Idayari yonyaka wesifo

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-1722, ngo-XNUMX, le ncwadi yaphuma Idayari yonyaka wesifo ngumbhali waseBrithani nentatheli uDaniel Defoe. Ngakho-ke, umbhali wabuye waziwa ngenoveli yakhe URobinson cruose, walandisa ngokwenzeka phakathi nenhlupho enkulu yaseLondon ngo-1665. Ngakho-ke, kufanele kuphawulwe ekuqaleni ukuthi le noveli eyinganekwane yashicilelwa engxenyeni yekhulu leminyaka ngemva kokuba ubhadane lwenzeke eNgilandi.

Ngakho-ke, yize umbhali ebonakala njengombalisi ofakazayo, iqiniso ukuthi lapho lesi sifo sihlasela eLondon, wayeneminyaka emihlanu kuphela. Okungukuthi, umfundi uzithola engaphambi kobuciko bendaba eningiliziwe futhi "enolwazi," ngokususelwa emicimbini yangempela (engakaze yenzeke kumlobi wayo). Kodwa-ke, ngumsebenzi wobuntatheli onobufakazi namarekhodi wangempela esikhathi.

Umlando kaDaniel Defoe

UDaniel Defoe, ngokusobala, wazalelwa eLondon ngo-Okthoba 10, 1660 futhi washonela kulelo dolobha ngo-Ephreli 24, 1731. Uphinde abhekwe njengomunye wamaphayona ohlobo lohlobo lwezincwadi, owaziwa umhlaba wonke ngomsebenzi wakhe wokuqala wenganekwane. Robinson Crusoe (1719). Futhi Ugqame kakhulu njengentatheli, kwaze kwaba sezingeni lokuba ngumsunguli walokho okubizwa ngemishini yezomnotho.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, wanikela ngempilo yakhe emisebenzini ehlukahlukene kakhulu yezentengiselwano, eyayihlanganisa umkhakha wezindwangu noma ukuthengiswa kwezitini, isibonelo. Phambilini, wayeqale umsebenzi wobufundisi, kepha wawushiya ngenxa yenkuthazo yebhizinisi lakhe unomphela. Kamuva, Wayeyingxenye kahulumeni ngezinsizakalo eziyimfihlo zezwe lakhe, ukusebenza kumagazini ukuxhasa umkhakha othile wezepolitiki.

UDaniel Defoe: indoda

Umbhali waseBrithani wayeyindodana yabazali basePresbyterian, owayaziwa ngokungahambisani nezimfundiso ezibalulekile zeSonto LaseSheshi. Uyise uJames wayengumninisilaha ozinikele, ngenkathi eneminyaka eyishumi eyintandane ngunina u-Annie. Ngokuphawulekayo Lapho eneminyaka eyisikhombisa waqala ukufundela ezikoleni ezahlukahlukene, wakushiya waba ngumthengisi.

Kodwa-ke, ukwehluleka empilweni yakhe njengomthengisi kwaziwa kabanzi, kuphawulwa yisikweletu esiqinile futhi esihlala njalo esaholela ejele. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, wayezothatha isikebhe nendawo ethile, ngaphandle kokuthola imiphumela ezuzisayo. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, waphikelela ekuzameni inhlanhla empilweni yakhe yothando; ngo-1684 washada noMary Tuffley, owayenezingane eziyisishiyagalombili.

Impilo yezepolitiki nemibhalo

Ngonyaka we-1701, UDaniel Defoe washicilela umsebenzi wokuqala azotholwa ngawo, IsiNgisi sangempela. Mayelana nalolu shicilelo, kufanele kuphawulwe ukuthi umbhali waseBrithani uthathe isikhundla sokuvikela iNkosi uWilliam III. Ngale ndlela, isimo sakhe sephamfulethi (ayaziwa kakhulu futhi enezinkinga ngaphambi komthetho) sizoqinisekiswa.

Eqinisweni, UDefoe waboshwa ngenxa yale ncwajana Indlela emfushane kakhulu nabaphikisi, elingisa ngomqondo ongokoqobo on the Tories of the Church. Njengoba efake lokhu okushiwo ngenhla "epulini" futhi wabachaya ekuhlekelweni umphakathi (kusuka lapho kwavela eyakhe Ihubo eya ePillory). Umfundi angasebenzisa le mibhalo emibili ukuqonda isimo sezepolitiki semibhalo yakhe ngaphambi kwamanoveli angamenza adume.

Inoveli yakhe

Mayelana nemisebenzi yenganekwane eshicilelwe nguDaniel Defoe, inoveli yango-1719 enesihloko esithi Robinson Crusoe. Ngenxa yalesi sihloko uDefoe uthole ukuqashelwa komhlaba wonke. Kuyona ulandisa ngezimo ezeqisayo zomuntu owake waphukelwa umkhumbi. (Kukhuthazwe yindaba eyiqiniso yetilosi u-Alexander Selkirk owayephukelwe umkhumbi esiqhingini sasePacific).

Ngokunjalo kubalulekile ukusho amanye amanoveli akhe amabili abalulekile: I-Adventures kaCaptain Singleton (1720) futhi Idayari yonyaka wesifo (1722). Kowokuqala, umuntu ubona uthando (ukubonga) kwendoda eyodwa komunye okwazile ukushintsha impilo yakhe yokubhujiswa nokukhishwa inyumbazane emphakathini.

mayelana Idayari yonyaka wesifo

Isitayela nenhloso

Kule ncwadi umfundi uzothola uhlobo lwe ezingamahlalakhona ngezehlakalo zesifo esikhulu saseLondon. Lapho umxoxi anentshisekelo yokutshela ngokunembile, kepha kubonakala engabandakanyeki ngokuphelele kulokho okwenzekile. Noma kunjalo, Kungaphawulwa ukuthi lesi isitayela semibhalo sobuntatheli nesiphenyeke kahle kakhulu.

Ngesikhathi Idayari yonyaka wesifo kungumsebenzi wenganekwane, UDefoe wakhombisa amakhono akhe okuphenya ngendlela yakhe yokuqoqa ubufakazi bangempela namarekhodi asemthethweni. Ngenxa yalokho, umfundi angabona ukusondelana kwe-protagonist ebonakalayo nombalisi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, inhloso enkulu kwakuwukushiya inzalo yememori umthelela wenhlekelele eyenzeka ngo-1665 ngalesi sifo.

Thengisa Idayari yonyaka we ...
Idayari yonyaka we ...
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ingqikithi enkulu yenoveli

Le noveli yesiNgisi, isakhiwo sayo nokulandelana kwayo ngokulandelana kwethoni yokuhlangenwe nakho, isebenza ngendikimba yomlando yenhlupho enkulu yaseLondon. Njengoba kwaziwa, iYurophu yayivele ibhekane nosizi lwesifo se-bubonic kusukela ngekhulu le-1665. Kodwa-ke, abantu baseLondon babelindele ukubhekana nakho okuphindaphindiwe kwalesi sifo esiwumshayabhuqe ngo-20, lapho kufa abantu abangu-XNUMX%.

Umbono wombhali wenhlekelele

Ngokufanayo, akunakushiwo ukuthi kuyinoveli kuphela enokuqukethwe okuqanjiwe noma kwe-anecdotal. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, Idayari yonyaka wesifo ikhuluma ngesimo esiwubhadane ngezinye izisekelo zemithi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uDefoe wasekela lolu daba ngezibalo nobufakazi bomcimbi ophawule isizukulwane.

Ngalezi zizathu, Umbono womlandisi unikezwe umbandela omkhulu kanye namandla. Ngokunjalo, njengoba kuyinoveli ngaphandle kwengxoxo, umfundi ubona ukumelwa okunokwethenjelwa kwemidwebo (lokhu-ke kunika umsebenzi ukubaluleka okukhulu).

Isifinyezo se- Idayari yonyaka wesifo

Lo msebenzi ulandisa ngemininingwane emangazayo okwenzeka phakathi nenhlupho enkulu yaseLondon yango-1665. Ngaleso sikhathi, leso sifo sasiyinto esabekayo phakathi kwabantu boMbuso WaseBrithani ... okwaba yinkinga yangempela. Ekuqaleni, uDefoe - ngokusebenzisa umlandisi - unikeza izintshumayelo ezimayelana nesimo somuntu nangokuphikisana nezimbangela ezicatshangelwayo ezingaphezu kwalesi sifo.

I-rapporteur ibe isizinikela ekuchazeni ngokuningiliziwe izimo zomphakathi zansuku zonke ezidalwa ukusabalala kwalesi sifo. Endleleni yakhe emigwaqweni yaseLondon, umbhali akazange anqikaze ukukhombisa ingxenye edabukisa kakhulu yedolobha elikhulu ngezindaba ezincane nezishaqisayo.

Ifa

Okuqukethwe Idayari yonyaka wesifo inokusebenza okuphakade. Kuwo wonke umlando wesintu, izehlakalo ezimbili zokufinyelela emhlabeni ziye zaphindwa eziqinisekisa lokhu. Owokuqala, ubhadane lomkhuhlane (umkhuhlane wezinyoni, i-H1N1) wango-1918. Owesibili, ubhadane lweSars-Cov-2 lwaqala ngo-2020.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   U-Estelio Mario PEDREAÑEZ kusho

    Ubhadane lwango-1918-1920 lwabizwa nge- "The Spanish Flu" ngoba lwahlasela amasosha ayelwa emiseleni yaseFrance ngesikhathi seMpi Enkulu (kamuva eyabizwa ngokuthi "iMpi Yezwe Yokuqala") kodwa owokuqala owabika kwakuyiphephandaba laseSpain, elalingathathi hlangothi futhi kuncike ekuvinjelweni kwempi. Kuthiwa leli gciwane laguquka eMelika futhi lasakazwa ngamasosha ayolwa e-Europe ngo-1917, yize kunombono wokushintshashintsha kwegciwane lomkhuhlane ovamile elivezwe yizikhali zamakhemikhali (amagesi anobuthi) asetshenziswa izinhlangothi zombili empini ebhujiswa yizifiso zokwandisa ababusi baseYurophu. Izigidi zabantu abafile ngenxa yesifiso sabantu abahahayo abangakaze badalule izimpilo zabo enkundleni yempi futhi lapho behlulwa baya ekudingisweni njengoWilhelm II waseGerman, ukubulawa kwabantu ngaphandle kokujeziswa owayalela ukubulawa kukaHereros noNamas ngo-1904-1908 njengamanje- usuku Namibia.