Imidlalo yeCalderón de la Barca

Imidlalo edlalwa nguCalderón de la Barca.

Imidlalo edlalwa nguCalderón de la Barca.

Imidlalo kaCalderón de la Barca (1600 - 1681) iyisithonjana samatafula emhlabeni wonke. Umbhali uthathwa njengomunye wababhali beshashalazi abakhulu beSpanish Golden Age. Ukuhlukaniswa okunjalo kwabiwa nezikhulu zesimo sikaMiguel de Cervantes, uLope de Vega noTirso Molina. Le midlalo emine eyakhiwe idume umhlaba wonke, kanye nohlobo oluncane lokusakazwa kwesiteji, kepha esezingeni eliphakeme lobuciko: ama-autos sacramentales.

ICalderón de la Barca nayo yahlukaniswa ngezinye izici zomlando womuntu; eziningi zazo kubonakala indalo yakhe waseshashalazini. Phakathi kwalabo esingabala: ohloniphekile, wezempi, owengqondo, imbongi, ubufakazi bezenkolo kanye nokuhlukile kwemicimbi ephambili yezepolitiki neyenhlalo yekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa. Ukuguquguquka okunjalo kube nomthelela omkhulu ekujuleni kwe- izindaba zabo, amabinzana abo kanye nabalingiswa.

Ubuntwana nobusha bukaPedro Calderón de la Barca

Ukuzalwa, ubuntwana kanye nezifundo zakuqala

UPedro Calderón de la Barca noBarreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño wazalwa ngoJanuwari 17, 1600, eMadrid. Wayengowesithathu ezinganeni eziyisithupha zomshado phakathi kukaDiego Calderón no-Ana María de Henao, bobabili abanemvelaphi enhle. Ngeminyaka emihlanu nje kuphela waqala ukuya esikoleni eValladolid ngaphansi kogogo wakhe u-Inés de Riaño. Ngo-1608 wangena eImperial College yamaJesuit eMadrid.

Ngo-1610 unina washona ngenxa yokubeletha. Ngo-1614, uDiego Calderón waphinde washada noJuana Freyle Caldera, ovela emndenini ovelele, yize wayenezinkinga zezezimali. Ngawo lowo nyaka osemusha UPedro wangeniswa eNyuvesi yase-Alcalá, kodwa waphazamisa izifundo zakhe ngemuva kokushona kukayise ngokuzumayo ngo-1615. Ngaleso sikhathi, kwaqubuka impikiswano yezomthetho mayelana nemibandela yefa phakathi kukamama nezingane.

Inyuvesi yaseSalamanca nomsebenzi wezempi

Lapho uDoña Juana eshada futhi ngo-1616, abafowethu baseCalderón basala ngaphansi kwesandla sikamalume wabo, u-Andrés González de Henao. Phakathi naleso sikhathi, uPedro Calderón de la Barca osemncane wabhalisa eNyuvesi yaseSalamanca. Ngonyaka we-1619 waphothula iziqu ze-bachelor ku-canon nakwezomthetho.

Kodwa-ke, akazange agcotshwe njengompristi (njengoba ubaba wakhe onegunya ayengathanda) futhi kusukela ngo-1922 wakhetha ukujoyina ezempi. Kwakuyisikhathi esinzima, njengoba yena nabafowabo baphoqeleka ukuthengisa izimpahla zabo eziyifa ukuze baphile. Phakathi neminyaka eyalandela, uPedro Calderón wahambela eFlanders nasenyakatho ne-Italy ngesikhathi semikhankaso eminingi yempi ekhonza uConstable we-XNUMX waseCastile.

Imisebenzi yokuqala yeshashalazi

NgoJuni 29, 1623, umdlalo wakhe wokuqala wamahlaya owaziwa waqalwa ngempumelelo, Uthando, udumo namandla, ngesikhathi sokuvakasha kukaCharles, iNkosana yaseWales. Ngemuva kokuqeda uhambo lwakhe lwezempi ngo-1626, uPedro Calderón de la Barca wakwazi ukuzinikela ngokugcwele emisebenzini yakhe yokubhala. Kodwa-ke, yayivele ikhishiwe UJudas Maccabeus neminye imisebenzi yeshashalazi eminingi nenkampani kaJuan Acacio Bernal.

Izici zemidlalo yeshashalazi yaseCalderón de la Barca

Umsebenzi wokuqhathanisa okubanzi, okunzima ukuwuhlela

Umsebenzi kaCalderón de la Barca unezici ezinhle zobuningi nokuphambana. Kahle ifomu nesimo ngaphakathi kokusebenza kwebanga elide okubonakala ngokuxakaniseka komcabango. Ngokusho kukaJosé María Díez Borque, "Uma ukuhlanganiswa kanye nobuciko bezobuciko kungomunye wemigomo eyisisekelo yobuhle bamaBaroque, eCalderón (futhi ongumqoqi kanye nomfundi wezobuciko wokudweba) uyiswa ekugcineni."

Ngenxa yalokhu, ukuhlela nokuhlukanisa imisebenzi yaseshashalazini yongqondongqondo baseMadrid kungumsebenzi owesabekayo, unikezwe ubukhulu bokudalwa kwawo. Ngokwe-akhawunti eyenziwe nguye izinyanga ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe, iCalderón de la Barca yakhiqiza amahlaya ayi-XNUMX, ama-autos sacramentales angama-XNUMX kanye nenombolo engaziwa yeminye imidlalo emifushane.

Ifomula "lopesca"

ILope de Vega ebabazekayo yenze imodeli yeshashalazi echaza indawo yobuciko eyenzeka ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-1630 kanye nasekuqaleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX. Ngo-XNUMX, uLope de Vega wayeselincomile ithalente likaCalderón de la Barca ngokuzwela kwakhe kwezwe nokuhlanganiswa komculo. Ukushintshana phakathi kwemidondoshiya kuholele ekuveleni kwefomula "ye-lopesca" ecebile ngemithombo yobuciko, kuhlanzwe ngezinto zomculo ezingasebenzi kakhulu futhi ezinezigcawu ezimbalwa.

Ngokunjalo, inani labalingiswa liyancipha, kanti isakhiwo sakhiwa sizungeze umlingiswa oyedwa. KuCalderón, uthando lwakhe lokupenda lumele isici sokubaluleka okukhulu esihlanganisa izingathekiso, izinkulumo kanye nombono wakhe ngomhlaba. Njengomdwebo we-baroque, izingqikithi zeBhayibheli, izinganekwane, zomlando nobukhazikhazi bemvelo njengoba indalo yaphezulu igcwele emsebenzini wakhe.

UPedro Calderón de la Barca.

UPedro Calderón de la Barca.

Ngalo mqondo, imisebenzi kaPedro Calderón de la Barca ingahlukaniswa ngokulandelayo (ezinye izibonelo zithiwa):

  • Amadrama: Udokotela wodumo lwakhe; Umdwebi wehlazo lakhe; Indodakazi yomoya.
  • Ama-serious and sitcoms: Impilo Iphupho; Imeya yaseZalamea.
  • Amahlaya asenkantolo: Isilo, umbani netshe; U-Echo noNarcissus.
  • Izilinganiso ze-Swashbuckling: Intokazi yakudokotela; Akukho ukugcona othandweni.
  • Izimoto zesakramente: Itiyetha enkulu yomhlaba; Umbhikisho wokholo.

Ukwakhiwa kwezinhlamvu

Amaqiniso omlando ngabalingiswa emidlalweni kaCalderón yinto engaguquki ngokuphelele. Kusezingeni elifanayo abanakho ukuvezwa komuntu ngokwemvelo, ngoba zigcwele ihaba, izingathekiso, nezisho. Abalingisi bayo besifazane batshalwe ngegunya elihle, ngokuziphatha okufana nobudoda.

Ngokuqhathanisa, abalingiswa besilisa bakaCalderón babonisa ukujula okukhulu kwengqondo. Abanye, njengoDon Gutierre de Udokotela wodumo lwakhe, abanangqondo ngokuphelele ngenxa yomhawu wabo. Zimele izibalo ezisetshenziswe ezinhlekeleleni zaseCalderonia, zigcwele izingibe, izinsolo nezinkanuko ezithile. Abanye abalingiswa, abanjengoSegismundo noma uDon Lope Figueroa, bayingxenye yomlando wakhe ongasoze wawukhohlwa.

Ukunciphisa i-polymetry

ICalderón de la Barca ivumelanisa "ifomula ye-lopesca" iye kumodeli yokubhala egxile kakhulu kusakhiwo esimangazayo. Ngalesi sizathu, uhlanganisa i-repertoire yamavesi ngokuguqula amavesi akhe abe ama-octosyllables, ama-hendecasyllables futhi, kwesinye isikhathi, abe yi-heptasyllables. Uhlala esebenzisa iziphikisi, izingathekiso, nehaba ukuze agcizelele ubuhle bolimi.

ICulteranism

UCalderón ukhombisa umyalo omuhle wokukhuluma okugcwele ama-analogies, ukulinganisa, ukuphikisana, ukwehliswa kanye namaqoqo. Imiqondo esemishweni yakho ingavela iphindaphindeke ukwenza kucace ukugqama komqondo kumongo. Ngokunjalo, kumahlaya akhe amaningi izimpawu zefilosofi ye-Neoplatonic nezinsizakusebenza ezinjengezinkanyezi ezihambelana nosuku lomuntu neziprofetho kubonakala kuveza okulindelwe (okungamanga) ezilalelini.

Amasiko

Ukulungiswa kwezisusa zabaphikisi, kungaba ezincomekayo noma ezisontekile - ubugebengu obenziwa ngenxa yomona, isibonelo - buvela ngomqondo ongahlonipheki, kepha ngokokuziphatha akwamukelekile. Ngokolunye uhlangothi, Ezingxoxweni zikaCalderón izingxoxo zemidlalo yeshashalazi zigxila ezingeni elifanayo ekuthandeni ubungqingili. Lokho kusho ukuthi, ukubhala kabusha kanye nemidwebo yemisebenzi yabanye ababhali noma eyakhe kuvame ngendlela eyaziwayo.

Ingxenye yezenkolo

Ingxube phakathi kwemiyalo engcwele nemicimbi ehlambalazayo iyingxenye yemvelo yenkolo yabantu ngesikhathi seBaroque. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuqeqeshwa kwamaJesuit kaCalderón kubonakala eziqubulweni zikaSan Agustín noTomás de Aquino, nakwifilosofi yakhe kaPlato. Eshashalazini likaCalderón, uhlobo oluthile lokusula emsebenzini lutholakala ngokungafani nokuzimela okusobala nokusebenza kwezenzo zabantu.

UNkulunkulu nomuntu

Ukukholwa kuNkulunkulu kuyinkinga engangabazeki enquma indlela yokuthola izingqinamba ezikhona nezinengqondo. Ngakho-ke, ubunkulunkulu bucatshangelwa ngezinto ezine zomhlaba futhi akuyona imbangela yokuhlupheka komuntu emhlabeni. Emisebenzini yeCalderón de la Barca, inhlonipho, inkululeko nokuzibophezela ekuziphatheni kubonakala kubhekene nokuhaha, umona, umona kanye nezingxabano ze-Oedipal.

Ukufika kwezehlakalo ezibuhlungu

Maphakathi nawo-1640s, kwenzeka uchungechunge lwezehlakalo ezaphinde zacabanga impilo yeCalderón de la Barca. Okokuqala, ukushona kweNdlovukazi u-Isabel del Borbón noPrince Baltasar Carlos kuveze izinqumo ezimbili zokuvala (zonyaka owodwa nemithathu ngokulandelana) zamahlaya e-choral. Kamuva, ukushona kwabafowabo uJosé (1645) noDiego (1647) kwafaka uCalderón ekucindezelekeni okucacile.

Izimoto zesakramente

Ngo-1646 kwazalwa indodana yakhe, uPedro José. Eminyakeni emihlanu kamuva wagcotshwa njengompristi kwathi ngo-1653 wathola isikhundla sabefundisi bamaKhosi Amasha aseToledo. Ngakho-ke, uCalderón wakubeka phambili ukubhalwa kwama-autos sacramentales, uhlobo lwemidlalo yaseshashalazini olunezimpawu zenkolo nobuqili obubukwayo.

Umusho kaPedro Calderón de la Barca.

Umusho kaPedro Calderón de la Barca.

Yize aqhubeka nokwakhiwa kwamahlaya, ama-autos sacramentales alawula okuningi kwendalo yakhe kuze kube sekufeni kwakhe ngoMeyi 25, 1681. Empeleni, indalo yakhe yokugcina kwakuyi-auto sacramental Iwundlu lika-Isaya, waqeda izinsuku ezinhlanu ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe.

Imisebenzi yaseshashalazini ethandekayo kaCalderón de la Barca

  • Ihlathi elididayo (1622).
  • Uthando, udumo namandla (1623).
  • Ukuqhekeka kweNgilandi (1627).
  • Indlu enezicabha ezimbili, kubi ukugcina (1629).
  • Intokazi yakudokotela (1629).
  • Inkosana engapheli (1629).
  • Ibhande nembali (1632).
  • Isidlo senkosi uBelishasari (1632).
  • Umlingo womlingo (1637).
  • Isilo esikhulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni (1637).
  • Udokotela wodumo lwakhe (1637).
  • Abathandi ababili bezulu (1640).
  • Imfihlo evulekile (1642).
  • Umdwebi wehlazo lakhe (1650).
  • Imeya yaseZalamea (1651).
  • Indodakazi yomoya (1653).
  • Itiyetha enkulu yomhlaba (1655).
  • Qaphela amanzi amile (1657).
  • U-Echo noNarcissus (1661).
  • Isiphetho nebheji likaLeonido noMarfisa (1680).

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UJose Manuel Serrano Valero kusho

    Umbhalo weCalderón de la Barca uphelele futhi uyajabulisa. Kungisize kakhulu ukumazi kangcono. Ngiyabonga