URamón del Valle-Inclán, i-biography nemisebenzi

URamón del Valle-Inclán.

URamón del Valle-Inclán.

URamón José Simón Valle y Peña wayengumlobi wezemidlalo waseSpain, imbongi nomlobi wamanoveli. Ubhekwa njengomunye wezibalo ze-neuralgic zemibhalo yaseSpain yekhulu lama-98, wayeyingxenye yesimanje ebizwa nge-Modernism futhi ungomunye wabalobi abamele kakhulu iGeneration of XNUMX. Ezikhathini ezahlukahlukene zokuphila kwakhe wasebenza futhi njengentatheli, emfushane umbhali wezindaba nombhali wendaba.

Eqinisweni, ukuqeqeshwa kwakhe eyunivesithi kwakusemthethweni - umsebenzi angakaze azizwe ekhululeke ngokuphelele ngawo.. Ngenxa yalokho, wayeka isikole ngemuva nje kokushona kukayise ekuqaleni kwawo-1890. Kungaba yindawo yokuqala yokuphila kwe-bohemian, wagxila ezincwadini futhi wagcwaliswa ngohambo olwalufaka izinganekwane eziningi njengokuvakashela phambili eFrance ngesikhathi seGreat Impi. Noma ukulahleka kwengalo empini.

I-Biography

I-biography kaValle-Inclán ifanele ukwenza ifilimu.

Ukuzalwa, ubuntwana nobusha

Igama lakhe eligcwele, uRamón José Simón Valle y Peña, livela kuphela esitifiketini sokubhapathizwa. Wazalelwa emndenini ohloniphekile ngo-Okthoba 28, 1866, eVillanueva de Arosa (esifundazweni sasePontevedra). Wayengumntwana wesibili emshadweni wesibili kaRamón del Valle Bermúdez noDolores de la Peña y Montenegro, bobabili izindlalifa zezakhiwo ezahlukahlukene ezazincipha ngenxa yemfucuza kababa.

URamón omncane wabelwa ukuqeqeshwa uCarlos Pérez Noal, umfundisi wasePuebla del Deán. Ngo-1877 wangena e-Institute of Santiago de Compostela njengomfundi okhululekile.Lapho, wafunda amabanga aphakeme waze waba neminyaka eyi-19 ngaphandle kokukhombisa intshisekelo enkulu. Kodwa-ke, ngaleso sikhathi ithonya likaJesús Muruáis lalifanele kakhulu ukuqeqeshwa kwakhe kwezemibhalo kamuva.

Intsha, amathonya nezifundo

NgoSepthemba 1885 - lapho ebekwa nguyise - waqala izifundo zakhe zomthetho e-University of Santiago kanye nomfowabo uCarlos.. ECompostela ukungabi nandaba kwakhe nezifundo kwakusobala impela, akunjalo ngeminye imikhuba eyize efana nemidlalo yenhlanhla nemibuthano yokuzijabulisa lapho ahlakulela khona ubungani nezifundiswa zaseGalician ezithembisayo, phakathi kwazo uVázquez de Mella, u-Enrique Labarta, uGonzález Besada noCamilo Bargiela.

Ukukhathazeka ngolimi lwase-Italy nokubiya

Wafunda nokubiya nokubonga isiNtaliyane ebudlelwaneni bakhe obusondelene noFlorentine Attilio Pontarani. Ngo-1877 wakhululwa ebusosheni. Ngemuva konyaka wabhalisela iSikole Sezobuciko Nemisebenzi Yezandla ngaphakathi kwesifundo seDrawing and Figure Adornment, waba ngomunye wabafundi abadume kakhulu.

Imibhalo yokuqala

Ngaleso sikhathi washicilela imibhalo yakhe yokuqala kulo magazini Ikhofi elinamaconsi weSantiago de Compostela futhi yaqala ukuzibandakanya kakhulu kwezobuntatheli esifundeni. Ukuvakashelwa kukaJosé Zorrilla ohlukanisiwe eNyuvesi yaseSantiago kushiya uRamón osemncane “njengesiphazamisi” sobizo lwezincwadi njengamanje kunakuqala… kwaba yisikhathi nje kuphela. Ngo-1890 ubaba wakhe washona futhi wayekhululekile ezibophweni zomndeni.

Buyela ePontevedra bese udlulisela eMadrid

Ngemuva kweminyaka emihlanu yezifundo ezimfishane ezingapheli, wabuyela ePontevedra ngaphambi kokuhlala iminyaka emibili eMadrid (ngokuvakashelwa kafushane e-Italy). Enhlokodolobha yaseSpain waziwa phakathi kwemibuthano yezindawo zokudlela ezinhle eziningi zasePuerta del Sol ngenxa yobuntu bakhe obukhulu nobuqili.

Ngaleso sikhathi, kusamele azakhele igama eliqinile njengombhali. Ngomzamo omkhulu, ukwazile ukubamba iqhaza kokunye ukusebenzisana kwezintatheli ngasekupheleni kuka-1891 emaphephandabeni anjenge Ibhaluni y Ukukhanyiselwa kwase-Iberia, lapho asayina khona okokuqala ngaphansi kwegama elithi "Ramón del Valle-Inclán". Isibongo sakhe sobuciko samukelwa kuFrancisco del Valle-Inclán, omunye wokhokho bakayise.

Uhambo oluya eMexico

Kepha imali etholwayo ibinganele ukuqinisekisa uzinzo oluhlala njalo kwezomnotho. Ngalesi sizathu, uValle-Inclán unquma ukuhambela eMexico eyofuna amathuba amasha. Wafika eVeracruz ngo-Ephreli 8, 1892; ngemuva kwesonto wazinza eMexico City waqala ukusebenza njengomhumushi wesiNtaliyane nesiFulentshi emaphephandabeni anjenge I-Spanish Post, El Universal y IVeracruz ezimele.

Kwakuyisikhathi sezigigaba nokukhula okubalulekile phakathi kwengcindezelo nokucwaninga okwabekwa nguMongameli Porfirio Díaz. Kusuka ebunganeni bakhe noSóstenes Rocha wathola umbono ophelele kakhulu wezombusazwe waseMexico futhi wakhuthazwa yizindaba eziningi ezavezwa kamuva Owesifazane. UValle-Inclán wavala ukuhlala kwakhe kokuqala ezweni lama-Aztec ekupheleni kuka-1892, lapho eya eK Cuba ngomkhumbi.

Izincwadi zokuqala

Phakathi nentwasahlobo ka-1893, uValle-Inclán owayenemilenze emide, enentshebe futhi enoboya wabuyela ePontevedra. Lapho, wakha ubungani obuseduze kakhulu noJesús Muruáis noRené Ghil. Ngo-1894 washicilela incwadi yakhe yokuqala, Owesifazane (Izindaba eziyisithupha zothando). Ngalesi sikhathi, uRamón osemncane usethathe ngokuphelele umsebenzi wakhe njengombhali. Kusukela lapho impilo yakhe yonke yayigxile ezincwadini nakubuciko.

Umusho kaRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Umusho kaRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Buyela eMadrid nakwezinye izincwadi

Ngo-1895 wabuyela eMadrid; Usebenze njengesikhulu somphakathi eMnyangweni Wezokufundiswa Komphakathi kanye Nezobuciko. Waduma ezindaweni zokudlela eziningi zaseMadrid zangaleso sikhathi ngenxa yokugqamisa kwakhe, ikhono lakhe lokulawula izingxoxo, ukubhubhisa udumo nokuqhuma, okwaholela ezingxoxweni ezishubile nabantu abanjengoPío Baroja noma uMiguel de Unamuno.

Ngo-1897 kwakhishwa incwadi yakhe yesibili, I-Epitalamio (Izindaba zothando), ukwehluleka okuphelele kokuhlela. Lesi sinqumo besisikhulu kangangokuba uValle-Inclán wahlola ngokungathi sína inketho yokushintsha ubuchwepheshe nokuba ngutolika. Ngo-1898 nango-1899 wadlala izindima ezinhlobonhlobo emidlalweni yeshashalazi Amahlaya ezilo nguJacinto Benavente naku Amakhosi okudingiswa ngu-Alejandro Sawa, ngokulandelana.

Ukuhlangana noRubén Darío nobunzima bakhe ngasekupheleni kwekhulu leminyaka

Ngentwasahlobo ka-1899 ubunzima bezomnotho babusobala, waze walamba. Noma kunjalo, iValle-Inclán yayisaphikisana kweminye imibono (ngokwesibonelo inkululeko yaseCuba, ngokwesibonelo). Ukuze asinde, kwakudingeka athembele kubangane bakhe abaseduze, uRubén Darío engomunye wabangenamibandela.

Ehlobo lalowo nyaka kwaba nesigameko esibalulekile eCafé de la Montaña, lapho walimala ekhanda nasengalweni ngemuva kwengxabano nomlobi uManuel Bueno. URamón wakushaya indiva ukulimala, ngenxa yalokho, kwaholela ekulimaleni kakhulu futhi wanqunywa isitho sangakwesobunxele.

Kanye ngesikhashana kwenziwe ukuhumusha nokuzivumelanisa nesimo soMbuso WaseSpain (Ubuso bukankulunkulu kusuka ku-Arniches, ngokwesibonelo) ukuthola imali ethile. Ngo-1901 wazidubula ngephutha enyaweni ngesikhathi ehambele eLa Mancha. Ukunqoba, waphefumulelwa ukuthi adale I-Autumn Sonata, eyanyatheliswa ngo-1902 njengokuvulwa kwe- Izikhumbuzo zeMarquis yaseBradomín, ngesonto NgoMsombuluko Ongakhethi.

Ukuvuthwa nomshado

Kusukela lapho wamukela isu lokuhlela elincike entuthukweni ekukhishweni kwabezindaba kwaze kwaba sekupheleni kwezinsuku zakhe ngaphambi kokwethula izincwadi zakhe.. Eminyakeni elandelayo washicilela Ihlobo Sonata (1903), I-sonata yasentwasahlobo (1904) futhi Ubusika sonata (1905), owokugcina wanikezela unkosikazi wakhe wakusasa, umlingisi uJoseph María Ángela Blanco Tejerina. Ngaleso sikhathi wayesaziwa njengommeleli ovelele weSpanish Modernism.

IMarquis yaseBradomín ekugcineni waboniswa ePrincess Theatre (1906), kuvusa ukubabazeka okukhulu phakathi komphakathi nabezindaba. Ngo-1907 wethula umdlalo wakhe wokuqala wamahlaya eBarcelona, IBlazon Eagles. Wabuye wakhipha izincwadi eziningana: Amaphunga enganekwane, Amavesi okudumisa isizungu esingcwele, IMarquis yaseBradomín - Izinkulumo zothando y Ezothando Izimpisi.

Washada noJoseph Blanco ngo-Agasti 1907, naye wayenabantwana abayisithupha: UMaría de la Concepción (1907), uJoaquín María (1919 - washona ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezelwe), uCarlos Luis Baltasar (1917), uMaría de la Encarnación Beatriz Baltasara (1919), uJaime Baltasar Clemente (1922) no-Ana María Antonia Baltasara (1924). Yize lo mbhangqwana uzame ukuhlala eGalicia, bachitha iningi leminyaka eyishumi nanhlanu ezayo eMadrid.

URamón nomkakhe baqala uhambo lwezinyanga eziyisithupha lwaseSpain-American ngo-1910 nenkampani yaseshashalazini kaFrancisco Ortega García. nge-Argentina, eChile, eBolivia, eParaguay nase-Uruguay. Ngokufanayo, uValle-Inclán uqhubeke nokwethula imidlalo eSpain, njenge Amazwi wokuthinta (1911), UMarchioness Rosalinda. I-farce ekhathazayo neyesabekayo (1913) futhi Isibani esimangalisayo. Ukuzivocavoca ngokomoya (1915, umqulu wokuqala we I-Opera Omnia).

Ukubamba iqhaza eMpini Yezwe I

Ukushona eNicaragua ngo-1916 komngane wakhe omkhulu uRubén Darío kwamthinta kakhulu uValle-Inclán. Ngawo lowo nyaka iMpi Enkulu yaba nelinye lamaphuzu aphakeme kakhulu. Yize imibono eMadrid yayihlukene, UValle-Inclán ukucacisile ukuma kwakhe ku < >. Ngalo mbhalo uhulumeni waseFrance wammema ukuba ahambele izimpi zase-Alsace, Flanders, Vosges naseVerdun.

Ngokunjalo Phakathi kuka-Ephreli 27 noJuni 28, 1916 uRamón Valle-Inclán wayesebenza njengentatheli yezempi Ukungakhethi, lapho ashicilela khona uchungechunge lwemibhalo Umbono wenkanyezi yaphakathi kwamabili (Okthoba - Disemba 2016) kanye Emini (Januwari - Februwari 1917). Ngaphezu kwalokho, wayephethe isikhundla sikaprofesa we-Aesthetics of Fine Arts eSpecial School of Painting and Engraving of Madrid kusukela ngonyaka we-1916.

Izinkinga "ezesabekayo", ezempilo kanye nohambo lwesibili oluya eMexico

Ngo-1919 wakhipha incwadi yakhe yesibili yezinkondlo, Ipayipi lika Kif y I tragicomedy yomzana (umbiko wephephandaba Ilanga). Ngo-1920 uRamón wethula umbhalo wakhe wesithathu wezinkondlo, Umgibeli, Amazwi aphezulu y Izibani zeBohemian, i- "grotesque" yokuqala eshicilelwe phakathi kukaJulayi no-Okthoba (uchungechunge lwezincwajana eziyishumi nantathu) kumagazini España. Okwesibili okwesabekayo, Izimpondo zikaDon Frijolera, uvele ngaphakathi Ipeni phakathi kuka-Ephreli no-Agasti 1921.

Ngokusho kukaJavier Serrano wase-University of Santiago, “Okumangazayo kuphawula isikhathi esibaluleke kakhulu ekwakhiweni kobuciko kweValle-Inclán, futhi imelela isinyathelo esiyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu nesiphumelelayo semibhalo yaseSpain emsebenzini waseYurophu wokuvuselelwa kwezincwadi zekhulu lama-XNUMX. Okumangazayo kumiswe njengohlelo oluyinkimbinkimbi lokuhumusha iqiniso, okuqanjiwe ngokusemthethweni, ukuze kuqedwe isithombe esingelona esakho umuntu uqobo ... ”.

Umusho kaRamón del Valle-Inclán.

Umusho kaRamón del Valle-Inclán.

UValle-Inclán ngokwakhe uchaze ukuthi isisusa sakhe esikhulu ekwakheni okusabekayo "Ukufuna uhlangothi lwamahlaya enhlekeleleni yempilo". Mhlawumbe, isimo sakhe esibucayi sempilo saba nomthelela omkhulu kulokhu okushiwo yimibhalo, ngoba wayedinga ukungenelela kokuhlinzwa ukuze kukhishwe isimila esinyeni (kuzoba yisimo esizomuphelezela aze afe).

Ekuqaleni kwehlobo lika-1921 uRamón Valle-Inclán waya eMexico, emenywe nguMongameli u-vlvaro Obregón, ngenxa yokugubha ikhulu leminyaka lokuzibusa. Ngemuva kwe-ajenda egcwele imisebenzi yamasiko, wahlala amasonto amabili eHavana namanye amabili eNew York, ngaphambi kokubuyela emazweni aseGalician ngoDisemba 1922.

Isehlukaniso, ukuqothuka kanye nemisebenzi yokugcina

Kusukela ngo-1923, uValle-Inclán wathola izincomo eziningi emithonjeni ehlukahlukene yokuphrinta eSpain naseLatin America. Ngaleso sikhathi waqala ukubhala okubili kobuciko bakhe: Amafulegi Omashiqela (edition yaqedwa ngo-1926) kanye nochungechunge lwe- Isondo lase-Iberia (1926-1931). Ngo-1928 wasayina inkontileka ebabazekayo ne-Ibero-American Publications Company (CIAP), eyamnika ukunethezeka kwezomnotho okwesikhashana.

Kodwa I-CIAP yabhidlika ngo-1931. IValle-Inclán cishe yayisemgwaqweni, cishe esimweni sokuswela. Ekugcineni wavuma ukusebenza njengomgcini jikelele weNational Artistic Treasure (ngemisebenzi elinganiselwe). Ukwenza izinto zibe zimbi kakhulu, ekupheleni kwalowo nyaka isimangalo sedivosi esifakwe nguJosefina Blanco saphumelela (Wayegcina kuphela indodakazi encane, uRamón wagcina abanye abathathu).

Ekuqaleni kuka-1933 kwakumele iphinde isetshenziswe eMadrid. Ezinyangeni ezimbalwa kamuva waqala ukusebenza njengomqondisi we-Academy of Fine Arts eRome, yize adumazeka ngokushesha ngenxa yesimo esonakele sebhilidi lesikhungo elihambisana nenqwaba yezinqubo zokuphatha ezidingekayo ukushintsha isimo.

Ngo-1935 izinkinga zakhe zesinye zaba zimbi kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, wanquma ukubuyela eGalicia ukuze athole ukwelashwa, futhi azungeze abantu abathandayo, umndeni nabangane. Ubuye wazama ukubhala futhi (ubengakhiqizi lutho olusha iminyaka emibili), kepha ubesevele ebuthaka kakhulu. URamón Valle-Inclán washona ngoJanuwari 5, 1936, ushiye ifa elikhulu elenza ukuthi afanelekele izinkokhelo ezingenakubalwa ezenziwe kuze kube manje.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.