ecatshangwa ukuthi iyizinguquko iba enye indlela yokulawula. Bobabili abalingiswa bayathunjwa, bahlukunyezwa futhi baphoqeleka ukwamukela yonke imininingwane kahulumeni ngokungangabazeki, noma ngabe kungukuthi "okubili okuhlanganisiwe okubili kulingana nokuhlanu."

Izithonjana

1984 izipho ezinemiqondo ebandayo nenamagajethi ezikhona kakhulu namuhla. Ithemu lokuqala elihlanganisiwe kwakunguBig Brother, yahambisana nombono wokuthi izwe likhona yonke indawo nokuqashwa ngokuphelele. Bangu amagajethi (izikrini) ezibekwe ukuze ziqaphe ukunyakaza kwabantu.

Okwamanje, amazwi anamandla kakhulu aphikisana neDigital Revolution aveza ukuthi i-Alexa noma iGoogle namuhla igcwalisa cishe umsebenzi ofanayo wokulandela umkhondo wabantu. Eqinisweni, imibono eminingi yozungu yamashumi eminyaka edlule isuselwe kulolu hlobo lokucabanga kuka-Orwellian.

Inganekwane yesayensi engokwesiprofetho?

Ukucaphuna kukaGeorge Orwell.

Ukucaphuna kukaGeorge Orwell.

"Amaphoyisa okucabanga" ngesinye sezifanekiselo ze 1984. Inhloso yalo enkulu ukusebenzisana, ndawonye nezikhundla zabefundisi (ngaphandle koMnyango Weqiniso kukhona nalezo Zothando, Ubuningi Nokuthula) ngokucindezela umqondo we-Self. Ngakho-ke, ukuzimela komuntu akuvumelekile, njengoba umphakathi kumele ube yisixuku esifanayo esilawulwa ukwesaba nempi.

Ngaphandle kwamazwi

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukukhohliswa kolwazi kungenye yezinto ezijule kakhulu ngu-Orwell endabeni yakhe, kanye nasekusebenziseni ulimi olusha. Lolu uhlelo olwenzelwe ukusika amagama ngomqondo wokweqa konke okungacatshangwa ukuthi akukho.

Ngokusobala, ukufana okukhona ezweni lanamuhla kuningi. Ezikhathini lapho izindaba zabiwa kakhulu ngemidiya yezenhlalo, akunakwenzeka ukuthi siqiniseke ngokuphelele ngemingcele ephakathi kweqiniso namanga. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i- emoji baya ngokusondela ngokushiya umphakathi ungawuvali umlomo.

Ingabe likhona ikusasa?

Ayikho inhloso ye- spoiler, ukuvalwa kwe- 1984 akanathemba ngokuphelele. Umbhalo uphela ngencazelo yendawo yonke lapho ukubusa kungalungiseki. Ngokwengeza lokhu kukhathazeka "empilweni yangempela", ngabe isintu sisenokuphunyuka? ... Kungenzeka ukuthi sekwephuze kakhulu.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.