Umlando kaRubén Darío

Umlando womlobi waseNicaragua uRubén Darío

Ngabe ufuna i-biography kaRubén Darío? AbaseNicaragua URubén Darío wayengomunye wezimbongi zaseSpain-American iningi ushintshe isigqi sevesi lesiCastilian ngezinkondlo zakhe. Kungashiwo futhi ukuthi naye isimanje samanje, enguyena umgqugquzeli wayo omkhulu.

URubén Darío wayengelona lelo gama ngqo. Igama lakhe langempela kwakungu Ujabule uRubén García Sarmiento, kodwa wathatha isibongo sikaDarío ngoba kwakungenxa yesidlaliso lapho uyise ayaziwa khona. URubén waqala ukubhala ngaphandle komkhuba, njengokungathi ukubhala izinkondlo kwakuyinto ejwayelekile ngaleso sikhathi nasemvelweni wakhe (ubuhle obuya kwabangasekho, ama-odes okunqoba, njll.), Kepha ngokukhululeka okumangazayo lapho ebhala amavesi ngesigqi futhi ewasho.

Impilo yakhe yayingelula neze. Ukhule ezungeze iqoqo lokungezwani emndenini eliholele ekutheni abaleke ngokubhala, ngaleyo ndlela akha umbono othile wothando namaphupho kuzo zonke izingoma zakhe zokuqala.

Kwadlula amashumi eminyaka kanti uRubén Darío wabizelwa ukuguqula kabusha ivesi lesiCastilian futhi agcwalise umhlaba wezincwadi zaseSpain-American ngemicabango emisha.

"Izimbali eziyinqaba ziyabonakala
ezimbali ezikhazimulayo zezindaba eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka,
naphakathi kwamagatsha athokozisayo, i-
ama-papemores, ingoma yawo ezokwethaba kothando
kuma-bulbeles.

(IPapemor: inyoni engajwayelekile; ama-bulbeles: ama-nightingales.) "

Impilo emfushane, umsebenzi omkhulu wokubhala (1867-1916)

Inkokhiso kuDarío

URubén Darío wazalelwa eMetapa (Nicaragua), kodwa inyanga eyodwa nje emva kokuzalwa kwakhe, wathuthela eLeón, lapho ubaba wakhe uManuel García nonina uRosa Sarmiento kuthiwa babenomshado olula kodwa ongachumi kakhulu ogcwele ukungajabuli. Uzenze wanethezeka emakhekhenini endawo futhi ubaleka ngezikhathi ezithile nezihlobo zakhe. Isiphithiphithi sasikhona kulowo mndeni kanti kungekudala uRubén waya kohlala nomalume bakanina, UBernarda Sarmiento nomyeni wakhe, UColonel Féliz Ramírez, eyamamukela kahle kakhulu futhi njengabazali beqiniso. URubén wayengenalo uthando lukanina futhi kungakhulunywa kangako ngoyise, ayemuzwa njengeqembu langempela.

Ufunde ku Ikolishi lamaJesuit, okumele ngabe akazange aluthathe kakhulu uthando enikezwe izinkondlo eziyindida nezihlekisayo abhala ngazo ngaleso sikhathi. Ebusheni bakhe, ngokushesha wezwa ithonya lezothando UGustavo Adolfo Becquer y Víctor Hugo, bobabili babhekwa njengama-ethenes othandweni, ahlala enikezwa ukuthandana nothando olungajabulisi.

Ngeminyaka engu-15 Bengivele nginohlu olunamagama amantombazane amathathu: URosario Emelina Murillo (ngokwencazelo, intombazane ezacile enamehlo aluhlaza), umzala okude, o-blond futhi omuhle impela kamuva abakholelwa ukuthi ngu-Isabel Swan, futhi ekugcineni, umculi we-trapeze uHortensia Buislay. Kepha akekho noyedwa owayengafinyelela inhliziyo yakhe njengakuqala, uRosario Emelina Murillo, anikezela kuye inoveli engathandeki enesihloko esithi "Emelina." Wayefuna ukumshada, kodwa abangane bakhe nezihlobo zakhe babopha uzungu lokumenza ashiye umuzi futhi angathathi izinqumo zokuxhamazela nokungacabangi.

Ngo-1882 wahlangana UMongameli uZaldívar, e-El Salvador, lapho abhala khona okulandelayo: “… wayenomusa kakhulu futhi wakhuluma nami ngamavesi ami futhi wangivikela; Kepha lapho ngizibuza ukuthi ngabe yini le engiyifunayo, ngaphendula ngalawa magama ngqo nangenakulibaleka enza indoda yamandla yamamatheka: 'Ngifuna ukuba nesikhundla esihle emphakathini'. "

Kulokho kuphawula ukukhathazeka kwakhe okukhulu kubonakale ngokusobala futhi yilokho URubén Darío wayehlale enezifiso zobunxiwankulu, ezazihlale zikhungatheka kabuhlungu.

Ukuqhubekela esigabeni sakhe saseChilean, wazama futhi lapho ehlangana nomongameli wokuzibulala uBalmaceda nendodana yakhe, uPedro Balmaceda Toro, abagcina ubungani naye. Isifiso sakhe sokuzibheka njengongxiwankulu safinyelela kulelo banga owayedla ngasese ihering kanye nobhiya kuphela, ukuze akwazi ukugqoka kahle nangokufanele isikhundla sakhe samanga.

Edlulisa okuthe xaxa ngomsebenzi wakhe wokubhala, washicilela eChile kusuka ngo-1886, "Ama-caltrops", ezinye izinkondlo ezinganikeza ukulandisa ngesimo sakhe esidabukisayo smbongi empofu nengazwisiswa kahle. Emncintiswaneni wezincwadi obizwe ngusozigidi uFederico Varela wabhala "Okwindla", lapho athola khona indawo eyisishiyagalombili impela phakathi kwabangu-8 abavela. Wabamba iqhaza futhi "Ingoma ye-Epic ebukhazikhazini beChile", okuwela kuwo umklomelo wokuqala obika amapeso akhe okuqala angama-300 awatholile ngezincwadi.

U-Azul, ukuqoqwa kwezinkondlo ngumbongi waseNicaragua uRubén Darío

Kuze kwaba ngo-1888 lapho bebona ukubaluleka kwangempela kukaRubén Darío. Incwadi engamnika lesi sidumo kungaba "Okuhlaza okwesibhakabhaka", ibhuku elinconywe livela eSpain ngumbhali odumile uJuan Valera. Izincwadi zakhe zazisebenza njengesandulela sokuphinda kukhululwe kabusha okwakungashicilelwa ngo-1890. Noma kunjalo, uDarío wayengajabule futhi isifiso sakhe sokuqashelwa futhi ngaphezu kwakho konke ukuchuma kwezomnotho sase sivele sesingaphezu kwamandla. Yilapho "ebalekela" ukuya eYurophu, ikakhulukazi eParis.

URubén Darío eYurophu

Washada noRafaela Contreras, owesifazane onezintandokazi ezifanayo nemidlalo yokuzilibazisa. Kwakungesikhathi se-Centennial yesine yokutholwa kweMelika lapho ebona isifiso sakhe sokwazi uMhlaba omdala sigcwaliseka ngokuba ithunyelwe njengenxusa eSpain.

Wafika eLa Coruña ngo-1892, futhi lapho wasungula ubudlelwano obusondelene nabalingiswa abaphambili bezombangazwe nezincwadi zaseSpain. Kepha lapho konke kubonakala sengathi kuyamomotheka kuyena waphinda wabona injabulo yakhe isinqamuka lapho umkakhe washona ngokuzumayo ekuqaleni kuka-1893. Lesi sehlakalo esibuhlungu simholele ekutheni avuselele ukuthanda kwakhe utshwala.

Kwakunjalo kuleso simo sokudakwa lokho Waphoqwa ukuba ashade noRosario Emelina Murillo. Uyamkhumbula? Leyontombazane ezacile, enamehlo aluhlaza ayikhonze isencane. Akaziphathanga kahle noRubén, ngoba wavumelana ngecebo nomfowabo lokuthi uRubén Darío amshade ekhonjwe ngesibhamu, ekubeni esevele ekhulelwe enye indoda. Bashada ngoMashi 8, 1893.

URubén Darío wesula ekuqaleni, kepha akazange avume ukuhlala enkohlisweni enjalo futhi wabaleka lapho ekwazi ukusuka kulowo mshado wamanga. Efika eMadrid lapho ahlangana khona nowesifazane omuhle, onesimo esiphansi, UFrancisca Sanchez, intombi yembongi iVillaespesa, lapho athola khona ubumnandi nenhlonipho. Kwenye yezinkondlo zakhe wanikela amagama afana nalawa kuye:

"Qaphela ubuhlungu obaziyo

futhi ngikukhulise uthande ngaphandle kokuqonda ”.

Naye wahamba waya eParis, ngemuva kokuhlala iminyaka embalwa eBuenos Aires. IParis kumane nje kuyisiqalo senani elinomdlandla wokuhamba (IBarcelona, ​​iMallorca, i-Italy, iMpi, iNgilandi,…). Kule nkathi lapho ebhala khona izincwadi zakhe ezibaluleke kakhulu: "Izingoma zokuphila nethemba" (1905), "Ingoma ezulazulayo" (1907), "Inkondlo yasekwindla" (1910) futhi "Igolide laseMallorca" (1913).

Uyawubona umehluko phakathi kokubhalwa kwalezi zincwadi zokugcina, lapho kutholakala khona amahlaya, ukudlala ngothando, amahlaya nomoya wenjabulo, uma kuqhathaniswa nemibhalo yakhe yokuqala eyayigcwele ubuhlungu nokudumala. Nasi isibonelo esivela encwadini yakhe "Igolide laseMallorca":

"Abesifazane baseMajorcan basebenzisa i-
isiketi esinesizotha,
Indwangu yekhanda nebhande
emhlane.
Lokhu, engikubonile, ngokudlula,
kunjalo.
Futhi labo abangayigqoki abathukutheli,
Kwalokhu".

Isikhathi sokuhlehla

IMallorca bekungohambo alwenzela impilo yakhe ebucayi kunanoma yisiphi esinye isizathu. Phezu kokunakekelwa okuhle ayinikwa ngumkakhe uFrancisca ngaleso sikhathi, imbongi ayikwazanga ukuphuma emanzini.
Akazange azuze lokho ayekufuna kwasekuqaleni, owayefisa isikhundla esihle senhlalo ayesifuna ngomzamo omkhulu kusukela ekuqaleni, ngenxa yalokho ehola impilo enesizotha. Lokhu kufakazelwa yisiqephu esesabekayo abenaso Alexander Sawa, owake wamsebenzela eminyakeni eminingi edlule eParis njengomhlahlandlela wokwazi ezinye izindawo zedolobha. USawa wayeyimpumputhe endala eyimpumputhe eyabe inikele ngempilo yayo ngokuphelele ezincwadini. Ucele uRubén isamba esincane sama-peset 400 ukuze ekugcineni abone ukuthi yini namuhla umsebenzi wakhe obaluleke kakhulu oshicilelwe., "Ukukhanya emthunzini". Kepha uRubén wayengekho emsebenzini wokumnikeza leyo mali futhi wadlala ngokunganakwa. USawa usuke lapho wancenga waze wafikelwa wulaka, waze wafuna nokukhokhelwa izinsizakalo azenzayo. Ngokusho kukaSawa uqobo, wayengumbhali “omnyama” kwezinye izihloko ezathunyelwa ngo-1905 ku La Nación ezazisayinwe nguRubén Darío. Noma kunjalo, uRubén uzoba yisiqalo sencwadi ka-Alejandro Sawa, owayesevele eshonile ngenkathi ikhishwa.

Ubengeke enze imali eningi kepha uma ephumelela ukuqashelwa okukhulu ngobuningi ababhali abakhuluma ulimi lweSpanishi.

I-biography kaRubén Darío iphela ngo-1916, ngemuva nje kokubuyela ezweni lakubo eNicaragua, URubén Darío wadlula emhlabeni. Lezi zindaba zagcwalisa umphakathi wezifundiswa okhuluma iSpanishi ngokuzisola okukhulu. UManuel Machado, imbongi yaseSpain ebhalwe kakhulu ethonywe uRubén, wanikezela lokhu i-epitaph:

"Njengalapho usohambweni, mfowethu,
Awukho,
futhi kukugcwalise ngesizungu esilindele
ukubuya kwakho ... uzofika? Ngenkathi,
kuqala
izomboza izinkundla, ukuvula
umthombo
Emini, ebusuku ... Namuhla, izolo ...
Okungaqondakali
sekwephuzile, entathakusa,
izingoma zakho ziyavakala.
Futhi usezingqondweni zethu, naku-
izinhliziyo zethu,
amahemuhemu angacimi, umlilo
lokho akucimi.
Futhi, eMadrid, eParis, eRoma,
e-Argentina
Zikulindile ... Nomaphi lapho i-zither yakho ifuna khona
waphezulu
yadlidlizela, indodana yayo iyasinda, ithule, imnandi,
eqinile…
Kuphela eManagua lapho kukhona
ekhoneni elinomthunzi
lapho ebhale khona isandla esibulele
kuze kube sekufeni:
'Ngena, sihambi, uRubén Darío akekho'. "

Ezinye zezinkondlo zakhe ...

Azul

Lona ukukhethwa kwezinkondlo nguRubén Darío esiwenzile ukuze wazi kabanzi ngesigqi sakhe, amavesi akhe:

I-Campoamor

Lona onezinwele ezimpunga,
njengoboya be-ermine,
waqoqa ukungagunci kwakhe kwengane
ngesipiliyoni sakhe njengendoda endala;
lapho uyiphethe ngesandla
incwadi yomuntu onjalo,
Inyosi yiyo yonke inkulumo
ukuthi, ukundiza kusuka ephepheni,
shiya uju ezindebeni zakho
futhi iyaluma enhliziyweni.

Kuyadabukisa, kuyadabukisa kakhulu

Ngelinye ilanga ngangidabukile, ngidabuke kakhulu
ukubukela amanzi ewa emthonjeni.

Kwakungubusuku obumnandi nobase-Argentina. Kukhala
ubusuku. Ubusuku babubula. Sobbed
ubusuku. Futhi ukuhwalala ku-amethiste yalo ethambile,
kuhlanjululwe izinyembezi zomculi ongaqondakali.

Futhi lowo mculi wayeyimi, engaqondakali futhi ebubula,
lokho kwaxuba umphefumulo wami nendiza yomthombo.

Ebusuku

Ukuthula kobusuku, ukuthula okubuhlungu
ubusuku ... Kungani umphefumulo uthuthumela ngale ndlela?
Ngizwa umsindo wegazi lami
ngaphakathi kogebhezi lwami kudlula isiphepho esincane.
Ukuqwasha! Ukungakwazi ukulala, futhi nokho
Umsindo. Yiba ucezu oluzenzakalelayo
yokuhlukaniswa ngokomoya, i-self-Hamlet!
Nciphisa ukudabuka kwami
ewayinini lasebusuku
ku-crystal emangalisayo yobumnyama ...
Futhi ngithi kimi: Ukuntwela kokusa kuzofika nini?
Umnyango uvaliwe ...
Umuntu odlulayo udlulile ...
Iwashi selishaye amahora ayishumi nantathu ... Yebo kuzoba nguYe! ...

Okwami

Olwami: lelo igama lakho.
Yikuphi ukuvumelana okwengeziwe?
Imayini: emini;
okwami: ama-roses, amalangabi.

Yeka iphunga olichithekelayo
emphefumulweni wami
uma ngazi ukuthi uyangithanda!
HHhawu kodwa! HHhawu kodwa!

Ucansi lwakho luyancibilika
ngocansi lwami oluqinile,
ukuncibilikisa ama-bronzes amabili.

Ngidabukile, wena udabukile ...
Akufanele ube ngaleso sikhathi
okwami ​​ukufa?

Umugqa wesikhathi we-biography kaRubén Darío

Futhi lapha, isifinyezo esifushane sokulandelana kwalokho okubonwe kuze kube manje mayelana ne-biography kaRubén Darío:

  • 1867: Januwari 18: URubén Darío uzalelwa eMetapa, eNicaragua.
  • 1887: Shicilela "Emelina ". Uyabhala "Ama-caltrops", "Otoñales", "Epic Song to the glories of Chile".
  • 1888: Thumela "Okuhlaza okwesibhakabhaka" noyise uyafa.
  • 1891: Umshado wenkolo noRafaela Contreras. Indodana yabo uRubén izalwa.
  • 1892: Ukuhambela eSpain kuthunyelwe nguhulumeni waseNicaragua, ngesikhathi se-4th Centennial of the Discovery of America.
  • 1893: URafaela Contreras uyafa. Washada noRosario Emelina Murillo.
  • 1896: Thumela "Okungajwayelekile" y "Iprose prose".
  • 1898: Waya eMadrid njengentatheli yeLa Nación.
  • 1900: Isizwe simthumela eParis. Isithandwa sakhe uFrancisca Sánchez uhamba naye.
  • 1905: Thumela "Izingoma zempilo nethemba".
  • 1913: Ukusuka eParis kuya eValldemosa, eMallorca: "Igolide laseMallorca" (umsebenzi oshicilelwe).
  • 1916: Ushonele eLeón, eNicaragua.
I-athikili ehlobene:
"Izingoma zokuphila nethemba", umsebenzi omkhulu wesithathu kaRubén Darío

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-10, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UJose Antonio Arce Rios kusho

    I-dissertation enhle kakhulu yokugubha ikhulu leminyaka lokufa kwezincwadi zeNkosana yaseCastilian, isiqalisi kanye nommeleli ophakeme kakhulu weLatin American Modernism. URubén Darío wabizwa ukuthi aguqule ngokuvumelana nesigqi ivesi lamaCastilian, kodwa futhi agcwalise umhlaba wokubhala ngemicabango emisha, ama-swans angamanga, amafu angenakugwemeka, ama-kangaroo namahlosi aseBengal ahlala endaweni efanayo engenakwenzeka. Yaletha olimini olwalubola ukuvuselelwa kwethonya laseMelika kanye namamodeli weFrench Parnassian kanye namaSymbolist, kwavula isichazamazwi esinothile nesingajwayelekile, ekuguqukeni okusha komculo evesini nasephrozi, futhi yethula izingqikimba zomhlaba wonke nezimpawu, okungajwayelekile bomdabu, okwakuthokozisa umcabango nobuchule bama-analogies.

    1.    UCarmen Guillen kusho

      Ngiyabonga uJosé Antonio ngokuphawula kwakho!

      Ngaphandle kokungabaza, sibheka ukuthi uRubén Darío ufanelwe isikhala ekhasini lethu futhi senze kanjalo. Ngikufisela okuhle!

      1.    inhlukano kusho

        Igama likaRubén kwakunguFélix, hhayi uFéliz.

  2.   U-Abner laguna kusho

    Sawubona, sawubona, i-biography ihle kakhulu, ngiyabonga ngoba uRuben Dario uyimbongi engiyithandayo, ngibonga konke

  3.   ILebanon kusho

    Umlando omnandi ngiyamhalalisela ngomsebenzi nangeqhaza lakhe.

  4.   Axel kusho

    I-biography enhle kakhulu yangisiza kakhulu esivivinyweni

  5.   ELIEZER MANUEL SEQUEIRA kusho

    Kungabaluleka ukuthi bashicilele unyaka lapho lolu lwazi lwashicilelwa khona kanye nosuku nenyanga

    1.    inhlukano kusho

      Igama likaRubén kwakunguFélix, hhayi uFéliz.

  6.   URonaldo uyaduma kusho

    Sawubona, i-biography enhle kakhulu. Umbuzo ukwenze ngamuphi unyaka le biography emfishane? Ngidinga ukwenza uhlu lwezincwadi ngalolu cwaningo. Ngicela unginike usuku lokudala lolu shicilelo

  7.   UGEORGINA DIAZ kusho

    Ngingalubona kuphi usuku lokushicilelwa kwalolu lwazi.